Place Presentation Title Here This slide uses the layout ...

Overview of Project Management & Lean Six Sigma QPI Steering Committee Meeting December 17, 2015 David Olszewski, DM Sr. Director of Industrial Engineering Childrens Health Adjunct Faculty, Industrial Engineering UT Arlington Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 1 Project Management Defined A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to deliver a unique product, service or result. Management is an administrative discipline designed to plan, execute and control targeted outcomes for an organization. Initiation Planning Thus, Project Management is the application of best known administrative practices that result in the fulfillment of scope, schedule and budget with regard to a temporary endeavor. Execution Closing Project managers use many tools like: project charters, business requirement documents, change requests, project schedules, RACIs, communication plans, logs for issues, risks and decisions, etc. Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 2 Initiation Phase Create Project Summary with Sponsor Define Project Scope with Stakeholders

Why: Project goals and business drivers What: Scope and objectives, known deliverables, desired end date Who: Project participants, roles and responsibilities Verify sponsors role and escalation path System impacts Boundaries, constraints/dependencies, assumption and items out of scope Risks and mitigation plans Milestones and Accomplishments Templates Initiation phase checklist/ FAQs Project charter: Word/Excel using SMART goals Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 3 Planning Phase Create Project Plan and Secure Team Commitment Engage team members Conduct kick-off meeting who where Verify communication methods Plan tasks and due date Assign tasks and secure commitments Create budget estimates Update charter, obtain sponsor approval and project plan what when on charter Templates Planning phase checklist Kick-off meeting agenda Project plan: Word/Excel Project plan Advanced version with Gantt chart Planning phase FAQs Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 4 Execution Phase Reconfirm Plan and Collect Information Reconfirm the plan at predefined milestones Collect information regularly Standard updates

Project variance It keeps growing and it never ends Take Corrective Action Immediately Manage risks and issues Manage cost, schedule, and resource variances Control change and scope creep Manage team dynamics Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 5 Execution Phase cont. Keep People Informed Written reports Formal leadership update meetings Regular team meetings Obtain sponsor sign-off at the completion of each milestone Templates Executive phase checklist Team meeting agenda Executive summary report Leadership meeting prep guide Project decision log Change request template Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 6 Closing Phase Close the Project

Obtain sponsors final approval Capture lessons learned Distribute lessons learned Celebrate project completion Communicate project success Templates Closing phase checklist Lessons learned log: Word/Excel Lessons learned survey Customer acceptance form Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 7 What is Lean? Lean is the set of management practices based on the Toyota Production System (TPS) developed in the 1940s. The goals of Lean are pretty consistent across industries to simultaneously improve: Safety, Quality, Delivery, Cost and Morale. Eliminate waste and non-value-added activity (NVA) through continuous improvement The opposite of waste is value-added (VA) activities that the customer is willing to pay for, think of value in a patient care process to involve: Comforting the patient Examining them Diagnosing them Treating them Educating them Preventing future illness Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 8 The 8 Types of Waste: DOWNTIME Waste (Muda): Activities that use resources, but add no value to the

finished product or service Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 9 Lean Tools There are a number of tools within the Lean toolkit you can use to help eliminate waste: Visual Controls Kaizen Events Daily Accountability Waste Walks (Gemba) 6S Cellular Flow Total Productive Maintenance Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential Leader Standard Work Value Stream Mapping FMEA Poke Yoke Kanban One-Piece Flow Production Heijunka/ Workload Leveling 10 What is Six Sigma? The term Six Sigma is based on a statistical concept: Defects can be minimized by maintaining 6 standard deviations between the process mean and its upper & lower specification limits. Dallas, Texas Sigma Level DPMO % Conformance

% Failure 2 308,357 69% 31% 3 66,807 93% 7% 4 6,210 99% 1% 5 233 99.98% 0.02% 6 3.4 99.9996% 0.0004% Privileged and Confidential 11 Where did LEAN & Six Sigma Come From? Developed in the 1940s at Toyota Toyota Production System (TPS) TPS known as Lean in the USA 1986: Developed at Motorola by Bill Smith & Bob Galvin 1995: Jack Welch made it central to his business strategy at General Electric 2002: Lean Six Sigma: Combining Six Sigma with Lean Speed book written by Michael George Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 12 What is Lean Six Sigma? (LSS) Streamlining processes by eliminating waste

