Ot Literature P&R 2010

COS 421 Bible IV Dr. Rodney K. Duke PROPHETIC LITERATURE C. 1. Obj.: Explore why and how prophetic words might have been recorded. (Case study) Speculate: a) (T) For what reasons, by whom, and in what form might this message have been preserved initially? How much would you expect the initial preservation to agree in form and content with what was literally spoken?

b) (T) For what reasons, by whom, and in what form would this account have been preserved for later generations? How much would you expect this later account to agree in form and content with the first account? c) (W) What would you as a modern audience need to do or find out in order to understand the message as fully as possible? What comparisons and contrast to this process would you expect to apply to the message of the biblical prophets? Point: Following generations must have believed that what happened had continuing meaning/application. They preserved the account.

C. 2. Obj.: Form an overview of OT Prophets and Prophecy. Prequestion (W): Define "prophet," and "prophecy" based on your own understanding. Read a Bible dictionary article on prophets, prophecy. (W) Explain how your definitions would change. If they would not change, what is something new that you learned? Prophetic Books: Difficulties (1 of 3) Factors which make them difficult to read: a) Not designed as "books" in modern sense. They are deposits

or collections of the messages and activities of prophets along with historical and biographical elements. b) Oracular style (poetic speeches) full of images and allusions difficult for modern audience to follow. c) The speeches were for specific occasions, the details of which are often lost; and were subsequently written for use by secondary audiences (i.e. they have been moved from an oral, specific context into a written more general context). It is difficult to reconstruct the original setting of the prophet's activities and speeches. (Like listening in to one half of a phone call.) Hello.

Prophetic Books: Difficulties (2 of 3) Hi Shawn. This is Pat. Hi, Pat. How're you doing? Well not too well at the moment. I was calling to ask how much mayonnaise goes on top of that 7-layer salad you told me about. But I had just cut my finger chopping up some celery and didnt realize until after I dialed your number that its bleeding pretty badly. Oh, that sounds bad. Do you think you will be able to stop the bleeding or

will you need stitches? I'm going to have to run to the sink and see if I can get this stopped. I hope I won't need any stitches. But first, how much mayonnaise do I need? Well then, as I recall you need to put 1/2 cup of mayonnaise on top of it. Thanks. Gotta run. Prophetic Books: Difficulties (3 of 3) d)

They have often been shaped by two processes: 1) the original ministry and message(s) of the prophet, and 2) the selective arranging process of later editors producing a "book" with a new form and message. It is now often difficult to reconstruct the process of development of a prophetic book into the final written form and get back to the original historical setting and original purpose. Apparently the community of faith was not interested in historical reconstruction as much as application! Issue of Predictive Prophecy

and the Dates/Unity/Genres of the Prophetic Books How did the New Testament Writers Read the Prophets? Main issue: Were the prophetic messages univalent (one meaning or application only) or polyvalent (more than one meaning or application)? Case illustration: Read Matthew 1:18-23 and Isaiah 7:13-16 in its context of the Syro-Ephraimitic War of 734 BCE. Does the prophetic word apply only to Isaiahs day? Does the prophetic word apply only to Matthews day? Does it apply somehow to both times? Discuss in groups/class

Other issues: a) young woman (almah) vs. virgin (bethulah) b) pesher interpretation at Qumran, leads to: Liberal position: NT writers violate sound interpretation Conservative position (7:14 must mean virgin) feud. Duke: Towards a Resolution Oral culture vs. written: power of the spoken word. I HATE you! Gods word is dynamic, living, efficacious. Therefore, the NT writers, inspired by God, had no

trouble seeing the prophet words as polyvalent. (Pesher interpretation: This which happened today, is that which was said by God through the prophets.) Issues of Isaiah Issue: One, two, or three Isaiahs? Apparent change of perspectives/settings from 1) 8th century events with the Assyrians to 2) an exilic perspective at (6th century, and fall of Babylonians to Persians, even naming Cyrus, 45:1) and then to 3) a post-exilic perspective (as if returned to Jerusalem) without any transitional guiding comments, although Chapt. 39 ends with foreshadowing of the rise of the Babylonian empire.

