Patterns, Remediation & Interactive Narrative

interactive television television only better bid-up tv developing interactive television artists or technicians ? 2001 a tale of two movies

p o l F e c ffi O x Bo Final Fantasy: The Spirits

Within Animation/ Fantasy/ Adventure/ SciFi/ Action voice actors: Ming-Na Alec Baldwin Ving Rhames Steve Buscemi Peri Gilpin

Donald Sutherland James Woods e r u t a e F

d e t 2 a 0 m 0 i n lm ds 2

A i F t r s a e B Aw y

m e d Aca Shrek Adventure/ Romance/ Animation/ Fantasy/ Family/ Comedy

voice actors Mike Myers Eddie Murphy Cameron Diaz John Lithgow Vincent Cassel Peter Dennis Clive Pearse Jim Cummings gollum

"The stuff I'm doing on set is more demonstrating to the animators...trying to indicate to them how I see the character being played on the floor." Andy Serkis transferable skills artists & technicians talking design - bridging the gap

patterns remediation narrative design patterns the problem . If I knew where I got my ideas, Id be there right now getting them. Milt Gross, 1930s cartoonist

.. a solution ? Most simply, a pattern is a named problem/solution pair that can be applied in new contexts, with advice on how to apply it in novel situations and discussion of its trade-offs Craig Larman Applying UML and Patterns structured language A Pattern Approach to Interaction Design, Jan Borchers (2001) Name - communicate the idea behind the pattern

Ranking - how valid the pattern author believes the pattern to be. zero, one or two stars Illustration - communicate the idea of the pattern. Problem - .you are doing something and discover a problem. Forces - a further elaboration of the problem positives and negatives Examples - real world examples. Solution - generalise the key points from the examples and suggest how they may be applied to similar problems. Diagram - show the main idea of the pattern in a schematic way.

Relationships - a brief description of which patterns relate to others. only a medium Indeed this ageless character has nothing, in the end, to do with languages. The language, and the processes which stem from it, merely release the fundamental order which is native to us. They do not teach us, they only remind us of what we know already . Christopher Alexander

A Timeless Way of Building (1979) Clearly, one pattern format does not fit all. What does fit all is the general concept of patterns as a vehicle for capturing and conveying expertise, whatever the field John Vlissides Patterns : the top ten misconceptions (1997) about critical design don't be surprised if your first reaction to some

of the patterns is, "Duh, everybody knows that one." Not every pattern will be new to you, but hopefully every pattern will encourage you to think about its problem. Chris Hecker & Zachary Booth Simpson remediation concepts of remediation What is new about new media comes from the ways in which

they refashion older media and the ways in which older media refashion themselves to answer the challenge of new media. (Bolter & Grusin, 1999) immediacy & hypermediacy .. transparency & opacity .... lie back & lean forward our culture wants to both multiply its media and to erase all traces of mediation (Bolter & Grusin, 1999) polygons

Lara Croft in her latest incarnation in Tomb Raider: Angel of Darkness is composed of 5,000 polygons a concept that can be traced through Dutch artist Crispyn van der Passe (1643) to Platos Timaeus (360 BC) ) perspective In video games such as Doom perspective is calculated to rules originally developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1420) though perspective in painting was addressed in the Dionysian theatre in Athens during the 5th Century BC.

widescreen Wheatfields under Thunderclouds, 1890 Wheatfield with Crows, 1890 In 1890, Van Gogh painted a large number of landscapes, all on unusual, elongated canvases (100 x 50 cm) "The Wedding Portrait By Franz Hal

Wedding Portrait (1622) Metropolis (1927) interactive narrative telling a story Fabula (Story) - What Happened ? chronological sequence of events in a narrative the raw, paraphrasable, synopsizable core of the story

Sjuzhet (Discourse) - How is it told ? mode of re-presenting the events narrative techniques, media, metaphor, camera angles, the re-ordering of the temporal sequence etc the media, the narrative techniques, etc.. Example - the tale of a courtesan who renounces her lover as an act of true love, becomes ill with a terminal disease and is reunited with her lover shortly before dying. La Dame aux Camlias (1848) - Novel La Dame aux Camlias (1852) - Play La Traviata (1853) - Opera

