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Introduction to the Special Issue on the DiamondDybvig Model Edward Simpson Schema: 1. What is DD model 2. Paper: (1) Diamond-Dybvig And The Recent Financial Crisis (2) The Articles In This Issue

(3) Concluding Comment 3. My Opinions 4. Q&A 1. What is DD model It was developed by Douglas Diamond and Philip Dybvig. Their model has been a workhorse of banking research over the last 25 years and during the

recent nancial crisis it has been one that researchers and policymakers consistently turn to when interpreting nancial market phenomena. Diamond-Dybvig Model shows that: Business investment often requires expenditures in the present to obtain returns in the future. On the other hand, individuals demand liquid accounts which permit them immediate access to their deposits.

The banks in the model act as intermediaries between savers who prefer to deposit in liquid accounts and borrowers who prefer to take out long-maturity loans. So we can conclude that: It is desirable for people to pool their funds and jointly invest in productive long-term investments, while allowing individuals to withdraw their funds on demand, even before the end of the life of the

long-term investments. It is also desirable to set payouts for early withdrawals high enough so that if every person in the pool withdrew his funds early, there would not be enough funds available to meet every withdrawal. DD interpreted this arrangement as a bank. For two reasons: 1.it performs maturity transformation, that is, it

backs short-term liabilities with long-term illiquid assets. 2.It issues liabilities that are payable on demand, that is, bank deposits. Three basic elements: 3. Long-term investments that are more productive than short-term investments 4. A random need for liquidity on the part of an individual

1.DIAMOND-DYBVIG AND THE RECENT FINANCIAL CRISIS Until recently, bank runs were not considered a major problem in the United States. The introduction of deposit insurance in the 1930s was considered to have essentially solved this problem. There had been very few bank runs since then. What the academic and policy worlds missed was just how much some of the newer (since the 1970s) nancial arrangements were starting to resemble banks in that they

performed maturity transformation and nanced assets with liabilities that resembled demand deposits. His conjecture is that these sources of variation along with Bank Runs In the recent crisis, there were several runs on traditional banks. Auction Rate Securities Auction rate securities(ARS) are long-term debt securities

that are transformed into short-term securities through regular periodic auctions. The auctions set the short-term interest rate and allow for the transfer of ownership. Furthermore, if there were not enough bids to clear an auction, the sponsoring entity, which was either a large bank or investment bank, would often provide enough bids to clear the market. However, in the spring of 2008, the sponsoring banks started pulling their support. This contributed to a sizeable demand by investors to pull out of the market,

and there was a large increase in the number of auction Special Purpose Vehicles Trusts that hold securities and are nanced by a mix of short- and long-term debt (along with a small amount of equity occasionally). These trusts, set up by banks and investment banks, are also known as structured investment vehicles and collateralized debt obligations. Covitz, Liang, and Suarez (2009) use daily data from August 2007 to December 2007 on the ability of these vehicles to

roll over their commercial paper. They found the specic features of the programs. They also found difculties in rolling over debt that are not explained by these differences and conclude that this is evidence of a bank-like run caused by a panic. Repo Markets Repo transactions are short-term agreements to sell and repurchase securities. They are essentially short-term collateralized loans. The loans are often made by wholesale

institutions such as money market funds, corporations, hedge funds, and other entities that have a lot of cash to invest. Gorton and Metrick (2009)argue that these repo transactions looked a lot like demand deposits. The lender could withdraw all his funds by not rolling over the repo or even partially withdraw his funds by requiring a large haircut on the valuation of the collateral. They also argue that there was a wide-scale panic in these markets as investors began to doubt the quality of collateral and

Money Market Mutual Funds and Other Investment Pools Money market mutual funds (MMMFs) are investment pools that invest in short-term liquid assets such as Treasury securities, commercial paper, repos, and certicates of deposit. Unlike other mutual funds, however, they use an accounting method that allows them to keep a constant net asset value (NAV) per share of one dollar. This convention makes MMMFs easier to use for transaction purposes and thus a close substitute for bank deposits. In September 2008, after Lehman Brothers failed, there were sizeable

withdrawals from MMMFs. The immediate cause was losses to the Reserve Primary MMMF, which had a sizeable exposure to Lehman Brothers commercial paper. This loss led the fund to break the buck, that is, the NAV of the fund dropped below one dollar. There were large withdrawals from this fund, followed soon after by large withdrawals from some other MMMFs. According to the Investment Company Institute(2009), there was a large shift of money market funds by institutional investors from prime Many states offer funds to their municipalities in which they can pool their funds to invest in cash like instruments

(Cook and Dufeld 1993). The Florida investment pool ran into trouble when it took losses on its securities and some became illiquid. This led some of the Florida municipalities that participated in the fund to withdraw their investments. The Florida fund was unable to meet these redemptions, so it partially suspended redemption and worked out a longterm scheme to distribute its assets to its members (Evans 2007; Evans and Preston 2007). 2. THE ARTICLES IN THIS ISSUE The article by Huberto Ennis and Todd Keister gives people

unfamiliar with DD a nontechnical overview of this literature. They pay special attention to the roles of sequential service and uncertainty about aggregate liquidity needs. The article by Edward Green focuses on a more specic issue. He examines the role of limited liability and the optimality of bailouts for partially nancing illiquid investments. He denes a bailout as a combination of early liquidation along with taxes and transfers that relax the limited liability constraint. In an economy with limited liability, he nds that statecontingent payments from the taxpayer to the banking system are part of an optimal allocation. He is careful to point

out that he does not address moral hazard, which could The article by Ricardo Cavalcanti bridges monetary and banking theory by providing some recent history of thought about the two areas. He discusses the precursors to the Diamond-Dybvig model in which the traditional strategy, still found in textbooks, was to append a banking sector onto a market model. The article by William Jack, Tavneet Suri, and Robert Townsend continues the monetary economics theme

by describing the recent development of mobile phone banking in Kenya and juxtaposing these developments with monetary theory. 3. CONCLUDING COMMENT This special issue is dedicated not only to honor his famous article with Philip Dybvig, but also Dougs many contributions to the authors research department and this journal.

My Opinion Advantages: Logical: Special issues, followed by articles Realistic: Used many specic real-world examples Detailed: Refer to a lot of articles Disadvantages: Not structured: More like a discussion instead of a paper Introduction: Without a detailed introduction

of the background and denition of DD model Conclusion: Only showed his respect to Diamond and Dybvig, without more specic Q&A Thanks for listening!

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