Pan-Africanism and Independence Movements Standards
SS7H1 Analyze continuity and change in Africa. b. Explain how the Pan-African movement and nationalism led to independence in Kenya and Nigeria.
Pan- African Movement Colonization By the 20th century, European powers had
colonized the majority of Africa. The only independent countries were Liberia and Ethiopia. Liberia was founded in 1822 by former American slaves.
Nationalism Africans resented their unequal status and lack of political rights under European control. They wanted to take control of their own governments, land, and resources. Nationalism, a feeling of strong pride in ones own
country, began to sweep across Africa and fed the desire for independence from European rule. Pan-African An example of African nationalism was the Pan-African movement that began in the late 1800s.
The movement believed that all Africans shared a common heritage and should work together for their freedom. The Pan-African movements principles actually dated back to the slave trade era. The first Pan-African Congress occurred in 1900.
Pan-African Congress Delegates Pan-African By the end of World War II, four more meetings had occurred. The fifth Pan-African Congress counted in 90
delegates, including the future leaders of Kenya and Ghana. Eventually, the influence of the movement began to fade, but not before pushing the cause of nationalism forward.
Changes Africa began to change by the 1940s. The rule of tribal chiefs had weakened because of their links with colonial governments, thus limiting their ability to control people. An educated middle class that disliked colonial life
began to grow in the cities. Unrest The cost for European countries to maintain colonies was rising. By the second half of the century, unrest
arose throughout the continent and African nations fought to free themselves from European control. African Independenc
e Movements: Republic of Kenya Colonization
For hundreds of years, outsiders did not enter the region now known as Kenya because of the fierce warrior tribes that inhabited the area. Arab traders took control of Kenyas coast during the 1800s. Next came Germany and Great Britain, but by 1920,
the British were the only foreigners who remained. Colonization Under British rule, native Kenyans had to pay high taxes and did not have the same access to education and jobs that whites did.
The government also took land and gave it to British settlers and war veterans. Opposition Most Kenyans were upset by their loss of rights as landowners to the British.
They believed that their land was taken unfairly and opposition groups began to form. For several decades, small bands of armed resistance forces (guerillas) fought to
The Mau Mau was a secret society that believed force was the only way to win Kenyan rights and independence. Rebellion In 1956, there was a violent rebellion that
resulted in the deaths of thousands of Mau Mau fighters. Although the British army mostly defeated the guerillas, this movement gained a great deal of support among Kenyans.
Change The Mau Mau uprising had spread nationalism throughout Kenya. It showed the British that Africans would fight back and raised global awareness about the struggle for independence in
Kenya. Great Britain slowly began returning land Independence Kenyans were tired of being treated unfairly, and demanded to be free.
On December 12th, 1963, the British Empire granted Kenya its independence. Jomo Kenyatta was the most influential leader of the freedom movement in Kenya, Lancaster House Conference for Kenyas
Independence in 1963. Kenyatta Kenyatta was a leader of the Kenyan African National Union, and during his presidency, began a campaign called harambee, which is Swahili for
lets pull together. Under Kenyatta and his successor, Daniel arap Moi, the KNAU ran unopposed in elections until the 1990s. The country remains a multi-party state, but the reality is that the KNAU is in control of the
Jomo Kenyatta -- The first president and Today By the time of his death in 1978, Kenyatta had helped Kenya become one of the most stable
and economically dynamic countries in Africa. Even though there has been improvement in the political rights of Kenyas people, more is still needed as there is a great deal of corruption within the countrys government.
Federal Republic of Nigeria African Independenc
e Movements: Nigeria The country now known as Nigeria was a diverse region with more than 250 ethnic
groups. Nigeria had maintained its independence until 1914 when Great Britain took over the area. Nigerian Tribal Royalty late 1800s
Unrest The British government took land from the Nigerias tribes and controlled most of the countrys resources. This angered many Nigerians so they started political parties to work for independence.
Most Nigerians believed that the only way to have rights was to be completely free of European rule. Change At first, they protested peacefully. After World War II, more and more Nigerians
encouraged nationalism and demanded self-rule. Nationalism and the cause for independence from the British united the majority of Nigerias ethnic groups. Independence After many (mostly) peaceful protests, Great Britain
allowed Nigeria to elect its own government. On October 1st, 1960, Great Britain granted Nigeria independence and an independent government was established. At first, it was one of the most stable governments of the new African countries.
Nigerian Independence - 1960 Abubakar Tafawa Balewa Nigerias first prime minister. He was overthrown and murdered in a
Power Nigeria did not remain peaceful for long. Unfortunately, struggles for power between different ethnic groups have resulted in three military coups and a
civil war. Today Nigeria suffered from violence and military rule until 1999, when a democratic government was established.
In recent years, political instability, religious competition, ethnic differences and the need to become more modern continue to plague Nigeria. Nigerian
Soldiers Africa Today By 1966, all but six African countries were independent nation-states. Unfortunately, once the countries were independent of
European rule, they still faced many challenges. Many of the new governments were politically unstable. Africa Today European powers did not teach new leaders how to self-govern after granting
them independence. Ethnic groups continue to clash over political power in many African nations. In some African countries, military African Independence Dates
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