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Extending the reach of research Establishing and sustaining a culture of accessible summaries of applied linguistics research Marsden, Andringa, Collins, Jackson, Kasprowicz, Perrin, Plonsky, BAAL, York St. John September 2018 What is OASIS? https://oasis-database.org/ One page, non-technical summaries of journal articles wide range (areas, theories, methods etc.) searchable interface accessed via international professional associations free author written or author approved Launched by short project; sustained by academic journals sustainable, systematic, international, peer-reviewed research Single side A4 What this study was about and why it is important What the researchers did who, what, how = contextualize What the researchers found Things to consider Limitations Relevance to own context? Times new roman

Font size 11 Not creating great expectations about what research can tell us (Lightbown, 1985) summaries stick to one study they are summaries; NOT applications & implications its one step engagement among users needed cannot make all research accessible to all audiences What problems does it solve? Research shows findings about language learning and teaching do no reach stakeholders easily academic publications are increasingly more difficult to read and understood by people outside the field Why OASIS is important: 7 motivations 1) Epistemic responsibility: Scientists must learn to communicate with the public, be willing to do so, and indeed consider it their duty to do so (The Bodmer Report, 1985) Impact There is a need to defog the ivory tower complex (Watermeyer, 2012) Open science movement & social equity Why OASIS is important: 7 motivations

2) Our work is inaccessible Academese [makes] the materials quit e dry and abstract, and simply a bore to read. (Bitescience) The readability of scientific texts is decreasing over time (Plaven-Sigray et al. 2017) Average academic article read in its entirety by about 10 people (Goldacre 2014) Prof, no one is reading you. Why OASIS is important: 7 motivations 3) We cannot leave this to intermediaries: Professional journals do not cite scientific journals heavily or reliably (Marsden & Kasprowicz 2017) There are many initiatives, but most are: not sustained or of little relevance to language learning NOT A ARCH IV UNAV A ED

BO U T ILABL E L2 LA NGUA GE Do professional publications cite academic research? (Marsden & Kasprowicz, 2017, The Modern Language Journal) 29 SSCI journals state they publish research related to L2 education But do professional publications cite them? We checked references from 5 years of professional association publications: LLJ, NECTL Review, Babel, ALL publications = 284 professional publication articles, 8616 references Do professional publications cite academic research? Just 12.4% of references were to the 29 journals who say they publish on language education 6 professional articles needed for an academic journal to be cited once Huge range: More than 1/3 had NO references to SSCI L2 journals In 3% of articles, over 50% of refs to SSCI L2 journals Why OASIS is important: 7 motivations 4) Who decides what is disseminated to wider audiences? Currently, decided by intermediaries, such as journalists Exaggeration in news and university press releases (Sumner et al. 2014) Collins & Ruivivar (2018) reviewed the press

Why OASIS is important: 7 motivations 5) Benefits of engaging with research for educators enriches professional identify and reflection Bai, 2018; Borg, 2010; Furlong et al., 2014; Stenhouse, 1975; Winch, Oancea & Orchard, 2015 6) Benefits for engaging with practitioners for researchers makes me think about research differently, helps me draw connections between different theories and data sources, and helps me keep the bigger picture in focus, even when I'm engaged in basic research (which is the bulk of my work). (from Tokowicz & Warren 2018) it helps u s to think abo ut whether o ur own teach i ng intuitions are backed up by research new id eas Why OASIS is important: 7 motivations 7) We are told summaries would be useful

How can research be made more accessible? Marsden & Kasprowicz (2017): 62% of suggestions = accessible summaries, online, via practitioner outlets Andringa & Van Beuningen (in preparation): replicated the findings for teachers of Dutch as additional language Marsden & Kasprowicz 2017: Survey among FL educators in the UK Factors preventing engagement with research Rate the extent to which these factors prevent you from engaging with research. Lack of respect for research Different view of teaching / learning (24) Not relevant (19) Teaching experience is sufficient (18) Lack of interest (17) Access and understanding Lack of professional development (46) Lack of authority (43) Terminology (33) Unaware of resources (32) Unaware of what is research-based practice (30) Time / funds / regulations (2 components) Lack of time (85) Regulation/guidance at a local level (44) No funds to attend conferences (59) No funds to do research (57)