- Customer driven - Process-centric - Error/mistake-proofing - Continuous monitoring & improvement in ALL areas! Improving quality by minimizing variations and defects/errors - Measuring defects per million opportunities (DPMO) - Customer driven - Process-centric - Continuous monitoring & improvement in ALL areas! Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential y to a w s! e v i ct esse e f ef proc y l h e Hig p rov im 13 Why Do Healthcare Organizations Use LSS? Avoid unnecessary expenses Reduce overtime Achieve cost savings Shorten wait times Speed up patient care Improve accuracy See patients more quickly Reduce surgical patient wait time Lower appointment cancellations/no-shows Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 14 The LSS Roles & Responsibilities Role Responsibilities Champion Ensures project resources needed are available

Runs interference when the team encounters barriers, roadblocks Facilitates collaboration across the organization Sponsor Supports the projects day-to-day activities/responsibilities Works closely with the BB &/or GB Yellow Belt (YB) DMAIC project core team member May be responsible for running smaller projects Green Belt (GB) Leads or initiates DMAIC projects, or assists a BB or in a BB project DMAIC resource for her/his organization Black Belt (BB) Leads Six Sigma projects (beyond DMAIC) / Leverages GBs & YBs Facilitates understanding/application of tools, techniques, strategies Master Black Belt (MBB) Leads strategic initiatives that increase quality maturity Leads &/or supports highly-complex process improvement projects Primarily coaches BBs / renowned for their situational handling & leadership Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 15 The DMAIC Roadmap Purpose Key Questions Key Tools Define - Who is our customer? Define the problem (aka Develop the project charter)

- What are we trying to improve and by how much? - What is the scope of the project? - What is the current cost of not meeting performance targets? Project Charter SIPOC Stakeholder Matrix RASCI / Project Plan Communication Plan Deliverables Project Charter ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ Approved Project Charter High Level Process Map Stakeholder Analysis Storyboard Data Collection Plan Detailed Process Map Measurement Systems Analysis Current Process Performance Measure - What is the estimated financial impact after solution implementation? Baseline the current process performance - What is the data collection plan? - Is our measurement system adequate (Can we trust the data?) - What is the current process flow and performance? - When does the problem occur? - Where does the problem occur? - Which roles are involved when the problem occurs?

Data Collection Plan Measurement System Analysis (Gage R&R) Detailed Process Map / Value Stream Map Graphical Analysis (Pareto) RASCI / Project Plan - How many cause categories contribute towards the identified effect? - How do the causes affect process output? Whats the extent of their reach or influence? - Which root causes will we address? In which order? Fishbone Diagram (5-Whys) Affinity Diagram Cause & Effect Matrix Hypothesis Development & Test Process / Graphical Analysis Future Reality Process Map RASCI / Project Plan - What are the expected value-adds & benefits? - What actions are in place to mitigate identified risks? - Were the implemented solutions successful in addressing the root causes? - What is the new process performance? Benefit & Effort Matrix Weighted Criteria Matrix Improvement / Action Plan(s) Risk Assessment (FMEA) Pilot Plan Future Reality Process Map Process / Graphical Analysis RASCI / Project Plan Analysis Revised Storyboard Cause & Effect Analysis Validated, Selected & Prioritized Root Control Improve Analyze Cause-and-Effect Diagram Validate solutions to improve process performance Implement controls to maintain the gains Dallas, Texas

- Did we accomplish our goal(s)? - What were the final results? Where did our results meet, exceed or fall short? - Are Control Plans in place to assure the improved process is sustainable? Who is responsible? - Where else can the learning from this DMAIC project be applied? Process / Graphical Analysis Metrics Dashboard Integration Control Plans RASCI / Transition Plan Final Project Documentation Privileged and Confidential Mate rial s Tape Men rubberband elasticit Multi-Vari Chart for Adhesion By T ile Pos - Strip No Operator Vision ball material Tile Pos 75 1 2 Variation in Dist ance 65 3 Pin setting 55 Adhes ion Identify the root causes to be addressed Meas ureme nts Draf ts 45 Release Technique Pull back 35 25

