JOURNAL PROMPTS JOURNAL RULES Write three-quarters of a

JOURNAL PROMPTS JOURNAL RULES Write three-quarters of a page if you have composition paper and a half page if you have normal sized paper Practice organizing your thoughts into paragraphs Practice using appropriate language conventions

pay attention to spelling, grammar and punctuation. Dont write anything you wouldnt be comfortable with the whole class reading! Write the number and the topic. Thats all you need to copy. #1 THIS YEAR THE RULE: ITS = IT IS Its bed time! ITS = Possessive The dog wagged its tail

THE PROMPT: Will this year be different? How so? Use its or its. #2 ARGUMENT THE RULE: Notice the punctuation and capitalization in the following dialogue. Hello, said Gary. How are you? asked Susan. Gary replied, Very good.

THE PROMPT: Write about the last argument you got in or the last argument you heard. Include appropriately punctuated dialogue. #3 ALIEN LANDING THE RULE: Some quotes in dialogue continue after the identification of speaker. Notice how these are punctuated. My name, said the stranger, is Gary. Its lunchtime! shouted Susan. Lets eat!

THE PROMPT: Write about an alien landing in front of your home. Practice using more complex dialogue and punctuation. #4 BEST METHOD THE RULE: Strong paragraphs sometimes follow a pattern of Definition, Example, and Advantage Syphoning is a method of getting water out of something using a hoseFor example, if you need to get water out of a fish tank, you might pump a hose up and down in it until water comes outThis is less messy than scooping water.

THE PROMPT: Write a paragraph about the best method of doing something. Practice the Definition, Example, and Advantage formula. #5 I BELIEVE THE RULE: The best paragraphs have the most important information in the first sentence (topic sentence). I believe that people need to have fewer children. It is obvious that overpopulation is a potential threat to the United States, and it has already brought about a lot damage in countries like India. The earths population is growing at a faster and faster rate and the earth is

already struggling to sustain everyone. THE PROMPT: Write about an issue that you believe in. Practice using at least two paragraphs with topic sentences. #6 DISAGREE THE RULE: Subjects are words that DO something. Grandma bakes cookies. (Shes baking!)

The gift from Gary was amazing! (Its being amazing!) We napped and they worked. (Some sentences have two subjects!) THE PROMPT: Is there something that you disagree with your friends and/or family about? A rule? A political issue? Explain. CIRCLE EVERY SUBJECT! #7 GET TOGETHER THE RULE: Predicate verbs are words

that show what the subject is doing. They are the main verbs in the sentence. Grandma enjoys baking cookies. Gary is a sea captain who sails the ocean. THE PROMPT: What does your family like to do when they get together? OR what do your friends do when they get together? CIRCLE THE PREDICATE VERBS #8 OCEAN EXPLORER

THE RULE: Compound sentences have two subjects and two verbs. Note the comma. Gary plays defense, and Skippy tackles. Mom looked in the kitchen, but I was hiding. The park is closed, so we are going home. THE PROMPT: Imagine you are a Fifteenth-Century ocean explorer. Write a story about your experience that uses at least four compound sentences.

#9 ZOO THE RULE: Some statements begin with the word because, if or when. These sentences need commas between the first subject-verb pair and the second Because we are tired, we will sleep. When Gary arrived, he found Skippy. If she sneezes, we will be caught! These are called complex sentences

THE PROMPT: Write a story about a trip to the zoo. Practice using complex sentences that begin with if, because and when. #10 TEN YEARS THE RULE: Sentences with if, because, or when in the middle dont need commas. We enter when the door opens. I am smart because I do my homework. You can borrow my book if you are careful

These are called complex sentences. THE PROMPT: Where will you be in ten years? Practice using complex sentences with if, because or when in the middle. #11 QUIRKY PEOPLE THE RULE Use commas when you list adjectives. Just like you

would when you list nouns. The grizzly, sweaty, fierce man chops trees. Notice some adjectives are part of the noun itself. Dont use commas before these. The sweet, kind, friendly old lady bakes pie. THE PROMPT Describe someone quirkya person with an unusual personality or unique behavior. Consider describing more than one person. Practice listing adjectives

when you can. #12 SOMEWHERE RELAXING THE RULE: Prepositions are words that show position. Above, about, below, beyond, between by, in, on etc. THE PROMPT: Describe somewhere that you can go to relax. It might be your

bedroom, somewhere outdoors, a favorite restaurant or your friends house. Describe it in detail and circle the prepositions. #13 JUNGLE EXPLORER THE RULE: Prepositional phrases are strings of words that begin with prepositions. When a prepositional phrase longer than three words begins a sentence, it takes a comma. In the cabinet above the sink, we found the keys.