Interpretative issue: Are Chapt. 40-66 to be read as specific, univalent, predictive prophesy from the 8th century man Isaiah? How would/should we know? What were the Israelite genres and genre clues? Issues of Daniel Difficult to date! Found in DSS, so known by late 2nd century, but how much earlier? Charges of historical inaccuracies difficult to substantiate. Charges of late linguistic usage difficult to substantiate. Most difficult point: the visionary prophecies beginning with

Chapt 10 get more specifically accurate with events leading up to Antiochus Epiphanes (2nd century)! Result: some evidence supports early date, some a late date. Interpretive Issue: Are visionary prophecies to be read as specific, univalent, predictive prophecy? What clues? Possible Clues and Resolution We know NT writers applied inspired pesher interpretation to the Hebrew Bible regarding Jesus: That which was said back then is what has happened now. We know the Qumran community used pesher interpretation prior to the NT writers to apply earlier prophetic words to their specific time.

What if inspired pesher like interpretation was already going on within the Hebrew Bible, perhaps developing with the exilic and post-exilic Jews? [Interpretation occurs within the Bible. We can see how the Torah is being interpreted in some of the narratives up through Ezra-Nehemiah. We can see how 1-2 Chronicles retells the history of Israel in Joshua-Kings from a different perspective.] Duke: IF: The Words of God were seen as always vital and polyvalent (multiple applications), as supported by the preservation and transmission of the prophets, and

The ancient Israelites did not simply vest authority in the human author [this does develop later], as supported by the lack of attribution with many writings, THEN: Maybe we should not view this literature as univalent predictive prophecy, and Maybe we do not have to prove unity of authorship and date in order to support the Bibles authority. Isaiah Perhaps disciples of Isaiah saw how his prophetic words regarding the Assyrians and his foreshadowing of the rise of the Babylonians also came true with the fall of the

Babylonians, and applied and developed them in an early pesher like form of application. Daniel Perhaps early accounts and writings associated with the historical Daniel, specifically his vision of Chapt 4, were given our first developed pesher application in Chapt. 7-12 to the community suffering under the Seleucids. [Then, too, Daniel is presented as a sage, not a prophet. Should this work be received as wisdom literature?] [Brevard Childs: canonical criticism/reading, canonical theology]

Why Read the Prophets? (C. 3. Summarize what you learned about the prophets.) 1) Poetic value: Nahum 3:1-5 NIV Nahum 3:1-5a: Woe to the city of blood, full of lies, full of plunder, never without victims! 2 The crack of whips, the clatter of wheels, galloping horses and jolting chariots! 3 Charging cavalry, flashing swords and glittering spears! Many casualties, piles of dead, bodies without number, people stumbling over the corpses-- 4 all because of the wanton lust of a harlot, alluring, the mistress of sorceries, who enslaved nations by her prostitution and peoples by her witchcraft. 5

"I am against you," declares the LORD Almighty. Assyrian battle of Til-Tubal. Assignment #10 Obj.: Explore the prophetic literature. Read: Nahum. (W) Develop and write out any one main observation, question, reaction, or comment you have about this prophetic text. Do not retell the content. Responses? Issues Raised by Nahum

Why is God so "wrathful"? Why would a loving God punish anyone? Is God, as presented in the NT, more loving than God as presented in the OT? Battle of Til-Tuba How do you define "love"? Is it unloving to punish people for crimes? How do you define "righteous" and "just"? Is it just to ignore crimes people commit? Is a just God unloving and a loving God unjust? Is there a balance?

------------------------------------------------What is the story of the Book of Jonah about? Why was it included in the Hebrew canon? Does it balance Nahum? Why Read the Prophets? (C. 3. set a) 2) Insight into others' personal struggles with God: Isa 6, Jer 1, Ezek 1-2: call of these prophets, each felt unworthy, each faced with difficult task. Jeremiahs struggles with his calling (Laments) 2) Insight into others' personal struggles with God

NIV Jeremiah 20:7-18 O LORD, you deceived me, and I was deceived; you overpowered me and prevailed. I am ridiculed all day long; everyone mocks me. 8 Whenever I speak, I cry out proclaiming violence and destruction. So the word of the LORD has brought me insult and reproach all day long. 9 But if I say, "I will not mention him or speak any more in his name," his word is in my heart like a fire, a fire shut up in my bones. I am weary of holding it in; indeed, I cannot. 10 I hear many whispering, "Terror on every side! Report him! Let's report him!" All my friends are waiting for me to slip, saying, "Perhaps he will be deceived; then we will prevail over him and take our revenge on him."