OASIS progress to date Established a clear and long-term need for OASIS Consultation with practitioners, teacher educators, policy-makers Data from Marsden & Kasprowicz (2017) & Andringa & Beuningen Previous literature Survey data collected by OASIS team Collaboration with professional associations ACTFL, ALL, CAL, FIPLV, schools, networks Progress to date Established support from research community Consulted with 16 journal Editors, funded by The British Academy All Editors supportive Running trial with recent authors Aim to include summary writing as obligatory part of article writing Language Learning, ReCALL, The Modern Language Journal, Second Language Research, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, Language Awareness, Language Testing, Canadian Modern Language Review are making concrete steps to incorporate into routine procedures. Progress to date Genre of Accessible Summary established Collaborating with: teachers & teacher educators (via surveys, interviews, workshops) with researchers and journal editors Guidance, Examples, Template OASIS to date Critical mass of summaries of existing articles (until December 2018) Network of summary writers with academic supervisors Students/ post-docs Concordia, Essex, Georgetown, Michigan, Penn State, Reading, UCL, York Sent to original authors for approval CRITICAL Searchable and sustainable database developed (2018) Ontologies that satisfy both researchers and non-academics

technical team at University of York OASIS team will be able to check summaries before public release 13 journals agreed to incorporate procedures ask authors to write summaries Next few months Establish sustainable procedures in journals (by Spring 2019, AAAL) 13 agreed already Professional Development and engagement activities for users (by Spring 2019) Portals / links to OASIS from key user associations What can we do? Associations: Collaboration with and endorsement of OASIS policy statement, e.g., Association X recommends that journals incorporate Accessible Summaries in their publication guidelines and procedures, encouraging or, ideally, requiring their authors to write Accessible Summaries that are made available on an international, searchable database The American Psychological Association and AAAL make such position statements / good practice guidance Disseminate news of OASIS to affiliate members and groups Something more immediate you can do Please write a summary of a journal article! Article must be published or accepted by an academic journal We have 100 more to write before December 2018. Template & guidelines available: https://oasis-database.org Please contact [email protected] Want monthly alerts of new summaries? Send email to [email protected] with 'alerts' in subject line. Acknowledgements OASIS team: Sible Andringa, Laura Collins, Carrie Jackson, Rowena Kasprowicz, Luke Plonsky

Language education professional associations: Ali Moellner at ACTFL; Joel Gomez at CAL; Steven Fawkes and Annalise Gordon at ALL, UK; Terry Lamb, former president of FIPLV, the international umbrella organization for over 100 language associations; Ian Bauckham, UK teaching schools council and Association of School and College Leaders; UK Gvmts Dept of Education, UK. Funders: The British Academy, The Economic and Social Research Council Post-docs : Lisa Maria-Muller, Inge Alferink, Elizabeth Bailey, Lais Borges, Abigail Parrish, David OReilly, Fatma Said, Angela Tellier Academic colleagues overseeing summary writing: Claudine Bowyer-Crane, Aline Godfroid, Heather Marsden, Kevin McManus, Florence Myles, Andrea Revesz Technical & administrative team: University of York Digital Library, Frank Feng & Sebastian Pelucha; Sophie Thompson. 17 Journal Editors attending workshop to help push this forward: Marta Antn (The Modern Language Journal); Alex Boulton (ReCALL); Carole Chappelle (Language Testing); Mirjam Hauck (Computer Assisted Language Learning); Dana Ferris (Journal of Second Language Writing); Sue Gass (Studies in Second Language Acquisition); John Levis (Journal of Second Language Pronunciation); Marta Gonzlez-Lloret and Lawrence Zhang (System); Murray Munro (Canadian Modern Language Review); Silvina Montrul (Second Language Research); Hossein Nassaji (Language Teaching Research); Luke Plonsky (Foreign Language Annals); Nicholas Subtirelu (TESOL Quarterly); Leila Ranta and Joanna White (Language Awareness); Pavel Trofimovich (Language Learning) De DeHouwer, Houwer,A., A.,Bornstein, Bornstein,M. M.&&Putnick, Putnick,D.D.(2014). (2014).AAbilingualmonolingual bilingualmonolingualcomparison comparisonofofyoung youngchildren's children'svocabulary vocabularysize: size:Evidence Evidencefrom fromcomprehension

comprehension and andproduction. production.Applied AppliedPsycholinguistics Psycholinguistics3535(6), (6),1189-1211. 1189-1211.https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716412000744 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716412000744 Who Whoknows knowsmore morewords: words:bilingual bilingualor ormonolingual monolingualchildren? children? Summary format Why Whythis thisresearch researchisisimportant important Many Manypeople peopleare areconcerned concernedabout aboutthe thelanguage languagedevelopment developmentofofchildren