On top of the refrigerator, Gary put the money. THE PROMPT: You are a famous jungle explorer. Describe your journey and use at least three prepositional phrases. #14 YOUR NAME THE RULE: There = Demonstrative pronoun Put it there. He lives there. There she is. Theyre = Contraction (they are)

Theyre ready. Theyre here! Their = Plural possessive pronoun Its their house. This is their car. THE PROMPT: Do you like your name? Why or why not? Use There, Their and Theyre. #15 FORMAL LETTER THE RULE:

Remember that a formal letter begins with a salutation and a colon. Dear Sir or Madam: To Whom It May Concern: THE PROMPT: Write a formal letter to the school board about a school rule that you feel should be changed. (No homework? Later start time?) #16 IN THE KITCHEN

THE RULE: Use hyphens when you create compound adjectives or use prefixes (re, un, pre, mid, de) I de-yolked the eggs. I re-stirred the batter. We un-sprinkled one cupcake for Gary. THE PROMPT: Write a story about cooking something in the kitchen. Use at least two words that require hyphens. #17 FORMER TEACHERS

THE RULE: Similes are comparisons between two things. Similes generally use like or as. Ms. Gilmore was as ferocious as a shark. Ms. Felix was like a crazy grandma. THE PROMPT: Describe some of your elementary school teachers using similes. #18 FAMILY

THE RULE: Metaphors are words that show comparison without using like or as The instructor, an old ogre, walked up to the front of the class. My sister is a puppy, always happy and full of energy. THE PROMPT: Describe people in your family using three metaphors. Or describe

one person using one extended metaphor. #19 GIFT THE RULE: The best sentences place the strongest word last. BAD: I got a snowmobile for my birthday. GOOD: For my birthday, I got a snowmobile. THE PROMPT: Write about a gift you gave or received, OR write about a special day when you received a lot of

gifts. Remember to place the most interesting words last. #20 TWIN THE RULE: Remember that words that end in S use apostrophes just like any other word. Jamess shirt The grasss color

THE PROMPT: You have a long lost twin named Francis. He/She is visiting for one day. Where would you take Francis? Practice using at least one possessive apostrophe . #21 SAN DIEGO THE RULE: Remember that plural nouns take the apostrophe after the last S. All the cats milk All the monkeys bananas

The Lopezes house The rule doesnt apply to plural nouns that dont end in S. The childrens show The deers food THE PROMPT: Do you enjoy living in San Diego? How would you characterize the city to someone unfamiliar with it? Practice using plural possessives when you can (cats, monkeys childrens). #22 ENTITLED

THE RULE: Remember that singular nouns take an s Bad: The dog run Good: The dog runs Remember that words like everyone, everybody, someone and no one are singular. They need singular verbs. BAD: Everyone who owns dogs and cats love animals. GOOD: Everyone who owns dogs and cats loves animals. THE PROMPT: If you are entitled to something, that means you deserve it without questionlike a fair trial.

What else do you see as something everyone is entitled to? A home? A car? Love? Explain why you include or dont include others. Use Everyone who sentences. #23 HOT & COLD THE RULE: Modifying phrases are descriptors that come after nouns The men with torches and pitchforks demanded to see the monster. Gary, flailing his arms madly, ran the whole way

home. THE PROMPT: Do you think of yourself as more of a passionate, emotional person, or as more of a calm, rational person? Explain why and use modifying phrases when you can. #24 NATURE vs. NURTURE

THE RULE: Affect = Verb (It affected me. Smoke affects my lungs.) Effect = Noun (special effects a negative side effect) THE PROMPT: How do you think our personalities are developed? More by our parents and environment (nurture)? Or are we born with a personality (nature)? Explain what you believe and why. Use affect and effect! #25 NEW DISEASE THE RULE:

Dashes are often used to emphasize something in a sentence. We soon learned of a negative side effectconstant sneezing. Some students learn about the importance of school work the hard waythey get an F. Notice that dashes () are longer than hyphens (-) THE PROMPT: Write a story about Skippy learning from the doctor that he has a rare, new disease (use your imagination). Write about his conversation with the doctor. include dashes.