NIV Jeremiah 20:7-18 cont. 11 But the LORD is with me like a mighty warrior; so my persecutors will stumble and not prevail. They will fail and be thoroughly disgraced; their dishonor will never be forgotten. 12 O LORD Almighty, you who examine the righteous and probe the heart and mind, let me see your vengeance upon them, for to you I have committed my cause. 13 Sing to the LORD! Give praise to the LORD! He rescues the life of the needy from the hands of the wicked. 14 Cursed be the day I was born! May the day my mother bore me not be blessed! 15 Cursed be the man who brought my father the news, who made him very glad, saying, "A child is born to you-- a

son!" 16 May that man be like the towns the LORD overthrew without pity. May he hear wailing in the morning, a battle cry at noon. 17 For he did not kill me in the womb, with my mother as my grave, her womb enlarged forever. 18 Why did I ever come out of the womb to see trouble and sorrow and to end my days in shame? C. 8. Obj.: Explore the life of a prophet. Case study on Jeremiah, Being A Prophet Why Read the Prophets? (C. 3. set b) 3) Call to morality and values (popular in 3rd world countries): Isa 1:10-20, Jer 2:1-13: called people to repentance, etc.

NIV Hosea 6:6 For I desire mercy, not sacrifice, and acknowledgment of God rather than burnt offerings. 3) Call to morality and values NIV Micah 6:1-8 Listen to what the LORD says: "Stand up, plead your case before the mountains; let the hills hear what you have to say. 2 Hear, O mountains, the LORD's accusation; listen, you everlasting foundations of the earth. For the LORD has a case against his people; he is lodging a charge against Israel. 3 "My people, what have I done to you? How have I burdened you? Answer me. 4 I brought you up out of Egypt and redeemed you from

the land of slavery. I sent Moses to lead you, also Aaron and Miriam. 5 My people, remember what Balak king of Moab counseled and what Balaam son of Beor answered. Remember your journey from Shittim to Gilgal, that you may know the righteous acts of the LORD." NIV Micah 6:1-8 cont. 6 With what shall I come before the LORD and bow down before the exalted God? Shall I come before him with burnt offerings, with calves a year old? 7 Will the LORD be pleased with thousands of rams, with ten thousand rivers of oil? Shall I offer my firstborn for my transgression, the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?

8 He has showed you, O man, what is good. And what does the LORD require of you? To act justly and to love mercy [chesed] and to walk humbly [carefully?] with your God. yh,(l{a/-~[i tk,l, [;nEc.h;w> ds,x,`^ tb;h]a;w> jP'v.mi tAf[]-~ai yKi Call to morality, based on Holiness of God in Isaiah: (1 of 5) NIV Isaiah 5:20-24 20 Woe to those who call evil good and good evil, who put darkness for light and light for darkness, who put bitter for sweet and sweet for bitter. 21 Woe to those who are wise in their own eyes and clever in their own sight. 22 Woe to those who are heroes at drinking wine and

champions at mixing drinks, 23 who acquit the guilty for a bribe, but deny justice to the innocent. 24 Therefore, as tongues of fire lick up straw and as dry grass sinks down in the flames, so their roots will decay and their flowers blow away like dust; for they have rejected the law of the LORD Almighty and spurned the word of the Holy One of Israel. Holiness of God in Isaiah: (2 of 5) NIV Isaiah 40:12-13 Who has measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, or with the breadth of his hand marked off the heavens? Who has held the dust of the earth in a basket, or weighed the mountains on the scales and the hills in a balance? 13 Who has understood the mind of the LORD, or instructed him as his

counselor? NIV Isaiah 40:25-28 "To whom will you compare me? Or who is my equal?" says the Holy One. 26 Lift your eyes and look to the heavens: Who created all these? He who brings out the starry host one by one, and calls them each by name. Because of his great power and mighty strength, not one of them is missing. 27 Why do you say, O Jacob, and complain, O Israel, "My way is hidden from the LORD; my cause is disregarded by my God"? 28 Do you not know? Have you not heard? The LORD is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth. He will not grow tired or weary, and his understanding no one can fathom. Holiness of God in Isaiah: (3 of 5)