Camille (1926 ) - Silent Movie Camille (1936) - Movie Moulin Rouge (2001) - Musical telling a story: continued Diegesis the world created by the narrative Diachronic Story what happened before (the back story) Synchronic Story happens in the present (ongoing narrative)

towards interactive television narratives television narratives have to be popular in heterogeneous societies amongst audiences with different and often conflicting social interests and experiences. So television narrative must be more open and multiple than the singular folk narrative with its comparatively tight closure. (Fiske, 1987) As a variety of multiform stories make clear, print and motion picture stories are pushing past linear formats not out of mere playfulness but in an effort to give expression to the

characteristically twentieth-century perception of life as composed of parallel possibilitiesits alternate versions of reality are now part of the way we think, part of the way we experience the world. (Murray, 1997) types of interactive fiction (my ordering) Enhanced narrative Nodal narrative Multipath narrative Parallel narrative

Multimodal Narrative Topographic narrative Algorithmic narrative (Favre, 2002) putting it all together identifying patterns of interactive narrative used in leisure & entertainment media nodal narrative

A type of linear storytelling that offers several interactive segments, called nodes, along its course. Viewers cease to be passive and are asked to interact with the story Engage with the story but not change it iTV Winky Dink (simulated interaction) Colin & Trouble in Space

DVD Harry Potter - Chamber of Secrets multipath narrative Change story direction and/or outcome Examples: Literature Fighting Fantasy Series (1980s) Asterix to the Rescue (1986) What Next Ted ? (2001) DVD

Im your Man 1992 (multiple endings) Harry Potter - Chamber of Secrets: Bonus DVD (2003) The Forbidden Forest Tour of Diagon Alley Video Game Tomb Raider Lara Croft and the Angel of Darkness Silent Hill series WWW Escape from L.A. (1995) Web Premiere Toons -

parallel narrative aka Perspective Narrative or Multiform Stories Character based - e.g. follow a particular character Location based - e.g. view different camera angles Examples iTV D Dag (1999)- character based - 4 channels Nudlar & 08ers (1996) - location based - 2 characters/2 channels Chomeurs (2002)- character based (choose narrator) - 1 channel iRadio Dark House (2003) - 3 characters

Video Games The Bouncer (2000) - beatem up - three characters EverGrace (2001) - adventure - 2 characters Enter The Matrix (2003) - action/adventure - two characters Narrative closely linked to movies and anime Share same characters, locations, scenes and dialogue. Many games incorporate multiple camera angles multimodal narrative Tell a story across several media ALL EXISTING MEDIA can be used and combined to create a

multimodal narrative experience : a TV program, a web site, a mobile phone service, an email campaign, the press, advertising, postcards, fax, billboards, etc Not all media need be interactive Examples The Salon - Channel 4, E4, WWW Bid-Up TV - Digital, Telephone, WWW Perfect Dark - N64 & GameBoy Pokemon - N64 & Gameboy The Matrix - Film, WWW, DVD, Video Game, Manga etc XIII - Comic, Video Game

The Thing - Movie, Video Game topographic narrative Based on the exploration of locations rather than a chronology of events Video Games Quest types games Zelda - Ocarina of Time Myst Tomb Raider

algorithmic narrative Not planned (or written) in advance but self-generated Created by their viewers/readers/users as they interact with narrative material or with each others. A set of rules or principles rather than narrative elements or characters Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game ((MMORPG) MMORPG). Example: Ultima Online The world's first and most successful online game. Offers players the opportunity to live a parallel life in the

virtual world of Britannia. Borrows heavily from classic fantasy role-playing games such as Dungeons & Dragons. artefacts - patterns & case studies demonstrate Nodal & Parallel Narrative Multipath Narrative

summary A pattern approach provides a valuable contribution to the overall design solution Seek inspiration from design solutions in other media The concept of patterns is more important than developing pattern catalogues ability to identify patterns is the key.

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