Environm ent Meth ods Machine s 15 4 5 5 11 12 13 267 268 269 314 315 316 Strip No Causes FMEA ~~~~~ Proposed Action / Improvement Plan Revised Storyboard Decision-Making Process Results Pilot Results vs. Complete Roll-Out New-Reality Process Map (To Be) Risk Assessment Results on Improved Process Proposed Control Plan

Revised Storyboard Improved Process Performance Analysis Results Metrics Integration Results Implementation Results Control Plans ID Next Improvement Opportunity 16 DMAIC Roadmap: Define Phase Purpose Key Questions Define the problem (aka Develop the project charter) - Who is our customer? - What are we trying to improve and by how much? - What is the scope of the project? - What is the current cost of not meeting performance targets? - What is the estimated financial impact after solution implementation? Dallas, Texas Key Tools - Project Charter - SIPOC - VOC Privileged and Confidential Deliverables Approved Project Charter High Level Process Map (SIPOC) VOC Feedback

17 DMAIC Roadmap: Define Phase Project Charter Problem Statement: The problem statement is a clear and concise statement that describes the symptoms of the problem to be addressed. It does not suggest solutions. The problem statement should include: WHAT is wrong (e.g., solution doesnt meet customer needs; defects reported)? HOW do you know its a problem (e.g., SLAs/specs confirm non-compliance)? DURATION: for how long has it been a problem? WHY it is a problem (e.g., release [code] cant be deployed as scheduled)? Name Role X Champion X Sponsor X Yellow Belt (YB) X Green Belt (GB) X Black Belt (BB) Business Case: What are the compelling business reasons for embarking on this project or work effort? How does it link to key business/organizational goals and objectives? What will be the benefits to the business/organization in resolving this problem? What will be the negative impacts of not resolving the problem? (If financial positive &/or negative impacts are known past &/or projected, please include here.) X SMEs other roles (add as needed) Goal Statement: What is the goal when the problem is resolved? Think of how will the project/work effort key stakeholders and impacted organizations will measure success for this project or work effort. Scope: In-scope and out-of-scope items must be stated concisely and explicitly (e.g., what is in & out of scope? Or if process-centric, where does the process start and end? Focus should be on what is needed to reach a solution to the problem. Risks, Constraints, Assumptions: Risks: An evaluation of the risk(s) and its associated impact(s). Constraints: A limitation, either internal or external to the project/work effort, that will affect the performance of the project or work effort. Assumptions: Factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration (e.g., you will be fully supported by your Champion and Sponsor on this project/work effort until you reach your goal). Dallas, Texas

Privileged and Confidential Strategic Initiative Benefit Type DMAIC Phase Define (should tie to dept./area goal) (Reduce cycle time, reduce costs, increase capacity or productivity, risk mitigation, etc.) Planned Actual Tollgate Tollgate Dates Dates Status In Progress Measure Planned Analyze Planned Improve Planned Control Planned 18 DMAIC Roadmap: Define Phase SIPOC Diagram SIPOC Suppliers Inputs Process Providers of the Required Resources Resources Required by the Process Top Level Description of Activities Output Customers Deliverables from the Process Anyone who Receives a Deliverable from the Process

Foster Care Assessment Center - CPS - Kids/ Families - CASA - CPA - Schools - Law Enforcement Dallas, Texas - Health passport - Public health records - Assessment requirements - Engagement values/ expectations - Bio-family information - Legal documentation - Relevant case history - Determine past history - Identify current health status - Determine immediate/ long-term needs (child, caregiver, bio-parents) - Provide emotional support - Develop recovery plan - Caregiver training - Comprehensive assessment - Recommended placement - Housing services - Medical intervention/ referrals Privileged and Confidential - Physicians - Kids/ Families - Caregivers - Case Workers - Kinship - Staff Agencies - Attorneys - Courts/ Judges - Schools 19 DMAIC Roadmap: Define Phase RASCI Matrix ) SS (S n lla via re r Vi k ta fe i u r & p C

ch ne r B) Te ha w a ou te ag (B in m ce Le al en :L W tS y ith er ru W ss h er n c d r t B m n e a a a : r w Ke R Be tS en sh er O :T k y er ra an ug wn or ar ar ss ob O :P