NIV Isaiah 40:13-14 Who has understood the mind of the LORD, or instructed him as his counselor? 14 Whom did the LORD consult to enlighten him, and who taught him the right way? Who was it that taught him knowledge or showed him the path of understanding? NIV Isaiah 45:11-12 "This is what the LORD says-- the Holy One of Israel, and its Maker: Concerning things to come, do you question me about my children, or give me orders about the work of my hands? 12 It is I who made the earth and created mankind upon it. My own hands stretched out the heavens; I marshaled their starry hosts. Holiness of God in Isaiah: (4 of 5) NIV Isaiah 48:17-19 This is what the LORD says-- your Redeemer,

the Holy One of Israel: "I am the LORD your God, who teaches you what is best for you, who directs you in the way you should go. 18 If only you had paid attention to my commands, your peace would have been like a river, your righteousness like the waves of the sea. 19 Your descendants would have been like the sand, your children like its numberless grains; their name would never be cut off nor destroyed from before me. NIV Isaiah 55:8-9 "For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways," declares the LORD. 9 "As the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways and my thoughts than your thoughts. Holiness of God in Isaiah: (5 of 5)

Yet this same Holy One says: Come near to me and listen (48:16); I am the LORD, your God, who takes hold of your right hand and says to you, Do not fear: I will help you. (41:13); Your Maker is your husband (54:5); Why read prophets? (2 of 2) (C. 3. set c) 4) Hope for future: The prophets looked forward to a perfect time when God's rule would be established and all people would "know" God. 4) Hope for future

NIV Isaiah 11:1-9 A shoot will come up from the stump of Jesse; from his roots a Branch will bear fruit. 2 The Spirit of the LORD will rest on him-- the Spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the Spirit of counsel and of power, the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD-- 3 and he will delight in the fear of the LORD. He will not judge by what he sees with his eyes, or decide by what he hears with his ears; 4 but with righteousness he will judge the needy, with justice he will give decisions for the poor of the earth. He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth; with the breath of his lips he will slay the wicked. 5 Righteousness will be his belt and faithfulness the sash around his waist. NIV Isaiah 11:1-9

6 The wolf will live with the lamb, the leopard will lie down with the goat, the calf and the lion and the yearling together; and a little child will lead them. 7 The cow will feed with the bear, their young will lie down together, and the lion will eat straw like the ox. 8 The infant will play near the hole of the cobra, and the young child put his hand into the viper's nest. 9 They will neither harm nor destroy on all my holy mountain, for the earth will be full of the knowledge of the LORD as the waters cover the sea. 4) Hope for future NIV Jeremiah 31:31-34 "The time is coming," declares the LORD, "when I will make a

new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah. 32 It will not be like the covenant I made with their forefathers when I took them by the hand to lead them out of Egypt, because they broke my covenant, though I was a husband to them," declares the LORD. 33 "This is the covenant I will make with the house of Israel after that time," declares the LORD. "I will put my law in their minds and write it on their hearts. I will be their God, and they will be my people. 34 No longer will a man teach his neighbor, or a man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' because they will all know me, from the least of them to the greatest," declares the LORD. "For I will forgive their wickedness and will remember their sins no more."