#26 BEST INVENTION THE RULE: A colon is often used to rename something (a dash or comma can do this, too). We bought a new dog: a snarling Rottweiler. Gary enjoys only one sport: soccer. THE PROMPT: What do you think is the best invention of the new millennium.

Remember this includes things like the iPods, Facebook, YouTube, Smart Phones, Hybrid Cars, ebooks etc. #27 SONG THE RULE: Remember that things like songs, poems, article titles or short stories appear in quotation marks. The Telltale Heart is a great story. I enjoy Love Story, by Taylor Swift.

THE PROMPT: Write about a song (or poem, or short story etc.) that you enjoy. Why does this song appeal to you? What do you enjoy listening to in general? Remember appropriate punctuation. #28 MOVIES THE RULE: Remember that things like newspapers, movie titles and book titles appear underlined or italicizednot in quotation marks. The Union Tribune Star Wars

Oliver Twist THE PROMPT: Write about your favorite movie. What type of films do you generally enjoy? Remember to underline or use italics. #29 SOMETHING INTERESTING THE RULE: When you talk about a fact you learned somewhere, its best to say according to.

According to The History Channel, Albert Einstein immigrated to America from Germany. THE PROMPT: Write about something interesting you recently learned (from school or elsewhere). Remember to say according to #30 SCHOOL YEAR THE RULE:

There are two ways to use However. Notice the punctuation with each. Speeding, however fun it may seem, is dangerous. I enjoy speeding; however, I know its dangerous. THE PROMPT: How would you change the school year? Longer summer? Longer school day? Four day week? Practice using However. #31 TWO WAYS

THE RULE: Transitions are an important part of well-structured essays. They link paragraphs together. On the other hand Furthermore Nevertheless THE PROMPT: Write about an issue that you feel two ways about. It could be a political issue or a personal life decision. Practice

using transitions at the beginning of each paragraph. #32 FAVORITE ASSIGNMENT THE RULE: Semicolons act like periods. They separate complete sentences that are closely related. Gary looked at his watch; it was noon. I enjoy chocolate; its my favorite.

THE PROMPT: What was your favorite assignment in school ever? It could be in English or another subject. Why did you enjoy it? Use a semicolon. #33 HAIKU THE RULE: A haiku is a poem with five syllables, then seven, then five Flaming Hot Cheetos. They are not too hot for me My fingers are red.

THE PROMPT: Write three haikus about the month of December. #34 AXIOM THE RULE: An axiom is a one sentence statement or expression that expresses a philosophical truth. Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise Ben Franklin. Better safe than sorry your mom.

THE PROMPT: Can you think of an axiom that someone you know always says? Do you agree with it or disagree? Why do you think they value that axiom so much? #35 BALLAD THE RULE: A ballad is a narrative poem made up of multiple four line stanzas. Often the second and fourth line rhyme. THE PROMPT:

Write a ballad about a football, basketball or baseball game. #36 INSTANT TALENT THE RULE: Modifying phrases often need commas. Dogs, which are colorblind, cannot appreciate a rainbow. (commas because the modifying phrase isnt very important to understanding the sentence) Sometimes we dont use commas if we are pointing to

a specific group or category. People who are colorblind cannot appreciate a rainbow. (no commas because we mean a specific group of people) THE PROMPT: If you could suddenly have a new talent, what would it be (Chinese-speaking, piano-playing, anything!)? Practice using modifying phrases and commas. #37 TOO MUCH

THE RULE: An idiom is an expression that is understood to someone in a specific culture, but it might not make sense to someone learning that language. Its raining cats and dogs. Im really in a pickle. THE PROMPT: What do you do too much? Video games? Internet? Homework? Write about it and use an idiom. # 38: IGLOO LIVING