Je M M :E ns ce R : : : v S p o o : A BA SA De Q Pr SS Ap Sp PI e Le (M ) BB er ch DMAIC Phase Target Date or Complete Date Status Tickets triggered through warranty period 5 Dev tickets / 2 SSS tickets (1 SSS = major impact) 4/19/12 4/23/12 5/1/12 5/5/12 5/5/12 5/8/12 Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Next Steps / Notes Define Phase

ID IT release defects (warranty/post-warranty/quality breaks) Segmentation of defects with same/similar defects/issues Finalize defect list / secure needed sign-offs Complete Project Charter Complete SIPOC Complete RASCI-High level project plan R R R R R R A A A A A A A A A S S A A A 5/12/12 Complete S/C R R S S S R R R R All sources of truth were validated as credible. Data inputers: >95% accurate S/C R R S S S S S S A A A R S S S

ID & assign those needed to complete all facts per ticket &/or validate HPSM inputs (after the fact) Set-up needed interviews/meetings to complete write-ups to facilitate completion by Mon., 5/14 Send final RCA Results (Excel) template to CI's BB BB & Tracy to plan approach to quantification 5/9: Lou provided BB with trainees list; 3 session options to trainees. Session invites sent 5/10 Dates re-announced to 5/31 & 6/7/12 5/13/12 5/14/12 5/15/12 6/8/12 5/10/12 5/16/12 5/15/12 Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A R R R R R 1st Session: 5/31/12 / 2nd Session: 6/11/12 6/11/12 6/11/12 6/11/12 6/11/12 6/20/12 Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete 6/23/12 6/24/12 6/25/12 6/26/12 6/27/12

Complete Complete Complete Complete Complete 7/2/12 Complete 7/10/12 7/30/12 8/15/12 8/30/12 Complete Complete Complete Complete Measure Phase Complete Data Collection Plan / Gage Reproducibility & Repeatability Complete current process map(s) for processes affected by defects/issues Assign each defect to the appropriate RCA Researcher/Author (as needed) Secure research findings from each RCA Author (per due date) Compile research findings for each defect (per due date) Request data/info to estimate cost per defect average (E.g., PV, HPSM) Establish date/time for RCA Prep session(s) Hold RCA Prep session(s) to engage SMEs Schedule RCA Workout session(s) with SMEs/Key Stakeholders R R R R S S/C S S Analyze Phase Capture/validate RC per defect via Fisbone/RCA/5-Whys Capture impacts to/from people, processes & technology Capture RCA participants feedback on RCA Prioritize RCs via Cause & Effect Matrix Summarize RCA Results, including Improvement Plan/QIP proposal C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A

C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A Improve Phase Capture improvements/solutions to each RC Capture metrics/control plans needed to track each RC Complete FMEA on high-risk implementations Present RCA Summary (including 30-60-90+ Day Improvement Plan) Secure sign-off on approved improvements for implementation Confirm all Owners have started the implementation of their Improvement Plan items (all plans have been finalized with target dates) C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A C/S/A A A A A S S R R R R R R C/S R R R R R R R R C/S C/S R S S

C/S R S S C/S R S S C/S R S S A R A R A R A S/A A R A S/A A R A S/A R C/S R C/S Control Phase Complete Control Plan Confirm metrics & control plans implementation Final review of all project results (including lessons learned) Implement changes needed to improve future RCA exercises Dallas, Texas This is the 6th component of the RCA Summary deck to leaders (out of 7 components/sections) Privileged and Confidential 20 DMAIC Roadmap: Measure Phase Purpose Key Questions Baseline current process performance - What is the data collection plan? - Is our measurement system adequate

