Pesticide Container Recycling Update

Best Management Practices for Application of Turf Pesticides & Fertilizers and YardScaping Gary Fish Board of Pesticides Control 287-2731 [email protected] Why BMPs Inappropriate application practices discovered after heavy spring rains of 2005 Water sampling results from

USGS and FOCB The Board continues to receive complaints about applications when weather forecasts are for heavy rains USGS National Water Quality Assessment 2006 Report Insecticides occurred as frequently in urban streams as

they did in agricultural streams Herbicides detected in 99% of Urban stream samples USGS National Water Quality Assessment 2006 Report Phosphorous found in urban streams at similar levels as in agricultural streams 70% of those samples exceeded

the EPA level for causing excessive algal growth Aquatic Life Benchmarks Pesticides are present throughout most of the year in streams draining watersheds with substantial urban areas, but are less common in ground water Concentrations of pesticides were greater than water-quality benchmarks for aquatic life and (or) fish-eating

wildlife in more than half of the streams with substantial urban areas in their watersheds http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2006/3028/pdf/fs2006-3028.pdf Friends of Casco Bay Sampling Pesticide residues detected in surface water in Maine

Diazinon up to (2.6 ppb)** 2,4-D up to (36.4 ppb) Dicamba up to (4.1 ppb) MCPP up to (26 ppb) **Values in red exceed MCPA up to (0.45 ppb) Aquatic Clopyralid up to (0.91 ppb) Life Criteria Propiconazole up to (0.075 ppb) Chlorothalonil up to (0.22 ppb) Found Excess Nitrogen & Phosphorous in most samples

Pesticide residues detected in sediments Bifenthrin up to (37 ppb) Permethrin up to (47 ppb) BMP web page The BMPs Site Assessment Informed Product Choice

Pesticides Fertilizers Operating Standards Initial site visit Turf assessment prior to treatment Thorough periodic assessments

Prior to application Application Customer/Neighbor Relations Notification Customer education www.maine.gov/agriculture/pesticides/turf_bmps/ Site Assessment Initial site visit

Customer expectations Pest problems Site plan and measure Soil characteristics Slope and runoff Soil test Sensitive areas Grass species

Intensity of use Sun exposure Record assessment Site Assessment Turf assessment prior to treatment Soil conditions Compacted, eroded, frozen, shallow,

saturated, exposed bedrock or ledge? Pest problems Turf health Watering Frequency Intensity Site Assessment Thorough periodic assessment Annually

Reassess the initial site visit criteria Customer expectations and desire for service (This is now required) Review management records Every 3 5 years Soil test Consider monitoring ground water for nitrates at golf courses or sod farms or

other intensively managed areas Informed Product Choice Pesticides Read labels & MSDSs Choose least toxic, least persistent, lowest

exposure Use the WIN-PST criteria Check bee warnings Choose selective products Do spot treatments Choose low drift and low volatility products Weed & Feed WIN-PST http://go.usa.gov/Kok Select slow release fertilizers

GUARANTEED ANALYSIS Total Nitrogen (N)..................... .8.00% 1.0 % Water Soluble Nitrogen 7.5 % Water Insoluble Nitrogen Available Phosphate (P205).......... .1.0 % Soluble Potash (K20).................... 1.0 % Derived from corn gluten, steamed bone meal & sulfate of potash NON PLANT FOOD INGREDIENTS Bacillus subtilis,

Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumulis, Bacillus megaterium, Paenibacillus polymyxa, Paenibacillus durum each @ 275,000 CFU per gram of finished product Look for Water Insoluble Nitrogen (WIN) Informed Product Choice Fertilizers Choose slow- or timedrelease N (WIN Water insoluble nitrogen)

Avoid ammonium nitrate or sulfate and calcium nitrate Apply at 1 pound/1000 square feet or less Do not apply quick release N above pound/1000 sq. ft. Use P-Free fertilizer unless soil test indicates need or when establishing seed

Operating Standards Prior to application Check site for people & pets Sensitive individuals nearby Toys, sandboxes, pet dishes present? Open windows? 24-hour weather forecast Record current conditions Calibrate equipment frequently Operating Standards Application

