Population Evolution - MS. SWISS AP BIOLOGY

Population Evolution Chapter23 Microevolution Smaller scale gene changes from one generation to the next is microevolution Genetic Diversity comes from all discoveries via Mendel (etc.) o Independent assortment o Crossing Over o Random Mating

New alleles (mutations) o Some changes are neutral or nonsense o Some accumulate over time https://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/images_pamphlets/ dino_tree.gif Hardy Weinberg Population: group of individuals of the same species, in the same area, that interbreed Gene Pool: copies of every type of allele at every locus in all members of the population

*Different from Punnett Squares- because we assume all genes and alleles, not just two individuals* 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. HW Conditions No mutations

Random Mating No Natural Selection Large Population No gene flow (migration) Opposite of HW: Natural Selection There is differential success in the ability for organisms to survive and reproduce Different traits are better suited for the environment Adaptive evolution: organisms are better matched for their environment

https://researchmatters.in/sites/default/files/styles/large_800w_scale/public/igs_-_part_10_6.png? itok=oHe9f5T5 Genetic Drift Small populations that can change unpredictably from one generation to the next Founder Effect: Small group of the population becomes isolated, and a new gene pool forms different from the original population https://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/images/evo/

beetles_mech3.gif http://beacon-center.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Fig1.jpg Bottleneck Effect: A reduction in population size due to a natural disaster http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/LAD/C21/ graphics/C21_Bottleneck_2.GIF Genetic Drift 1.

2. 3. 4. Small populations are more at risk Allele frequencies can change at random Genetic variation can also decrease within populations Some less beneficial alleles can survive regardless Gene Flow: Migration between

populations https://i.pinimg.com/originals/6f/cf/82/6fcf825ca5ebc6f894dbd67524d1f6f0.jpg Natural Selection Due to genetic variation, different organisms are more fit, better adapted to their environment, therefore more likely to survive and reproduce

Selection acts on phenotypes! https://www.google.com/url? sa=i&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwjli9jNZbgAhUQNd8KHXR-C4gQjRx6BAgBEAU&url=https%3A%2F %2Fwww.mauriciolemus.com%2Finstall_modes_of_selection_mcgrawhill.php&psig=AOvVaw0GA7LUgVsJ2kKGX1L1cOzq&ust=1548987272504969 Sexual Selection Ability for organisms to choose mates, resulting in sexual dimorphism, differences in appearance, behavior, size etc.

between sexes Intrasexual selection: same sex competition o Ex: Male peacocking Intersexual selection: Mate choice o Females usually select mates https://media.buzzle.com/media/images-en/gallery/birds/peacock/600-123612513-peacockand-peahen.jpg Balancing Selection

Being a heterozygote has an advantage (genotype advantage) o EX: Sickle Cell Anemia Frequency Dependent Selection: https://slideplayer.com/slide/7843572/25/images/15/ Frequency+dependent+selection.jpg Why is the perfect organism not there? 1. Evolution cannot predict the environment and cannot act on future variations

2. Evolution cannot rebuild the past 3. Every advantage might come with a disadvantage (Little Mermaid)

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