Prophetic Orientation toward the Future? Classical Prophets Vs. Later Apocalyptic Prophets Classical Prophets often spoke of the immediate future General: people breaking covenant & need to turn back. Judgment: God has tried his people and announced the verdict, but still relents if they repent -- until Jeremiah, for instance, says it is too late. Promise of deliverance from enemies, if Israel obeys (SyroEphaimitic War) Classical Prophets looked to the unspecified or distant future Hope for an ideal King/Messiah Coming of an ideal age of Gods rule. Apocalyptic Literature (when Israel under foreign rule) Calls people to be faithful in the midst of oppression

Looks (visionary) into the future defeat of chaos/evil and the victory of God. Prophetic Orientation toward the Future? Classical Prophets Vs. Later Apocalyptic Prophets Issue: Was apocalyptic prophecy meant as a blueprint for the future? Duke: Universal human desire to find security in knowing details of The Plan: Is contrary to walking with God in trust. Is contrary to the main theme of apocalyptic literature that calls people to be faithful even if it costs them their lives. (Such literature is visionary.)

Is contrary to Jesus instructions simply to be prepared. ("But about that day or hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father. Mark 13:32 NIV). Has produced many historical examples of FAILED predictions about end-time events. Has led to (American) pop-Christian escapist philosophy about being snatched away from tribulations. Assignment #11 Obj.: Explore the nature of prophetic literature. a) Read Ezekiel 3:16-21; 14:12-23; ch 18; and 33:1-9. (See also Jer. 31:27-30 and Exodus 34:6-7.) (W) Write out

your reflection on what Ezekiel thought about his role as a prophet and what he thought about individual responsibility. b) Skim through the texts on Ezekiels symbolic activities (Section C. of Themes and Characteristics of Ezekiels Prophecy (handout, p. 36). Pick out one of those symbolic acts and (W) write out your reflection on what you think the message and impact would have been on Ezekiels audience. c) (T) Is there a place in the pulpit today for dramatic actions rather than sermons? C. 14. Study a prophetic book.

Any questions about the Prophets Research Form? Did it help? MESSAGES OF THE PROPHETS (1 of 2) Pre-Exilic God is active in and sovereign over history. God's ultimate rule would be established in the distant future. Called people to faithfulness, away from idolatry. Called people to righteous behavior (vs. meaningless ritual). "Day of the LORD" will bring judgment on Israel, not just the nations.

Called leaders (kings, priest, judges) into accountability. Called nation to depend on strength of God, not themselves or other nations. Judgment was coming unless there was repentance; finally, judgment was inevitable. Zion and the Temple were not invulnerable, God would abandon them in judgment. MESSAGES OF THE PROPHETS (2 of 2) Exilic God was still with the nation, even in exile. Called people to avoid idolatry and practice righteousness.

Promise of restoration, new covenant, nations would recognize God. Post-Exilic Called people and leaders to make God their priority, establish the cultic forms of worship and tithe. Assured people that God was working through their current leaders despite their lack of independence. Promise of restoration and ultimate rule of God. Assignment #12 Obj.: Explore the nature of the Book of Jonah. a) Read the book of Jonah and list (N) all of the unusual features (events, style, form, etc.) that you find,

particularly when you think about it in comparison with the prophetic literature. b) (T) Is Jonah prophetic literature? Why do you think Jonah was included in the Hebrew Bible/OT? What rhetorical functions does the book seem to have? c) (N) How would you describe the genre of the Book of Jonah? (Next slide) WHAT GENRE IS JONAH? (#13) Caution: The issue of genre is not determined by a conflict between world views. (E.g. Belief in demonic activity.) In an honest communication process, we give genre clues to signal

to our audience, whether we are speaking fictional or historical narrative. (E.g. Once upon a time. Barbourville, AP) (a) Are there unusual narrative features in Jonah, which might be genre clues? What? (b) Why was Jonah included in the canon? What seems to be the rhetorical intentions of Jonah? How do you think the Jewish audience was supposed to respond? (I have not been able to discover when the following tradition began, but Jonah is traditionally read on the Day of Atonement.) (c) Thoughts about the genre of Jonah? Duke: Personal note. Whether Jonah is based on a historical event or not, it

does not seem to have been composed and preserved merely for the sake of being an historical artifact. The emphasis on the bad guys repenting even the animals and the parable-like question at the end, seems to be there to lead the audience to self-critical reflection on matters such as: Gods universal concern for all people Israels call to be a light to the nations Israels own often negative response to the prophets Etc. APOCALYPTIC

LITERATURE Reading Scripture for Doctrine: Whenever one moves beyond clear, explicit teaching in Scripture: Straightforward, plain-language texts get priority. Figurative, metaphoric language is to be treated with caution. Must know background and its function. Apocalyptic/visionary literature calls for at best a flashing red light. Functions more for encouragement and reinforcing major principles than for specific doctrinal guidance. Which type do people often use for eschatology?!!

