Overview of General Biology A. B. C. D. E. Definition of science Inductive and deductive reasoning Experimental process Methods of data analysis Properties of living organisms
A. Definition of Science Science A way of understanding the physical universe Through observation and experiment Provides generalized explanations or models Makes predictions about how the universe works B. Inductive and Deductive
Reasoning Inductive reasoning Starting with specific observations of a phenomenon The scientist develops generalized explanations Deductive reasoning Starting with a possible explanation for a phenomenon The scientist tests the explanation through controlled experimentation C. Experimental Process 1. Develop a hypothesis and predictions
Hypothesis: A possible explanation for an observed phenomenon Prediction: A specific expected outcome or occurrence that depends upon the validity of a hypothesis C. Experimental Process 2. Design experiments to test the predictions
Experiment: controlled observations in which the scientist changes one condition (or variable) in a system and observes how the change affects other variables Independent variable (manipulated variable): what the scientist changes or manipulates Dependent variable (responding variable): what the scientist measures Controlled variables: variables that are kept
constant throughout the experiment C. Experimental Process 3. Collect and analyze data 4. Repeat experiments 5. Publish results D. Methods of Data Analysis Statistical testing Standard deviation Tests for significant deviation Regression analysis
Graphical analysis Graphs Maps and geographic information systems Data mining Hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) E. Properties of Living Organisms Hierarchical structural organization Molecular organization Atoms, small molecules, polymers Subcellular organization
Organelles Cells The simplest structure capable of having all of the properties of life Multicellular organization Tissues, organs, organ systems Ecosystem organization Populations, communities, biomes E. Properties of Living Organisms
Growth and metabolism The ability to assimilate nonliving matter and energy from the environment Response and adaptation to environmental conditions Reproduction Heredity Evolution
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