(Can we trust the data?) - What is the current process flow and performance? - When does the problem occur? - Where does the problem occur? - Which roles are involved when the problem occurs? Dallas, Texas Key Tools - Data Collection Plan - Process Map - Spaghetti Diagram Privileged and Confidential Deliverables Data Collection Plan Process Map Spaghetti Diagram Current Process Performance Analysis 21 DMAIC Roadmap: Measure Phase Pareto Analysis Surgical Setup Errors by Type 80 70 81% 86% 91% 96% 99% 100% 90% 80% 60 70% 62% 50 60% 40 30

100% 50% 37% 40% 30% 20 20% 10 10% 0 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 80/20 rule: 80% of problems are caused by 20% of causes Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 22 DMAIC Roadmap: Analyze Phase Purpose Identify the root causes to be addressed Dallas, Texas Key Questions Key Tools - How many cause categories contribute towards the identified effect? - How do the causes affect process output? Whats the extent of their reach or influence? - Which root causes will we address? In which order? - Fishbone Diagram (5Whys) - Cause & Effect Matrix

- Pareto Chart Privileged and Confidential Deliverables Cause & Effect Analysis Validated, Selected & Prioritized Root Causes Proposed Action / Improvement Plan 23 DMAIC Roadmap: Analyze Phase Fishbone Diagram Root Cause Analysis for Sample Problem Revised: Team: Document Author: Man People are not empowered to do what customer needs Machine Competitors are implementing Lean teachings Competitors are cutting their costs Sales training recently cut Our org structure is too fractured Too many menu options Our phone system is difficult for customers to use Voice explanations are too long Competitors recently cut their prices Sales people aren't motivated Commissions recently cut Our webmaster is now part-time consultant Web site is outdated

No one in-house knows how to edit web pages Why are sales low? Cause Cause Cause Cause Cause Cause Cause Objectives 1. Increase sales 2. Reduce the time it takes to make a sale 3. Be "easier to do business with" Cause Materials Methods Comments Comments can be printed or internal - by simply re-setting the Print Area. Or add another Comments textbox, and have both printed and internal comments! The Fishbone (aka Ishikawa Diagram) Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 24 DMAIC Roadmap: Analyze Phase 5 Why Technique The 5-Why analysis method is used to move past symptoms and understand the root cause. It is said that only by asking "Why?" five times, successively, can you delve into a problem deeply enough to understand the ultimate root cause. This methodology can be used to complement the analysis necessary to complete a fishbone diagram. Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 25 DMAIC Roadmap: Analyze Phase

Affinity Diagram The Affinity Diagram tool is used to consolidate a large amount of information into groupings or clusters of ideas that have a natural 'affinity', i.e., that have a common thread running through them. The affinitizing process is best performed by bringing all the team members or stakeholders involved into a room and allowing them to post sticky notes with single ideas on a board or flipchart. Next, everyone gets together and silently move the notes around into related groups. Not being allowed to talk discourages arguments and justifications. Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 26 DMAIC Roadmap: Improve Phase Purpose Key Questions Validate solutions to improve process performance - What are the expected value-adds & benefits? - What actions are in place to mitigate identified risks? - Were the implemented solutions successful in addressing the root causes? - What is the new process performance? Dallas, Texas Key Tools - Improvement / Action Plan - Failure Mode & Effect Analysis (FMEA) - 6S - Run Chart Privileged and Confidential Deliverables Pilot Results vs. Complete Roll-Out (part of your Improvement-Action Plan) Risk Assessment Results on Improved Process (FMEA)