childrengrowing growingup upwith withtwo twolanguages languagesininthe the family. family.Such Suchchildren childrenhave havebeen beenthought thoughttotohave haveaasmaller smallervocabulary vocabulary(fewer (fewerwords) words)than thanmonolingual monolingualchildren. children.This This study studyinvestigated investigatedthe thedevelopment developmentofofvocabulary vocabularysize sizean animportant importantindicator indicatorofoflanguage languagedevelopment developmentby by

bilingual bilingual(Dutch (Dutchand andFrench) French)and andmonolingual monolingualchildren children(Dutch (Dutchonly) only)atat13 13and and20 20months monthsofofage. age.Both Both comprehension comprehension(how (howmany manywords wordschildren childrenunderstand) understand)and andproduction production(how (howmany manywords wordsthey theycan cansay) say)was wastested. tested. While Whilethere therewere

werelarge largedifferences differencesininvocabulary vocabularysize sizebetween betweenindividual individualchildren, children,the thestudy studyfound foundvery veryfew few differences differencesbetween betweenthe thetwo twogroups groupsofofbilingual bilingualand andmonolingual monolingualchildren. children. What Whatthe theresearchers researchersdid did They Theyrecruited recruitedparticipants participantsfrom from61 61middle-class middle-classfamilies

familieswith withaasingle singlechild. child.30 30used usedDutch Dutchatathome home (monolingual) (monolingual)from frombirth birthand and31 31used usedDutch Dutchand andFrench Frenchatathome home(bilingual) (bilingual)from frombirth. birth.InIn14 14ofofthese, these,mothers mothers spoke spokeFrench Frenchwith withtheir theirchild, child,while whilefathers fathersspoke spokeDutch. Dutch.InIn16 16families,

families,this thiswas wasreversed. reversed.InInone onebilingual bilingual family, family,both bothparents parentsused usedboth bothlanguages languageswhen whenspeaking speakingtototheir theirchild. child. They Theyasked askedmothers, mothers,fathers fathersand andthird thirdpersons persons(e.g., (e.g.,grandmothers) grandmothers)totoindividually individuallyindicate indicatechildren's children'sword word knowledge knowledgeon onstandardized standardizedlists listsofofvocabulary

vocabularyitems. items.They Theydid didthis thistwice, twice,when whenthe thefocus focuschild childwas was13 13and and20 20 months monthsold. old.People Peoplewere wereasked askedtotomark markwhether whetherthe thechild childunderstood understoodaaword wordthat that(s)he (s)hedid didnot notyet yetsay say (comprehension) (comprehension)ororwhether whether(s)he (s)heboth

bothunderstood understoodand andsaid saiditit(production). (production).For Forthe the30 30monolingual monolingualchildren, children, Dutch Dutchlists listswere werecompleted; completed;for forthe the31 31bilingual bilingualchildren, children,Dutch Dutchand andFrench Frenchlists listswere werecompleted. completed. The OASIS initiative aims to make findings from language related research available and accessible to anyone who might be interested through non-technical open summaries. In this document, two prototype summaries are presented and annotated to help authors write summaries for OASIS. What Whatthe theresearchers

researchersfound found According Accordingtotowhat whatthe theparents parentsreported: reported: Both Bothatat13 13and andlater lateratat20 20months, months,bilingual bilingualchildren childrenunderstood understoodand andproduced producedasasmany manyDutch Dutchwords wordsasasthe the monolinguals. monolinguals. At At13 13months, months,for forboth bothgroups, groups,children childrencould couldunderstand understandmany

manyDutch Dutchwords wordsbeyond beyondthose thosethey theycould couldsay. say.At At20 20 months, months,this thiswas wasstill stilltrue, true,but butthe thecomprehension-production comprehension-productiongap gaphad haddecreased decreasedininboth bothgroups. groups. The Theresearchers researchersalso alsolooked lookedatattotal totalknowledge knowledge(taking (takingcomprehension comprehensionand andproduction productiontogether). together).At