THE RULE: Items in lists need commas. I need books, coffee, candy, and TV. The comma before and (Oxford comma) is optional THE PROMPT You are imprisoned for one winter in an igloo with a complete bathroom and necessary food and clothing. What other four items

would you bring? Practice listing items. #39 ROOM THE RULE: Before you begin a list, you might use a colon. On my bookshelf I have the following: Great Expectations, Oliver Twist and The Pickwick Papers. THE PROMPT: Whats in your room? You might describe big items or small

items that are interesting or special to you. Practice creating a list with a colon. #40 FIFTY YEARS THE RULE: Remember that numbers generally take hyphens Twenty-one Twenty-first THE PROMPT: Where will you be in fifty

years? Retired? Still working? In a big house? In a retirement home? With your children? Explain, and practice using hyphenated numbers. #41 PRINCIPLES THE RULE: An oxymoron is a word made up of a pair of opposites. Some Shakesperian oxymorons include: Bright Smoke Cold Fire Fiend Angelical Some everyday oxymorons are: Jumbo shrimp almost exactly centered around

THE PROMPT: Create an oxymoron about school. Does your term make sense in a complex way? Think about it and explain why your term is a fitting description for school. #42 FIFTY DOLLARS THE RULE: Smart writers blend long and short sentences in order to create special emphasis on the short sentence. We looked all over the park for anything that might

indicate that Gary was near. We found nothing. THE PROMPT: You got fifty dollars for your birthday! What are you going to do with it? How do you handle money in general? Practice mixing long and short sentences. #43 SYNTAX THE RULE: Syntax refers to word order. Shakespeare sometimes used a different syntax than we use. Gave you to him this message?

You gave this message to him? To him you gave this message? THE PROMPT: Write instructions for how to use a piece of technology. Use incorrect syntax. Be creative! EXAMPLE: The computers first button press on. VERSUS: First, press the computers on button. #44 SPORTS THE RULE: Appositives are phrases that re-name The dog, an enormous poodle, barked

viciously. The reason for the water, a leaky pipe, soon became apparent. THE PROMPT: Do you enjoy sports? Why or why not? Practice using appositives. #45 CHILDHOOD THE RULE: You can add life to sentences by beginning with something besides the subject

Exhausted and famished, he ate a sandwich and went to bed. (adjectives) Flailing his arms and stomping wildly, Gary appeared to be on fire. (gerund phrase) The water rising, we looked for dry land. (absolute phrase) THE PROMPT: What kind of little kid were you? Have you changed? Practice beginning your sentences in colorful ways. #46 OVERHEARD

THE RULE: Indirect discourse is when you paraphrase what someone said, using that. No quotes are needed. Mom said that we need to clean the bathroom. Susan asked if she could use your car. THE PROMPT: Write about a conversation you overheard between other people (strangers sitting beside you? Teachers and students?). Practice using indirect discourse.

#47 FOOD THE RULE: Its better to say the reason that instead of the reason because BAD: The reason he is sleepy is because he is sick. GOOD: The reason he is sleepy is that he is sick. THE PROMPT: Why do students leave food on the ground and stick gum under the desks even though other people have to pick it up? Practice using a sentence that begins with The reason appropriately.

#48 USED TO THE RULE: Used to and Supposed to have Ds. THE PROMPT: What do you know about your parents life before you were born? Write about it. Practice writing used to and supposed to. #49 ELEPHANT

THE RULE: I before E PieFriend Belief Except after C Ceiling Deceit Perceive Except when like ay Neighbor Weigh Eight

THE PROMPT: Write a story about what you would do if an elephant followed you home. Underline your IE or EI combinations. Journal Rules Write three quarters of a page (or a half page if you have big paper) Practice organizing your thoughts into

paragraphs Practice using appropriate language conventions pay attention to spelling, grammar and punctuation. Dont write anything you wouldnt be comfortable with the whole class reading! Write the number and the topic. Thats all you need to copy. #50 ANAPEST THE RULE: Anapest refers to when a line of poetry has every THIRD syllable emphasized: I must FINish my JOURNey aLONE

THE PROMPT: Write a poem about pizza. Use at least one line of anapest. #51 FIRST IMPRESSION THE RULE Accept: to receive (I accept your gift) Except: other than (Everyone except Gary)

