Post-WW II & Cold War Terms "LOTS of Words & Pictures" by ...

United Nations Americans, p. 603; Alive!, p. 481 United Nations (UN) was the international peacekeeping organization to promote peace and economic development. 1945 Post-Pearl Harbor 50 nations originally, 193 of 195-6 belong today UDHR: 4 Essential Freedomsspeech & expression, worship, from fear & want peacekeeping Super Powers Americans, p. 602-603; 607 Alive!, p. 494 US & USSR democracy & capitalism Cold War = political hostility that versus communism existed between the Soviet bloc

countries and the US-led Western hegemonyinfluence powers from 1945 to 1990. It was conflict between the Soviet global competition: space aUnion and the U.S. without weapons being fired. race, military (nukes!), allied nations control Iron Curtain Americans, p. 605; Alive! 496-97 barrier in Europe communist East capitalist & democratic West Former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill Berlin Wall marks formal division

Iron curtain was a term first used by Winston Churchill to describe the line that separates communism from democracy. satellite nations Americans, p.605; Alive!, p. 505 communism Eastern Europe USSR (Stalin) Iron Curtain containment Satellite Nations Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Poland. Stalin took control and forced communist

rule. containment Americans, p. 605;737 ; Alive!, p. 494; 497, 508, 511 restriction of Containment blocks communism other countries efforts spread its influence anti-expansion toof their type of government. Iron Curtain US Diplomat in USSR George Kennan Implemented by President Harry S. Truman Truman and his Doctrine Americans, p. 606; Alive!, p. 498 & 501

military & economic aid presidents policy Turkey & Greece ($400 mil.) containment of communism pro-democracy Truman Doctrine Economic and military aid to nations trying to avoid the threat of the spread of communism. George Marshall & his Plan Americans, p. 606; Alive!, p. 468; 499-500 Funds to rebuild Post-WW II Europe European Recovery Act hope & stability

Pro-democracy (anti-communism) Secretary of State, WW II General Marshall Plan Economic aid provided by the U.S. to help rebuild nations after the war & contain communism (1947). Provided help from poverty, chaos, and desperation. Post-WW II Germany Americans, p. 607; 677; Alive!, p. 504 aftermath = East (communist) split from West (free) Allied occupation zones

Berlin Blockade by USSR (June 1948) Berlin Airlift (June 1948-May 1949) Berlin Wall (19611989) Reunified into one Germany (1990) Berlin Airlift Berlin divided between Allies and the Soviets. Americans airlifted food and supplies until Stalin got rid of the blockade. NATO Americans, p. 608; 624; Alive!, p.505 defensive alliance collective security against possible Soviet attack signed by 12 democratic nations (1949) Ended isolationism for US (28 members today) By 1955500, 000 troops,

plus thousands of planes, tanks, etc. in Europe Countered by Warsaw Pact North Atlantic Treaty Organization Military support to all members if attacked. Started for the fear of Soviet aggression. Warsaw Pact Americans, p. 624; Alive!, p. 505 communist alliance (1955) security agreement united against NATO West Germany rearmed & joined NATO USSR, plus 7 Eastern Warsaw Pact-A European countries pact between

the Soviet Union Dissolved in 1991collapse and their of the Soviet Union satellite countries for military purposes Chinas Civil War Americans, p. 609-610 ; Alive!, p. 507-508 China experienced a revolution NationalistsChiang-Kai Shek (center) supported by US CommunistsMao Zedong (right) & Red Army supported by the Soviets Peoples Republic of China (communists win in 1949)

Taiwan (Republic of China) democratic/capitalist Chiang Kai-Shek was a Nationalist ruled in southern and eastern China. Got aid from the U.S. Moved to Taiwan. Mao Zedong was the communist leader of Northern China. Financial aid from the Soviets. Peoples Republic of China. Korean War Americans, p. 609-615; Alive!, p. 508-509 MacArthur American Communists tried to General troops led by MacArthur reunify peninsula (June launched a counterattack taking back the 38 parallel. MacArthur 25, 1950)

wanted a war against China and Truman disagreed. He was fired. United Nations intervenes (90% American forces) stalemate results in demilitarized zone (to present) truce line (38th parallel) th blacklist Americans, p. 618; Alive!, p.521 500 actors, writers, producers, & directors suspected communists & communist sympathizers fear & paranoia Hollywood Ten tarnished reputations lost job opportunities