Base applications on soil characteristics Never apply when there is standing water Never apply to saturated soils Never apply to frozen ground Never apply when temperature exceeds 85F Follow label temperature requirements

Operating Standards Application continued Never apply until soil warms to 50 55F at 3 soil depth Never apply between December 1 and April 1 (unless fungicide for

snow mold) Consider forecasted rains Avoid application when wind is below 3 mph or above 10 mph Do not apply pesticides if rain or irrigation is imminent, unless specified by label Do not apply if moderate or heavy rain is imminent regardless of label statements Never apply to impervious surfaces Operating Standards Application continued

Never apply near areas prone to runoff, i.e., culverts, drains, drainageways or wells Never apply to bare ground unless establishing seed Cover seed to prevent erosion Clean up spills immediately Never leave materials on impervious surfaces Lightly water-in fertilizers When the label directs, assure that

pesticides are watered in as directed Operating Standards Application continued Fill spreader on hard surface Use a drop spreader near sensitive areas

Leave a 25-foot buffer of untreated vegetation near water bodies Manage pests with spot applications Customer/Neighbor Relations Notification Remind customer annually about right to request labels and SDSs When requested, always provide labels and/or

SDSs When requested always notify customers and/or neighbors at least 24 hours prior to applications After application inform customers/neighbors about treatments Need for watering Re-entry period Customer/Neighbor Relations Customer Education Customers must know when their

expectations are too high and should know the limitations like: Soil depth & texture Soil pH and nutrient imbalances Grass species limitations Proper mowing & watering Soil compaction & thatch depth Need for buffers around wells, water, etc.

Low risk control options Slow-release & P-Free fertilizer options 25-foot buffer zone required next to waters and wetlands Applies to all terrestrial Broadcast applications Except stinging insect and arthropod vector control, and Man-made Ag wetlands, e.g.,

Cranberry bog areas Variances may be granted if the Board approves and protections are reasonably equivalent Regional Lawn Nutrient RecommendationsU-Conn/Cornell Nitrogen Standards

If the existing lawn is acceptable, no need for fertilizer Do not apply before spring green-up and no later than September 15th (NNE) or October 15th (SNE) Apply no more than 1/2 to 1/3 of a pound of nitrogen in any 1 application Slow release formulations are preferable When a soil test indicates adequate P or K, use N only On lawns that are 10 years or older apply a maximum of 2 lbs N/1000 per season Newer lawns may require 3 lbs N/1000 per season Regional Lawn Nutrient Recommendations - continued

When seeding a new lawn amend the soil to get organic matter up to 3% to 5% Mow high (3 inches) and return clippings Choose tall or fine fescues because they require less nutrients and water Avoid KBG Maintain soil pH levels between 5.5 and 6.5 Consider introduction of white clover or other low growing legumes to provide natural nitrogen Start testing soil for nitrates and base application rates on need (this is experimental right now)

Avoid using combination fertilizer and pesticide products Regional Lawn Nutrient Recommendations - continued Phosphorus Standards If the existing lawn is acceptable, no need for fertilizer Soil test for P do not guess Frank Rossi at Cornell says P is only needed on the poorest of soils

Avoid P fertilizers on bare ground or low density lawns, unless seeding Use P-free next to water unless soil test shows very low phosphorus Regional Lawn Nutrient Recommendations - continued Avoid application of P prior to heavy or moderate rains Maintain pH between 5.5 and 6.5

Never apply to saturated or frozen ground Soil test annually for P if using organic fertilizer or composts Avoid combination fertilizer and pesticide products YardScaping for a healthy Maine Gary Fish, Coordinator Maine YardScaping Partnership (207) 287-2731 [email protected] The Partnership is very diverse! YardScaping A new paradigm?

