Persian Wars Introduction

PERSIAN WARS INTRODUCTION ANCIENT GREECE MAP COLLECTION OF CITY-STATES Athens Sparta Corinth Delphi Olympia Thebes

SHORTAGE OF FARMLAND Because farmland was so scarce, warfare amongst Greek settlements was common. Had to look elsewhere for food Developed colonies (settlements in distant places) GREEK COLONIES IONIAN REVOLTS Greece set up colonies in Asia Minor on the border of the Persian Empire. Persian Empire expanded and invaded the Greek colonies

Greek colonies (Ionia) asked for help from some of the city-states Greek city-states sent a Navy to fight the Persians. After initial success they left the Ionians to finish the fight. The Ionians were defeated and Persia then set its eyes on mainland Greece and the city-states there. PERSIAN WARS (GRECO-PERSIAN WARS) Fought between the Persian Empire and the Greek City-States Time Period: 499-479 B.C.E.

Location: Greece and Asia Minor The Persians had expanded their empire from the Middle East, to Africa (Egypt), South East Asia, and Asia Minor. An invasion of Greece would be next. ADVANTAGES AT THE START Persia Greece Powerful Army Large Population and lots of soldiers

Conquered areas fought for Persia Weapons and Resources United city-states Same language Fighting on their own soil Banding together against a common enemy Balance of great Army

and Navy FAMOUS BATTLES OF THE PERSIAN WARS 490 B.C.E. 480 B.C.E. 479 B.C.E. Battle of Marathon

Battle of Thermopylae and Salamis Battle of Plateau PERSIAN WARS A series of wars fought between the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire between 499-479 B.C.E. POLIS

A Greek City-State Example: Athens, Corinth, Sparta, Thebes, Delphi, Olympia, etc. ALLIES States that agree to help each other against a common enemy Example: Athens and Sparta put aside differences to fight a common enemy ATHENIANS, SPARTANS

CORINTHIANS AND PERSIANS Someone from the Greek City-State of Athens Someone from the Greek City-State of Sparta

Someone from the Greek City-State of Corinth Someone from the Empire of Persia PERSIAN EMPIRE The largest empire the world had seen up to this time. Persia ruled over Africa, the Middle

East and Asia. HOPLITE Hoplite Greek civilian/soldier named after the shields they would carry. Weapon of choice: Spear with a bronze tip and Iron Sword Persian War Important Figures King Darius King of the Persian

Empire who invaded Greece at the start of the Persian Wars. Led Persia in the Battle of Marathon King Xerxes King of the Persian Empire after Darius who continued fighting versus the Greek city-states. Led Persia at Battle

of Thermopylae and the rest of the Persian Wars. Miltiades Leonidas Athenian General who helped lead the Greek City-States to victory at the Battle of Marathon

Spartan King who led 300 Spartans and other allied soldiers at the Battle of Thermopylae. They were heavily outnumbered but fought heroically to help delay MORE IMPORTANT FIGURES Herodotus- Famous Greek Historian who wrote about the

Persians Wars. Also known as the Father of History PheidippidesGreek messenger who ran from Marathon to Athens to warn them about a Persian Invasion. Themistocles Famous Athenian

Naval commander and politician who helped lead Greece to victory against the Persians at the Battle of Salamis ANCIENT MILITARY TERMS Cavalry- Soldiers who fought on horseback

Trireme - An ancient Greek wooden warship with 3 rows of oars on each side of the ship Phalanx- close knit fighting formation perfected by the Greeks where they would interlock their shields and march/fight shoulder to shoulder with one another.

Weapons on the battlefieldBow and Arrows Swords Spears Javelins TRIREME OTHER IMPORTANT VOCABULARY WORDS Hellespont- the strait between the Aegean and the Sea

of Marmara that separates European Turkey from Asian Turkey where Persia set up pontoons and marched their troops across. Present day called the Dardenelles Isolationism A policy of avoiding political and economical relations with other places Colonies- A settlement set up in a distant place

Ionian Revolt- A rebellion by Greek colonies set up in Asia Minor to not follow the rule of the Persian Empire. These events in 499 B.C.E. marked the beginning of the Persian Wars. BATTLES OF THE PERSIAN WARS Battle of Marathon- Athens defeats the Persians at Marathon in 490 B.C.E. Battle of Thermopylae 300 Spartans (and 6,000+

allied soldiers) led by King Leonidas who fought to the death at Thermopylae against the might Persian Empire in 480 B.C.E. Battle of Salamis Naval battle near the Island of Salamis where the Greeks defeated the Persians led by Naval Commander Themistocles. Battle of Plateau Decisive Battle that ended the Persian Wars and Persias attempt at conquering Greece in 479 B.C.E.

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