THE PROMPT Can you remember a time when your first impression (of a person, a class, a city, etc.) turned out to be wrong? Explain. Use accept and except each at least once. #52 LEADER THE RULE: LEAD: The metal LEAD: To guide LED: Past tense of to lead

THE PROMPT: Are you a leader? Think about all the times and places where you might be a leaderat home, during group work at school, among your friends. Why do you behave the way you do in these situations? Practice using Lead and Led. #53 SLEEPY THE RULE: The perfect tense refers to phrases with the auxiliary verbs,

has, had or have (had kept, had sat, had been). These new verbs are called past participles. They are often the same as normal verbs. Jill had dreamt -We have noticed -he has discovered The perfect tense refers to when something has happened before the main action Yesterday, when I arrived, the room had been decorated. THE PROMPT: Write about a day when you were very tired. Why were you tired? What HAD you been doing the night before? Practice using perfect verb tense (had verbs).

#54 DETECTIVE THE RULE: Many perfect tense verbs are irregular. Had swum Had begun Had swung Had taken Had beaten Had eaten Had awoken Had known Had flown Had gotten Had become Had been (same with have or has ) THE PROMPT: Write a short story where someone arrives at a place and reviews clues in order to

realize what has happened. You might write it like a mystery or detective story (Sherlock noticed that someone had written something on the wall) #55 AMERICAN VACATION THE RULE: Abbreviations usually take periods Apt. = Apartment Dr. = Doctor p.m. = post meridian When you abbreviate proper nouns, no period is needed CA = California USA = United States of America Acronyms also do not take periods

AIDS NASA SCUBA LASER THE PROMPT: If you had your own personal airplane and could travel anywhere in America you wanted this summer, where would it be to and why? Practice using abbreviations. #56 BAD MUSIC THE RULE: Titles or words in quotations take periods and commas

inside the quotation marks. The Beatles sang Yellow Submarine. Exclamation points or question marks should appear outside the quotation marks. Did The Beatles sing Yesterday? THE PROMPT: Do you have a least favorite singer or band? Write about them and some of their songs. Remember that songs appear in quotation marks and that commas and periods should appear in the quotation marks also.

#57 NEW PLANET THE RULE: Some modifying phrases need commas. Others do not Men who are lazy are completely helpless. Men, who are lazy, are completely helpless. Women who always nag are annoying. Women, who always nag, are annoying (Notice how the commas make it seem like the underlined phrase applies to ALL women or ALL men) THE PROMPT: Write a story about an exploration on a new uncharted planet. Use modifying phrases and

appropriate punctuation. #58 HOW TO THE RULE: There are a number of interjections you may insert in a sentence using commas -Cotton, not wool, is the best kind of material -Yes, you can take your seat. -I need help, Gary, with the lawn mower. -Nature, said Susan, is my great inspiration.

THE PROMPT: Write instructions for something you know how to do. It can be something difficult (long-division) or something simple (making a bowl of cereal). Explain the directions thoroughly. Practice using interjections that require commas. # 59 NOT THE RULE: The strongest writers speak in the positive form they avoid the word not BAD: I am not in favor of legalizing drugs.

GOOD: I support criminalizing drugs. THE PROMPT: Write about an idea or topic that you disagree with. It could be a major socio-political issue, or it could be a matter of personal taste. Explain why you think the way you do. Avoid NOT. #60 IRONIC THE RULE: Irony is something that is funny, surprising or that suggests an opposite - Mr. Read doesnt like books. - We ate salad at the famous Hamburger Diner

- The famous wrestler was hospitalized over a papercut. THE PROMPT: Can you think of something ironic that happened to you or someone you know? Think of funny or surprising situations youve been in. What was ironic about it? #61 LEAST FAVORITE THE RULE: Neither and nor usually appear together. -Neither cats nor dogs are easy to manage. -I need neither money, charity nor sympathy.

