Patterns of Evolution - Neshaminy School District

Patterns of Evolution Honors Biology- Mr. Wilmot MACROEVOLUTION/ MICROEVOLUTION Macroevolution- One group of animals evolves into another.due to large scale changes that take place over long periods of time.

Microevolution- Small scale changes within a species to produce new varieties or species in a relatively short amount of time. MACROEVOLUTION/

MICROEVOLUTION Both involve changes in allele frequencies in gene pools Both work through the same basic processes The difference is largely one of approach and scale

Each offers different insights into the evolution process MACROEVOLUTION/ MICROEVOLUTION MACROEVOLUTION/

MICROEVOLUTION Dog Variability When bred for certain traits, dogs become different and distinctive. This is a common example of microevolutionchanges in size, shape, and coloror minor genetic alterations. It is not macroevolution: an upward,

beneficial increase in complexity. MACROEVOLUTION/ MICROEVOLUTION Macroevolution has never been observed in any breeding experiment.

PATTERNS OF MACROEVOLUTION These are models of evolution: A. Mass Extinctions B. Adaptive Radiation

C. Convergent Evolution D. Coevolution E. Gradualism F. Punctuated Equilibrium MASS EXTINCTIONS Event in which many types of living things

became extinct at the same time. Huge numbers of species disappeared. Whole ecosystems were wiped out. Resulted in burst of evolution of new species in new habitat

Disrupted energy flow throughout the biosphere and caused food webs to collapse MASS EXTINCTIONS Possible causes

Asteroids hitting earth Volcanic eruptions Continental drift Sea levels changing ADAPTIVE RADIATION (DIVERGENT EVOLUTION)

The evolution of an ancestral species, which was adapted to a particular way of life, into many diverse species, each adapted to a different habitat Many new species diversify from a common ancestor . The branching out of a population

through variation. The new species live in different ways than the original species did. ADAPTIVE RADIATION ADAPTIVE RADIATION

ADAPTIVE RADIATION Diversity in anoles is most striking in the Caribbean islands

ADAPTIVE RADIATION Hawaiian honeycreepers Variation in color and bill shape is related to their habitat and diet

CONVERGENT EVOLUTION Opposite of divergent evolution (adaptive radiation) Unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar

environments, or ecological niches Analogous structures are a result of this process Example: penguin limb/whale flipper/fish fin The wings of insects, birds, pterosaurs, and bats all serve the same function and are similar in structure, but each evolved independently

CONVERGENT EVOLUTION CONVERGENT EVOLUTION ENT

EVOLUTIO N CONVERGENT EVOLUTION ocotillo (left) from the American Southwest, and in the allauidia (right) from Madagascar

CONVERGENT EVOLUTION Hummingbird Hawkmoth CONVERGENT EVOLUTION Similar body shapes and

structures have evolved in the North American cacti...and in the euphorbias in Southern Africa

COEVOLUTION The mutual evolutionary influence between two species When two species evolve in response to changes in each other They are closely connected to one another by ecological interactions (have a symbiotic

relationship) including: Predator/prey Parasite/host Plant/pollinator Each party exerts selective pressures on the other, thereby affecting each others' evolution

COEVOLUTION COEVOLUTION A fly and an orchid--can influence each other's evolution COEVOLUTION Bumblebees and the flowers the they pollinate

have co-evolved so that both have become dependent on each other for survival. COEVOLUTION Coevolution between the yucca moth and the yucca plant. (right) A female yucca moth pushing pollen into the stigma tube of the yucca flower

while visiting the flower to deposit her eggs. Yucca moth larvae (left) feeding on seeds in the yucca fruit. COEVOLUTION Clown Fish and Sea anemone

COEVOLUTION Praying Mantis simulates plant to protect itself from predators and eats pests that are attracted to and feed on the plant, so it protects the plant. COEVOLUTION Shrimp cleaning Titan triggerfish in Pacific Ocean

GRADUALISM The evolution of new species by gradual accumulation of small genetic changes over long periods of time Emphasizing slow and steady change in an organism

Occurs at a slow but constant rate Over a short period of time it is hard to notice GRADUALISM GRADUALISM

Current living zebras (top), extinct quaggas (bottom) GRADUALISM GRADUALISM PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM Stable periods of no change (genetic

equilibrium) interrupted by rapid changes involving many different lines of descent Opposite of gradualism It is rare, rapid events of branching speciation Characterized by long periods of virtual

standstill ("equilibrium"), "punctuated" by episodes of very fast development of new forms PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM Horseshoe crabs have change little since their first appearance in the fossil record.

They are in a state of equilibrium PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM

PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM GRADUALISM OR PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM Patterns of Macroevolution

Flow Chart Species that are Unrelated form in

Related under under Interrelationships Similar

environments Intense environmental pressure can undergo can undergo

can undergo Coevolution Convergent evolution Extinction

in Small populations in Different environments

can undergo can undergo Punctuated equilibrium Adaptive

radiation

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