Some call it Sustainable Landscaping or Ecological Landscaping We want to keep it simple YardScaping Mission To inspire Maine people to create and maintain healthy landscapes

through ecologically based practices that minimize reliance on water, fertilizer and pesticides The Ten-ets of YardScaping Promote buffers

Promote appropriate plants - native plants and non-invasive alien plants Reduce lawn area Reduce runoff Reduce reliance on pesticides, fertilizers and water

Promote low input lawns and landscapes Promote YardScape diversity Create wildlife habitats Right plant, right place, right use Use site appropriate, non-invasive plants

Native plants are often well adapted Beautiful Native Shadbush Fewer problems, less work, more rewards, but not all are problem free, e.g., viburnums Invasive plants are easy to grow but crowd out native vegetation Our local forest habitats are changing rapidly Invasive plants can ruin

wildlife habitat Problematic Native Viburnum Deadly Invasive Oriental Right plant, right place, right purpose Choose plants based on the area to be planted not just for their color Select plants that thrive under existing conditions rather than trying to alter the conditions to meet the needs of a plant

Minimize disturbance of the existing landscape Wild Cranberry Bog Right plant, right place Beach plum dry sunny site Partridgeberry wet shady site Staghorn Sumac large open dry bank

Use a diversity of plants & grasses Monocultures lead to disasters Diversity leads to less noticeable damage from pests and disease Incorporate many layers of plant types Trees Shrubs

Ground covers Perennials, and Lawns Create wildlife habitats Diversity and plant layers go hand in hand with habitat creation Add nectar and fruit producing plants Strive for continuous blooms Add water, walls, feeders, woody debris Reduce lawn area Reduces Water & air pollution

Water usage Maintenance Costs Gives More free time Mower exhaust = 11 small cars One hour on riding mower = 400 exhaust miles Use low input plant varieties Fine fescue or tall fescue instead of

Kentucky bluegrass and ryegrass Pagoda dogwood vs flowering cherry River birch vs paper birch Fine fescue Tall fescue Protect lakes & streams with buffers Preserve existing landscape Winding paths Dont mow to

lakes edge Leave the duff Reduce runoff Reduce amount of pervious (hard) surfaces Create rain gardens or install rain barrels Direct water into vegetated areas Porous pavemen t Reduce reliance on pesticides, fertilizers and

water Grow plants that are resistant to insects & diseases Use plants that tolerate low fertility White Fir Use drought resistant plants Sweet Fern Use common sense pest management Integrated pest management Know your pest

Pick it, trap it or exclude it Know the good bugs Mow, prune or water Use pesticides as last resort Weed Control Approach (BASIC STRATEGY - dense, tall turf tends to reduce weed invasion) Seed is the best weed control! Mow high, 3 inches MINIMUM Promote root growth fertilize in early fall Reduce wear and compaction encourage foot traffic away from turf; core aerify twice per year and overseed at same time Overseed or slit-seed open areas ASAP! Spot treatment with herbicides only when

Are there alternatives? Corn gluten meal has demonstrated pre-emergent herbicide activity Rather expensive and a weak herbicide Most action - nutrient value from meal breakdown - added fertility thickens turf and reduces weed germination Weed flamers and spikes Punto Hot water foam and steamers Mostly used in cities where herbicides have been banned Punto Choose the right grass varieties for Maine

Insect tolerance Some Some Excellent Disease toleranceSome Some Good Good Good Plant or over-seed with low maintenance grass

types Fine Fescues 40 - 50% Creeping Red Hard Chewings Tall Fescue YardScapin 40% Endophyte Enhanced Cre 10% Southport Chewin 30% Endophyte Enhanced Pe 20% Kenblue K Common Kentucky Bluegrass Endophyte enhanced perennial rye or fescues Plant grass seed in late summer/early fall

Avoid sod Low Maintenance Lawn Benefits 2000 CMHC study of 30 residences Residents with lowmaintenance lawns spent 50 per cent less time, 85 per cent less money, and used 50 per cent less fuel, 85 per cent less fertilizer,

100 per cent less water and 100 per cent less pesticides per year http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/burema/gesein/abhose/ abhose_076.cfm Sustainable plant selection http://www.wildflower.org/plants/ Where to learn more http://www.yardscaping.org YardScaping booklet that you can download

http://www.maine.gov/dacf/php/pesticides/yardscaping/documents/New_YardScaping_Booklet.pdf Where to learn more www.gotpests.org YardScaping For a healthy Maine

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