Sometimes Nor appears without Neither as when it is a FANBOYS style conjunction. Remember the comma. -He did not save, nor did he spend carefully. THE PROMPT: What is your least favorite chore or job to do around the house? (possibly homework?). Explain why and use a neither/nor combination. #62 OPPORTUNITY THE RULE: Possessive pronouns do not take an apostrophe -BAD: Yours GOOD: Yours The bicycle lost its basket

The yellow house is theirs This is ours THE PROMPT: Do you think that everyone in America has an opportunity for great success? Why or why not? Practice using possessive pronouns. #63 TALENTS THE RULE: When you can, dont use passive verbs: IS,

BE, ARE, WERE, BEEN, WAS, AM BAD: Swimming is what I do. GOOD: I swim. THE PROMPT: What are your talents, strengths or virtues? Are there talents you wish you had? Avoid passive verbs as much as you can. #64 HOT DAY

THE RULE: Always think of colorful words and imagery to describe something when you can. BAD: It was cold. GOOD: Freezing gusts of wind swept over us. THE PROMPT: Write a story about a very hot day without using the word hot or warm. #65 REBUTTAL THE RULE:

A rebuttal is when you address an opposing viewpoint and explain why its wrong. THE PROMPT: Write a paragraph explaining what you think is the reasoning behind a rule or idea. Then, write a rebuttal paragraph about why you disagree with that rule or idea. #66 MOTIVATION

THE RULE: When analyzing literature, it is important to understand what a character wants. What desire is shaping their behavior? THE PROMPT: Write about the last movie or book that you enjoyed. What was the characters central motivation? #67 FABLE THE RULE: A fable is a story that teaches a lesson. Example: The Tortoise and the Hare teaches

that steady determination is more important than arrogant power. THE PROMPT: Write a fable. At the top of your page, write what the lesson is that your fable will teach. Then write a made-up story that proves it is true. #68 SECOND PERSON THE RULE: SECOND PERSON means using the pronouns YOU or YOUR.

THE PROMPT Write a story entirely in second person about someone waking up and hearing a strange noise. You wake up #69 DIFFERENT NOW THE RULE: Often commas appear when something is renamed My friend, Steve has a horse. Her boyfriend, Rick was there. The movie, Star Wars was playing.

This is somewhat different than the kind of renaming in which commas appear on both sides. Skippy, a tall man with a hat, was watching. THE PROMPT: Do you know anyone who has changed in an interesting way since your first knew them? Explain. #70 ODE THE RULE: An Ode is a poem that celebrates something, a poem about how much you love something. Speakers write odes to important things (Walt Whitman wrote an Ode to Abraham Lincoln) and

funny things (Pablo Neruda wrote an Ode to his socks). THE PROMPT: Write an ode. Remember this is a poem (it doesnt have to rhyme). #71 LIMERICK THE RULE: A limerick is a short humorous poem that follows an A,A,B,B,A rhyme scheme. The first, second and last lines are nine syllables long. The

third and fourth are five syllables. Bob went ice-fishing during a storm I asked if catching much was his norm. He spat out some worms, Ignoring the germs. Yes, the trick is to keep the bait warm. THE PROMPT: Write two limericks about someone you know. Remember the rules about number of syllables and rhyme scheme. #72 ALLITERATION THE RULE:

Alliteration is when you create a repeated consonant sound Good Gary likes grabbing grapes.(repeated G) He has happy horses and hyenas. (repeated H) THE PROMPT: Write a short poem about school that uses alliteration. The whole poem can focus on one letter or you might try a different letter for each line. #73 ASSONANCE THE RULE: Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds. Harrys pants have sand. (repeated a) Will is itching in his iguana pit. (repeated I)

THE PROMPT: Write a poem that tells a story (narrative poem) using assonance. #74 COUPLET THE RULE: A couplet is just two lines of poetry that rhyme. Bob built an astounding, huge igloo. Each ice block was held there with pig glue. Notice that couplets appear at the end of sonnets.

Notice also that Shakespeare loves to use them, even in dialogue. THE PROMPT: Write five couplets about a hobby or activity you enjoy. #75 STORMY WEATHER THE RULE: A quatrain is four lines of poetry that rhyme. It can follow an A,A,B,B, rhyme scheme. Or it can follow a A,B,A,B rhyme scheme. The clouds turned dark and gray. (A)

The storm was here to stay (A) Down poured all the rain. (B) The weather had become a real pain. (B) THE PROMPT: Write about a vicious storm using two quatrains. Label your rhyme scheme. #76 REDUCE THE RULE: Use Fewer with nouns that can be counted. There are fewer employees here than there were a year ago. He has three fewer teeth than most people. Use Less with un-countable quantities.

