Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Part 1 Notes 11 Beginning Unit 4 Salt on icy roads can make driving safer, but the salt that clings to the metallic

parts of cars can cause them to corrode or rust relatively quickly. This corrosion is one example of a chemical reaction called oxidationreduction. You will learn about oxidation-reduction reactions.

A Bunsen burner oxidizes (uses oxygen) the methane in natural gas to form carbon dioxide and water. Carbon is oxidized when charcoal burns.

Not all substances that are oxidized involve burning. Iron is oxidized when it rusts. The substance gaining oxygen is oxidized, while the substance losing oxygen is reduced. These

reactions are called oxidation-reduction reactions and are also known as redox reactions. Not all redox reactions involve oxygen The definition NOW has been extended

Oxidation-Reduction Losing electrons is oxidation. Gaining electrons is reduction. Oxidation

is now defined to mean complete or partial loss of electrons or gain of oxygen. Reduction is now defined to mean complete or partial gain of electrons or

loss of oxygen. Redox Definitions Redox Reactions That Form Ions The substance that loses electrons is called the reducing agent.

The substance that accepts electrons is called the oxidizing agent. LEO and GER LEO:

Loss of Electrons = Oxidation GER: Gain of Electrons = Reduction Mnemonic Device Practice Hydrogen: is oxidized. (Reducing Agent) Oxygen: is reduced. (Oxidizing Agent)

Why? Must compare electronegativity of each. Redox With Covalent Compounds Different ways to recognize oxidation and reduction. Table 20.1 Page 635

What happens to iron when it corrodes? Iron, a common construction metal often used in the form of the alloy steel, corrodes by being

oxidized to ions of iron by oxygen. Corrosion Water in the environment accelerates corrosion.

The presence of salts and acids accelerates corrosion. Billions of Dollars spent every year trying to repair damage by corrosion Some

metals do not corrode easily hold tightly to their electrons. These are noble metals. (Gold, Platinum, etc.) Aluminum does not corrode easily. Forms an oxidized protective coating called

aluminum oxidized. Resisting Corrosion Painting a surface protects it from corrosion. Chromium metal also serves as a protective coating.

Other protective coating can include covering the metal with oil, paint, plastic, or another metal. Controlling Corrosion Zinc blocks attached to the

steel hull of this ship oxidize instead of the iron, preventing corrosion. One metal is sacrificed to corrode in order to save the second metal. The sacrifice metal must be a better reducing agent taking the place of the Iron. **See above.

Controlling Corrosion 1. Choose the correct words for the spaces. During oxidation, an element _______ electrons. During reduction, an element ________ electrons. gains, loses loses, gains

gains, donates gains, accepts 2. Choose the correct words for the spaces. During reduction, a substance may _______ oxygen or ________ hydrogen. gain, lose lose, gain gain, gain

lose, lose 3. The element that donates electrons in a redox reaction is called the reducing agent. This means the reducing agent is always the more active element. the less active element. oxidized. reduced.

4. Which substance is the reducing agent in the following chemical reaction? Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO2 Fe2O3 CO Fe CO2

5. The following equations describe the corrosion of iron to iron hydroxides in moist conditions. 2Fe(s) + O2(g) + 2H2O(l) 2Fe(OH)2(s) 4Fe(OH)2(s) + O2(g) + 2H2O(l) 4Fe(OH)3(s) What substances in the equations are being oxidized? Fe(s) and Fe(OH)2(s) the O2(g) in both reactions the O2(g) and H2O(l) in both reactions

Fe(OH)2(s) and Fe(OH)3(s) Unit 4 Homework Due Tuesday November 25.

If absent, turn it in BEFORE break. Sections Assessments for Ch. 20

Page 638, 643, and 654 Unit 4

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