Partner Discussion & Review

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Partner Discussion & Review How did the Fiume affair impact fascism? How did the fear of communism impact fascism?

What were the causes/effects of the March on Rome? Describe how Mussolini consolidated his power after he was appointed PM. How was Mussolinis totalitarian power challenged? How does this make him different than Hitler? Gabriele D'Annunzio & The Fiume Affair How did this impact fascism? Unrest in Italy = rise of communism

How did the fear of communism impact fascism? Vote for your country! By 1922.. Liberal democratic government was vulnerable They failed to win the peace settlement They could not contain growing violence They could not stabilize the economy They could not stop the general strike started by communists/nationalists

Fascists believed it was their time to take over! They are the only ones that could restore order! We must act fast. If the present regime is going to be superseded, we must be ready to take its place! (Mussolini) Causes & Effects: March on Rome http://www.britishpathe.com/video/march-on -rome https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cq2PUHGj3a8 Mussolinis Rise to Power:

1922 October 16: Mussolini meets with fascists and agree its time to seize power October 24: Fascist Congress declares intention to March on Rome October 27: Fascist military attempts to seize government buildings (increased fear) October 28: Government (PM) resigned; King sides with Mussolini October 29: King meets with Mussolini and appoints him PM Describe how Mussolini consolidated his power.

Mussolini consolidated his power by.. Combining nationalist and fascist parties Laws that increased their representation in Parliament Intimidation and violence

Political executions MPs withdrew in opposition Control the press Ban parties and trade unions Parliament increased executive powers Replace elected local officials with appointed ones Secret police increased arrest (permitted trial without jury & expanded death penalty) Fascist Youth Movement Hitler vs. Mussolini How was

Mussolinis power challenged? How is this different than Hitler? Homework: due Block #1!

To make Italy great, respected and feared Mussolini Mussolini did not take power with a clear set of foreign policy goals, but after 1925, he developed a plan of action which included nationalism, revision of post-WWI settlement, domination of the Mediterranean and spread fascism. Vision of Italy as the heir of Rome! To learn about how he attempts to accomplish these goals, read the rest of 2.1 (pgs. 97-104) BELLWORK: BLOCK 1 What was Mussolinis corporate state? Was it successful?

2. Describe two lessons learned by Mussolini after his actions in the Balkans (1923-24) 3. THINKER: Earlier in his rule, Mussolini negotiated with European powers, but that all changed in 1930.why? Why was this a turning point for his foreign policy? When you are finished, copy the mind map template on page 84. We will use this for review! 1. Life of Benito Mussolini: Il Duce

Mother was a Catholic school teacher and father was a socialist & involved in politics. Mussolini was rebellious and was expelled after a series of behaviorrelated incidents, including throwing stones at the congregation after Mass, stabbing a fellow student in the hand and throwing an inkpot at a teacher Heavily influenced by nationalist sentiment of Giuseppe Garibaldi (even made a speech at the anniversary of his death!)

Benito Mussolini: Il Duce In 1902, Mussolini moved to Switzerland to avoid military service. Here, he became very active in nationalist movements and

adopted his personal views (violence as a means of politics; and anti-democracy/capitalism) He became active in strikes and was even imprisoned for leading a violent strike in 1903 Deported back to Italy in 1909 and became a teacher

Benito Mussolini: Il Duce A man of Became active in the Italian Socialist Party and gained popularity in 1910 by writing his own anti-Italian government newspaper Began to lead riots & protests against the Italian war in Libya By 1911, he was the most

well-known socialist in Italy and had 100,000 followers After being expelled from the socialist party, Mussolini founded the Fascist movement. contradictions: Religion Military Politics Marriage Benito Mussolini: Il Duce

Following the March on Rome in October 1922 he became the 27th Prime Minister of Italy. Destroyed all political opposition through his secret police (blackshirts) Within five years he established complete control and transformed

the nation into a one-party dictatorship Mussolini remained in power until he was replaced in 1943 and died two years later. Review: Factors influencing Mussolinis Foreign Policy Divide the class into six groups Each group needs to review & re-teach how their assigned factor contributed to Mussolinis foreign policy As you present, add these notes onto the mind map. The factors: 1. Fascist ideology 2. Nationalist views

3. Earlier humiliations 4. International situation 5. Versailles settlement 6. Economic resources Are these examples of Mussolinis cooperation or aggression? (103) Locarno, 1925 Corfu, 1923 Fiume, 1924 Aiding revolutionary movements, 1924-29 Albania, 1926

Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928 Crushing of Libyan Revolt, 1922-28 Treaty of Friendship with Abyssinia, 1928 BELLWORK 4/11: DOCUMENT FUN 1. Source B (pg. 99) What negatively impacted Mussolinis foreign policy? 2. Source C (pg.99-100) List three reasons

why Mussolinis economic plans were unsuccessful. 3. Communication Skills (pg. 103) How does this source explain Mussolinis style and methods? 4. Source B (pg.104)What did Mussolini do Mussolini: Italys Nightmare https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L-tIaau9o4 IL DUCE!!!! INTRODUCTION TO THE ORIGINS OF

NAZISM Just like Italy, Germany was angered over the effects of WWI and the humiliating Treaty of Versailles. Both would become key factors in the rise of Nazism and Hitler. For homework, read about the beginning of Hitlers Rise: pages 111-117!

WARM-UP ACTIVITY: EA1 PRACTICE As you know, The Move to Global War is the focus of EA1. EA1 tests your content understanding and demonstration of historical skills through document analysis. To review What will you be asked to do in this assessment? To familiarize yourself with this assessment and practice historical skills, you will spend the first portion of todays class completing an outline for an EA1. Respond to the questions on the back of your gold worksheet. After you are finished, read pgs. 84-88 in the book.

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