-He feels less pressured to do well. -I like gorillas less than chimpanzees. THE PROMPT: What is something we need less of? Homework? Plastic bottles? Taxes? Write about what you would reduce and why? Practice using fewer or less. #77 SOMEONE ADMIRABLE THE RULE:

e.g. comes from the Latin phrase exampli gratia. i.e.. means id est (that is). Both phrases essentially mean For Example -Skippy practiced various sports, i.e. swimming and track. etc. comes from the phrase et cetera in Latin. This means and so forth. -Gary already had fins and goggles etc. et al. short for et allia, meaning and others --The book was written by Jones, Smith et al. EACH OF THESE IS INFORMAL. DO NOT USE THESE WITH FORMAL ACADEMIC WRITING. THE PROMPT: Write about someone you admire who is your age or younger. What talents, virtues or behaviors of theirs do you think are admirable? Practice using etc., e.g. or i.e.

#78 CHORES THE RULE: Hyperbole refers to an exaggeration to make a point. It is a type of figurative language. Ive walked all over the earth today! Its freezing in here! THE PROMPT: Write a story about doing chores. Use hyperbole. #79 SLEEPY OCTOPUS THE RULE:

The word LIE is usually used to mean RECLINE I like to lie in the sand. The past tense is LAID We laid in the grass LAY is used with setting down objects. Just lay that book on the table. THE PROMPT: Write a story about a sleepy octopus. Where would he take a nap? Use Lay and Lie in your story at least once. #80 ENJAMBMENT

THE RULE: Enjambment refers to when a sentence in a poem carries over from one line to the next I think that I shall never see A poem as lovely as a tree. (sentence breaks into new line halfway through) THE PROMPT: Use enjambment to write a rhyming poem about lunch. #81 STAGE DIRECTIONS THE RULE: Most plays include stage directions in parentheses to show what

the actor should be doing when a line is read, or how the line should be read. SKIPPY: (angrily) When are we leaving? GARY: (touching his shoulder) Soon. THE PROMPT: Write a short play about hanging out with your friends. Include stage directions. #82 FOUR CITY RAILROAD THE RULE: Items in a list need a comma: Milk, eggs, cheese, toast and potatoes. Items in a list that already include a comma (like

cities and states) use semicolons: San Diego, California; Austin, Texas; Miami, Florida and Boston, Massachusetts. THE PROMPT: If you were building a railroad that stopped at Americas best four cities, which ones would you include? List the cities in the appropriate style. #83 STICK EM UP! THE RULE: Remember that pluralpossessive nouns take an apostrophe after the last S. -All the kittens milk had turned sour. -The buildings roofs each had an antennae. Notice that this doesnt work with irregular plurals

-The childrens choir meets today. THE PROMPT: Write a story about a bank robbery. Use plural-possessives. #84 ASIDE THE RULE: An ASIDE is a remark that a character says that the audience can hear, but the other characters on stage cannot. It shows what a character is thinking: STEVE: Hello, Skippy! (aside) He will never suspect my plan! SKIPPY: How are you? (aside) He thinks I do not know! THE PROMPT: Write a script about a secret

club. Include ASIDES. #85 ONOMATOPOEIA THE RULE: Buzz! Pop! Bang! Crunch! Woof! These are examples of onomatopoeia. THE PROMPT: Write about a visit to a candy factory that goes horribly, horribly wrong. Use onomatopoeia.

