Participative Leadership - The Citadel, The Military College ...

Participative Leadership Commandants Department Training 15 July 2015 Leadership Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it. (Dwight Eisenhower) Leadership is the ability to establish standards and manage a creative climate where people are self-motivated toward the mastery of long term constructive goals, in a participatory environment of mutual respect, compatible with personal values. (Mike Vance) Leadership is lifting a persons vision to higher sights, the

raising of a persons performance to a higher standard, the building of a personality beyond its normal limitations. (Peter Drucker) What is your definition? Leadership Leadership is a process by which an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Peter Northouse

What Leadership Is Not Coercion Although coercion is one of the specific kinds of power available to a leader, it is distinct from leadership. Coercion focuses on the leaders interest in his own goals and is seldom interested in the wants and needs of subordinates. Leadership, on the other hand, involves influencing a group toward a common goal.

What Leadership Is Not Management Leadership involves management and vice-versa, but they are different. Management reduces chaos in organizations and makes them run more effectively and efficiently. Management is about seeking order and stability; leadership is about seeking adaptive and constructive change.

Leadership Techniques There is no one best leadership technique Good leaders must have a command of several techniques and be able to match them to the particular needs of the situation What are some leadership techniques? Leadership Techniques Principled decisions informed by values Servant meets the subordinates legitimate needs Transactional.. tit for tat exchanges Transformational helps followers reach full potential

Leadership Techniques Authoritative Participative Delegative Subordinate Low Ability Medium High Subordinate Low Willingness Medium

High Participative Leadership The corps runs the corps. The corps leads and commands the corps. Participative Leadership Tools for TACs

Confirmation briefs Rehearsals In-progress Reviews After Action Reviews Close-ended systems Confirmation Brief The cadet receives a mission and does his own mission analysis. He then reports to the TAC for a commanders dialogue or confirmation brief. The cadet tells the TAC his restated mission, the tasks he considers necessary to train on in order to complete that mission, and any significant training or readiness issues such

as time or resources available. The purpose of the dialogue is for the cadet to gain guidance, gain support, and set expectations for developing his plan. How to Train, page 7 Confirmation Brief Examples After analyzing the most recent CPFT results, an athletic officer may have a dialogue with her TAC in which she identifies three cadets who are deficient or at-risk in push-ups and describes in general terms a push-up improvement plan to help them pass the next CPFT. The company commander has a dialogue with his TAC about his plan to prepare for an

upcoming SMI. Rehearsals Help leaders and subordinates understand the conduct of events and their responsibilities Help the organization synchronize training with times, places, logistics, and training support. Rehearsals Commanders and other leaders also use rehearsals to:

Ensure leaders and trainers understand training objectives. Identify shortcomings and deficiencies in the training plan. Instill confidence in the training plan. Suggest effective training techniques to subordinates. Identify and correct potential safety issues. Understand how trainers intend to evaluate the performance of individuals and organizations and whether they understand how to conduct effective after action reviews. Assess trainer competencies to conduct the training. Rehearsals Common types: Talk-through Walk-through

Full-dress The leader determines the appropriate type of rehearsal based on several factors including time and space available, his units readiness, and the complexity of the task. How to Train, page 17 Rehearsal Example There is an honor LTP scheduled in two weeks and the TAC conducts a rehearsal with the Honor Rep. In a talk-through, the Honor Rep would simply provide

an overview of the class and how hell conduct it. In a walk-through, hed flip through the slides on the TACs computer and make comments on each. In a full-scale, theyd go to the company classroom perhaps even with a few cadets to role-play the audience and the Honor rep would teach the entire class at full-combat speed. In-progress Reviews Allow the TAC to assess if the task is proceeding within her intent, or if she needs to intervene. A typical IPR lists each event in the preparation sequence and its planned date of

execution, who is responsible for it, and its current status. How to Train, page 14 IPR Example Planned Date of Execution 15-17 Feb 14 Feb 13 Feb 7-10 Feb 3 Feb Event

Conduct CPL Boards Make copies of score sheets and deliver to TAC Finalize Board Composition Knobs sign up for time slots Brief 4C on process Individual Responsible TAC

Admin Clerk 1SG 1SG 1SG Status (as of 8 Feb) Announced to company on 1 Feb Given WO on 5 Feb Gave WO to Jones, Smith, Harris, and Black on 8 Feb 23 out of 34 have signed up on 8 Feb

Completed 3 Feb After Action Reviews Serve as a guided analysis of an organizations performance, conducted at appropriate times during and at the conclusion of a training event or operation with the objective of improving future performance Provide opportunities for units to develop critical thinking in leaders Include a facilitator, event participants, and other observers Identify unit strengths to be sustained and weaknesses that need to improve Apply those observations, insights, and lessons to future training and operations to improve not only task proficiency, but also the quality of the training event.

After Action Reviews Are best conducted throughout a training exercise at appropriate times, rather than just at the end of the exercise, to allow cadets and their leaders to take immediate, in-stride corrective actions Are not critiques Are part of an open learning environment where facilitators, participants, and observers freely discuss successes and honest mistakes. Are included in continuity books to foster continuous growth

After Action Reviews Basic format: What was supposed to happen? What actually happened and why? How do we sustain good performance and improve less than optimal performance? How to Train, page 24 Written AARs often follow the Issue, Discussion, Recommendation format How to Train, page 25 Closed-loop Systems A system in which some or all of its output is used as its

input Creates the feedback necessary to achieve desired results On the other hand, open-loop systems are set up to achieve desired results, but there is no way of checking to see if that has actually happened Plan Assess Prep Execute - How to Train, page 4

Closed-loop Systems: MRI Cadets develop plan based on TAC guidance TAC issues guidance on how MRI will be conducted Cadets execute MRI according to plan Cadets give daily, weekly, and/or

monthly report to TAC Closed-loop Systems: Mentor Program Cadets develop plan based on TAC guidance TAC issues guidance on how mentor program will be conducted Cadets execute mentor program according to plan

Cadets give monthly, semester, and annual report to TAC Next Break up into Cadets Leading and Commanding the Corps Best Practices Working Groups Personnel Accountability MRI Physical Fitness Discipline Ad Hoc Taskers

Regimental Staff Operations Each group will determine a set of principles for how to put cadets leading and commanding the corps into action in the specific area assigned Ten minute oral briefing followed up with an email to everyone

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