At13 13months, months, total totalknowledge knowledgeofofDutch Dutchwords wordswas wassimilar similaracross acrossgroups. groups.For Fortotal totalknowledge knowledgeofofDutch Dutchatat20 20months, months,the the monolingual monolingualchildren childrenknew knewmore moreDutch Dutchwords wordsthan thanthe thebilingual bilingualchildren. children. At At13 13months, months,when whentotal totalknowledge

knowledgeofofDutch Dutchand andFrench Frenchwas wasconsidered, considered,bilinguals bilingualsknew knew60% 60%more morewords words than thanmonolinguals. monolinguals.When Whencomprehension comprehensionwithout withoutproduction productionwas wasconsidered, considered,the thedifference differencewas waseven evenlarger, larger, with withbilinguals bilingualsunderstanding understanding71% 71%more morewords. words. Differences Differencesbetween betweenthe thetwo

twogroups groupswere weregenerally generallysmall. small.Instead, Instead,differences differencesbetween betweenindividuals individualswithin withinthe the groups groupswere weregenerally generallylarge. large.For Forexample, example,atat20 20months, months,children childrenininthe themonolingual monolingualgroup groupsaid saidbetween between19 19and and 531 531words; words;children childrenininthe thebilingual bilingualgroup groupsaid saidbetween

between14 14and and1234 1234words. words. Things Thingstotoconsider consider There Therewere werelarge largedifferences differencesbetween betweenindividuals individualsininboth bothgroups, groups,and andfew fewdifferences differencesbetween betweenthe thegroups groupsasasaa whole. whole.From Fromthis thisititseems seemsthat thatgrowing growingup upbilingually bilinguallymay maynot notbe bethe

themost mostdecisive decisivefactor factorfor forvocabulary vocabulary development. development.IfIfininaabilingual bilingualsituation situationaachilds childsvocabulary vocabularydevelopment developmentisislate, late,ititisisimportant importanttotoconsider consider explanations explanationsother otherthan thanbeing beingbilingual bilingual(for (forinstance, instance,aachild childmay mayhave haveaahearing hearingproblem). problem). This Thisstudy studyshowed showedthat thatgrowing growingup upbilingually

bilinguallydoes doesnot notnecessarily necessarilyslow slowvocabulary vocabularydevelopment developmentand andmay mayinin fact factspeed speedititup. up.The Theparticipating participatingchildren childrenwere wereselected selectedfor fortheir theirsimilarities similaritiesininterms termsofofage, age,family family composition, composition,age ageofoffirst firstexposure exposuretotoeach eachlanguage, language,and andsocio-economic socio-economicbackground. background.More Moreresearch researchisisneeded

neededtoto find findout outififthe thepresent presentfindings findingshold holdinindifferent differenttypes typesofofbilingual bilingualsettings settingsand andwith withdifferent differenttypes typesofoflanguage language pairs. pairs. How Howtotocite citethis thissummary: summary:Andringa, Andringa,S., S.,Bailey, Bailey,E., E.,De DeHouwer, Houwer,A., A.,Marsden, Marsden,E., E.,Kasprowicz, Kasprowicz,R.R.(2018). (2018).Do Dobilingual

bilingualorormonolingual monolingualchildren childrenhave havemore more vocabulary vocabularyknowledge? knowledge?OASIS OASISSummary SummaryofofDe DeHouwer, Houwer,Bornstein Bornstein&&Putnick Putnick(2014) (2014)ininApplied AppliedPsycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics.https://oasis-database.org https://oasis-database.org The current OASIS summary format, the writing guidelinesis, and the recommendations made in this document are based on: Survey research with potential stakeholders Interviews and think-aloud studies with teachers Feedback from journal editors Feedback from interested colleagues Our experience with writing summaries 62% of suggestions from teachers in Marsden & Kasprowicz 2017suggested accessible summaries, online links, via practitioner outlets What is already available? Other fields: ELife provides summaries of content in over 50 journals Pyschology journals ask for highlights or significance statements L2: ACTFL Language Educator: very short summaries of articles from one journal (FLA)

Foreign Language Annals and Language Testing: invite authors to do podcasts Plonskys Blogspot: students wrote summaries for a blog http://www.eltresearchbites.com/: anyone can submit a summary General Education: UKEd Blogs Summaries of research on children: http://www.bitescience.com/Default.aspx Government funded initiatives to synthesise or engage teachers in DOING research Research for Teachers: database of research summaries Research Bites: 2 minute presentations summarising key research findings DfES Best Practice Research Scholarships (2001) Numbers Total of 152 summaries online

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