#86 PARENTHETICAL CITATION THE RULE: When you want to say where you got a fact from you can put it in parentheses at the end of a sentence. Emus, ostriches and kiwis are flightless birds. They are called ratites (Zoobooks). THE PROMPT: Write about the last interesting thing that you learned. Put in parentheses where you got your information from. #87 ANECDOTE THE RULE: An anecdote is a small story (usually one

that happened to you personally). In persuasive writing, you can use it to prove a point. THE PROMPT: Tell about something that happened to you. What point does this prove? It can be a big point or a small point. #88 SHAKESPEARE STYLE THE RULE:

Shakespeare uses words that we dont use today. Thee/Thou-you ST ENDING Thy-your Hast sayest Dost knowest Yonder-that/over there Ere-beforeTH ENDING Hath-have Aye-yesgiveth taketh shareth THE PROMPT: Write a script that takes place in the modern day but is written in Shakespearean English. SKIPPY: Hast thou thy iPhone with thee today? BOBBY: Ay, and I shall texteth thee during lunch. #89 PALINDROME

THE RULE: A palindrome is a word spelt the same forward and backwards. Hannah, Racecar, Mom, Pop Can you write an entire sentence spelt the same forward and backwards? God spots stops dog??? THE PROMPT: Write about your Spring Break. Make up details in order to use palindromes. Bonus points if you can write an entire sentence palindrome. # 90 SYMBOLISM THE RULE: Symbolism refers to when one thing represents

another thing. In fiction, authors use it to make a point about things outside of the books reality. In the poem, The Raven, the bird is a symbol of the speakers unhappy memories. THE PROMPT: Write a story about a zookeeper who meets an animal that symbolizes something important. # 91 IAMBIC PENTAMETER THE RULE: Iambic pentameter means a poem where every other syllable is emphasized.

Ye elves of hills, brooks, standing lakes and groves, And ye that on the sands with printless foot (from The Tempest, by Shakespeare) THE PROMPT: Can you write a few lines of poetry about summer in which every other syllable is emphasized? #92 SYNESTHESIA THE RULE: Synesthesia means using adjectives to describe a mode of sensory experience with

which those adjectives are not usually associated. Delicious music, stinky homework, loud shirt THE PROMPT: Write about a visit to another city. Use synesthesia. #93 HUBRIS THE RULE: Hubris refers to when a character has an enormous pride that leads

to their ruin. Odysseus in the Odyssey has hubris. Who in Romeo and Juliet has hubris? THE PROMPT: Write a story about someone prideful who meets with a ruinous end. #94 DRAMATIC IRONY THE RULE: Dramatic Irony refers to when the audience knows something the characters dont. In Romeo and Juliet,

the audience knows that Juliet isnt really dead, but Romeo doesnt. THE PROMPT: Write about a book, TV show or movie when you knew what was going on, but the character(s) did not. #95 MOTIF THE RULE: A motif is an object or image that appears throughout a story. It isnt always symbolic, but the author makes it a prominent part of the story.

What do you think would be the motif of a story with a sentence like this? The fire truck flew past the stop signs and through the strawberry fields. THE PROMPT: Write a short story about an unsolved crime. Use a color motif. Try not to say the name of the color you are using. #96 SERIALIZATION THE RULE: Dickens used serializationpublishing just a few chapters at a timeto create suspense and make

more money. Today authors and screenwriters use serialization a lot. Sometimes CLIFFHANGERS are used in order to get readers or viewers to keep up with a series. THE PROMPT: Write a story about a car chase that ends with a cliffhanger. #97 SERIALIZATION CONTINUED THE RULE: Review the story you started

yesterday. You ended on a CLIFFHANGER a moment when suspense is used to create interest in the next installment. THE PROMPT: Finish the story you started yesterday. Can you pay off on the suspense you created? Would a reader of your story be satisfied with this resolution? #98 FREE VERSE/BLANK VERSE THE RULE: Free verse and blank verse poetry do not rhyme. Poems that do not rhyme can still

have rhythm or use literary devices. THE PROMPT: Write a ten line poem about breakfast. Try not to use rhyming. #99 FOIL THE RULE: A foil is a pair of characters who are opposites of one another. In Romeo and Juliet, angry Tybalt and peaceful Benvolio are thought to be foils.

THE PROMPT: Write a story about a foil (pair of opposite people) who are next door neighbors. They can be imaginary or based on people you know in real life. #100 DIFFERENT NOW #101 FOUR CITY RAILROAD #112 CHANGED

How are you a different person now than you were back in September? Think about different beliefs, interests, goals, challenges, or new skills #102 SYMBOLISM #103 ASIDE #104 ENJAMBMENT #105 HYPERBOLE


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