Blacklist It happened when 500 people in the movie industry were suspected of being under communist influence. They werent allowed to work. Hollywood Ten were witnesses called to testify, but they refused to cooperate regarding possible communist influence in the movie industry. Those witnesses were put in prison. HUAC & McCarthyism Americans, p.620; Alive!, p. 522 unsubstantiated attacks McCarthyism-People who were suspected anti-communist investigations of being communists although there was suspected communist little or no evidence to support claims. House Un-American Activities Committee sympathizers (HUAC) a committee that investigated communism in the movie industry. infiltration

propaganda Senator Joseph McCarthy (RWisconsin) House Un-American Activities Committee Congressional hearings loyalty oaths Produced flimsy evidence unconstitutional Brinkmanship, H-Bomb, MAD Americans, p. 623 ; Alive!, p. 515 push to the edge all-out-war powerful thermonuclear weapons for US (1952) & USSR (1953) Hydrogen bomb = 1 million tons of TNT67 times the power of A-bomb dropped on Hiroshima Mutually Assured Destruction world destruction

threatened air raid drills & fallout shelters Brinkmanship when a country threatens another country with massive military aggression. Going to the brink of war H-Bomb was more powerful than the atomic bomb. Race with the soviets to see who could develop the H-bomb first. By 1953 both had the bomb. By 1963 a hot line linked the White House to the Kremlin so that communication in a crisis could be made easier. CIA Americans, p. 623-624; 626; 674 Alive!, p. 498; 511-513 Central Intelligence Agency

Formed under Trumans National Security Act (1947) international organization covert (spy) operations anti-USSR (pro-US interests) overthrow unfriendly or leftist (communist) governments Iran, Guatemala, Dominican Republic secret cameras, spy planes (U-2), satellite technology Eisenhower relied heavily on reportsauthorized training of Cuban exiles (1960) Kennedy authorized Bay of Pigs invasion (April 17, 1961) 1,300-1,500 exiles attacked in a botched effort (ineffective airstrikes & strategies) Cuba under Fidel Castro had 25,000 soldiers and Soviet tanks and jets embarrassing & costly episode ($53 million ransom in food & medical supplies for release of commandos) Central Intelligence Agency

(CIA) gathered information about the enemies of the U.S. CIA gave millions of dollars to the Shah of Iran to return to his country so that the Soviets would not gain control of the oil fields. The Shah returned and gave control of fields to western companies. Nikita Khruschev Americans, p.626; Alive!, p. 630;632-633 Soviet leader (Premier) from 1958 to 1964 Responsible for the partial deStalinization of the USSR (denounced Stalin's dictatorial rule & cult of personality) Helped make progress in early

Soviet space program & liberalized Soviet domestic policy Nikita Khruschev Leader of the soviet Union who believed that communism and democracy could coexist. Space Race Americans, p. 626 ; Alive!, p. 629 competition for international prestige (USSR vs. USA) Sputnik (October 4, 1957) was 1st artificial satellite US had flopnik & kaputnik at first 1st satellite success on January 31, 1958 NASA: National Aeronautics & Space Administration (1958-Eisenhower) 1st cosmonaut in space (April 12, 1961) was Yuri Gagarin Alan Sheppard was first US astronaut in space (May 5, 1961-Freedom 7)

Neil Armstrong was 1st man on the moon (July 20, 1969) Space Race worlds first satellite was sent into space by the Soviets. A year later the U.S. launched its first satellite. U-2 incident Americans, p. 627; Alive!, p. 502-502;511 US spy plane Soviets shoot it down (May 1, 1960) Francis Gary Powers (US pilot) captured in Soviet territory Nikita Khruschev (USSR)

demanded US apology Eisenhower refused US-USSR summit cancelled great tension between the superpowers U-2 American spy plane shot down in Soviet territory. Caused more tension between Soviet and U.S. JFK & the Cuban Missile Crisis Americans, p.674-676; Alive!, p. 632-633 Soviets built missile launch sites on Cuba (1962) US president Kennedy calls for quarantine (blockade) of island Soviet leader Nikita

Khruschev sent more ships to Cuba Grave nuclear danger for 14 days in October 1962 JFK relied on 12 most trusted advisors (ExCom = Executive Committee for National Security) Nikita Khruschev blinked and agreed to remove missiles (US pledged NOT to invade Cuba) Cuban Missile Crisis US-Soviet confrontation of missile launch sites discovered by the US in communist Cuba in 1962. It was the closest the Cold War ever came to nuclear war.

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