Proposed Control Plan 27 DMAIC Roadmap: Improve Phase Improvement/ Action Plan Owner(s)/ Assigned to: Actionable Improvements/Solutions Descriptions What do we measure to track progress/status on the improvement &/or solution? Risk Analysis Priority # (per FMEA) 90-Day High-Level Plan 120+Day High-Level Plan Comments 30-Day High-Level Plan 60-Day High-Level Plan Actual Start Actual End Next Team Date: Solution Date: Solution Status Review Implementation Implementation Date: Allows your team to capture the planned Actions & Improvements in the short and long-term Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 28 DMAIC Roadmap: Control Phase Purpose Implement controls to maintain the gains Dallas, Texas Key Questions Key Tools - Did we accomplish our goal(s)? - What were the final results? Where did our results meet, exceed or fall short? - Are Control Plans in place to assure the improved process is sustainable? Who is

responsible? - Where else can the learning from this DMAIC project be applied? - Control Plan - Run Chart Privileged and Confidential Deliverables Improved Process Performance Analysis Results Metrics Integration Results Implementation Results Control Plan ID Next Improvement Opportunity 29 DMAIC Roadmap: Control Phase Process Control Plan Process Control Plan Process Name: Prepared by: Page: Project Name: Approved by: Document No: Dept./Division Impacted: Approved by: Revision Date: Documents Referenced: Approved by: Supercedes: Improved Process Step(s) Sub Process Step(s) Process Performance Before After Person Responsible for Monitoring Metric(s) Process Results Recipient(s) Corrective Action for Metric Not

Meeting Target Person(s) Responsible for Executing Action Plan Metric(s) Monitoring Frequency Person(s) Authorized to Change Control Plan of Planned / Proposed Future Process Adjustments (TBD - CH Case) COMMENTS : Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 30 Key Takeaways/ Questions? Project Management is the application of best known administrative practices that result in the fulfillment of scope, schedule and budget with regard to a temporary endeavor. Lean Six Sigma (LSS) methodology combines the Lean philosophy & Six Sigma method/ tools to reduce waste and process variation. Define, Measure, Analyze, Design and Verify (DMADV) can be used in place of DMAIC when creating new process/ workflow. Any Questions? Dallas, Texas Privileged and Confidential 31

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Where in the World

    Where in the World

    I am a boot-shaped peninsula in Southern Europe. Italy is the major country located on me. The smaller countries of Vatican City and San Marino are also located on me. I am surrounded by the Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, and...
  • Canada Between the Wars 1919-1929 - Sol de Terrace

    Canada Between the Wars 1919-1929 - Sol de Terrace

    The King-Byng Affair 1926 A scandal in the Liberal government forced Mackenzie King to ask Lord Byng, the Governor-General, for dissolution. Lord Byng would not grant this request because Meighen led the largest party. An election had just taken place...
  • Slide 1

    Slide 1

    Psychosis, neurosis, alcohol abuse and drug abuse were identified by the Clinical Interview Schedule - Revised, the Schedule for Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and other measures. Detailed questions were asked about income, debt...
  • Nationalism, national identity

    Nationalism, national identity

    Primordialist view of nation (Nationalists) Primordial and natural. Since time immemorial. Perrenialist view (Some Social Scientists) Ethnic core out of which nations developed at different points in history. Modern, constructivist view (Most Social Sci.)
  • Chapter 35 The End of the Cold War and the Shape of a New Era ...

    Chapter 35 The End of the Cold War and the Shape of a New Era ...

    Ms. Sheets University High School AP World History Economic conditions in USSR deteriorated in the 1980s led to the collapse of communism in 1991 Industrial production dropped 1985 onward: new USSR leader Mikhail Gorbachev led intensive reform with three parts...
  • Space Weather

    Space Weather

    In the frame of the SIDC Space Weather Pilot Project, the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium and the Geophysical Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences are developing new services for the users of GPS.
  • European Monetary Integration, Optimum Currency Areas ...

    European Monetary Integration, Optimum Currency Areas ...

    "The UK Decision re EMU: Implications of Currency Blocs for Trade and Business Cycle Correlations," in Submissions on EMU from Leading Academics (H.M. Treasury: London), 2003. "The Endogeneity of the Optimum Currency Area Criterion," with Andrew Rose, The Economic Journal,...
  • Physical geography of the Netherlands

    Physical geography of the Netherlands

    Verhouding isotopen in waterdamp en calciet is afhankelijk van temperatuur; hoe kouder hoe minder zware isotopen (18O). Zuurstof komt in de natuur voor in de vorm van drie isotopen (atomen met dezelfde chemische eigenschappen maar met een verschillend atoomgewicht). Deze...