Daniel (1 of 5) Genre: apocalyptic, with narratives Nature of Apocalyptic: Setting: "underground" literature of oppressed people (primarily Jewish) for whom symbolic language is a "code" not to be understood by oppressors. Form: narrated accounts of visions and dreams, often with angelic interpretation; heavy use of symbolism: numbers and strange animals, many in fantasy forms rather than realistic forms. Function: set present struggle in light of cosmic, spiritual perspective and in light of ultimate victorious outcome, in order to

guide and encourage audience to be faithful. (Daniel 3:16-18) Main theses: God is in control of history; conditions will not improve in this age; one is to live faithfully until God ushers in Age to Come / Kingdom of God. Daniel (2 of 5) Interpretive Approaches to Book of Daniel [Revelation]: Preterist: focuses on original historical setting, what the text meant. Weakness: ignores what text "means" to community of faith. Historicist: interprets as forecast of course of history (up to time of interpreter). Weakness: very subjective, little agreement, tends to ignore what text meant. Futurist: reads as a guide book for events yet to come. Weakness:

ignores what text meant and what it means to contemporary community. Idealist: interprets as a timeless expression of basic principles regarding the activities of God and the community of faith. Weakness: sees no ultimate consummation of Kingdom of God in history. Daniel (3 of 5) Duke: Suggested "Blended" Approach: Typologico-historical: 1) Start with preterist perspective to ground symbolic language in its original setting, while 2) recognizing historicist perspective that text speaks of a real historical consummation of Kingdom of God, the pattern of which,

3) applies typologically (idealist) to the ongoing experiences of the community of faith. Daniel (4 of 5) Suggested Reading Tips/Strategies: 1) Read for overall story-line and message of the whole work. 2) Read each vision looking for the impact of the whole. Do not focus on and allegorize all of the details. 3) Explore allusions to other OT texts to get some control over the symbols and theological perspective. 4) Look for internal interpretation of images. 5) Recognize distinction between "oppression," which is the experience of the community of faith and "wrath," which is

judgment on the opponents of God. 6) Identify how events fit typologically with the current setting of the community of faith and look for the book's message for such situations today, but exercise great caution about reading as blueprint for specific historical events. Daniel (5 of 5) Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons ca. 139-200, said: [In regard to using the number 666 in the Book of Revelation to predict the person of the Antichrist] It is therefore more certain, and less hazardous, to await the fulfillment of the prophecy, than to be making surmises, and casting about for any names that may present themselves, inasmuch as

many names can be found possessing the number mentioned; and the same question will, after all, remain unsolved. Against Heresies, Book V. in The Ante-Nicene Fathers (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, reprinted 1973), vol. 1, xxx. 3, p.559. C. 16. Obj.: Reflect on the value of the prophetic literature for Christian faith and practice. (W) Based on the above assignments regarding the prophets, explain, as if speaking to a member of your congregation, why it is valuable for Christians to read and study the Old Testament prophets. Rev. 20:10-15. And the devil who had deceived them was

thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur, where the beast and the false prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever. 11 Then I saw a great white throne and the one who sat on it; the earth and the heaven fled from his presence, and no place was found for them. 12 And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. Also another book was opened, the book of life. And the dead were judged according to their works, as recorded in the books. 13 And the sea gave up the dead that were in it, Death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them, and all were judged according to what they had done. 14 Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire; 15 and

anyone whose name was not found written in the book of life was thrown into the lake of fire. (Rev 20:10-15 NRSV) And the devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur, where the beast and the false prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever. (Rev 20:10, NRSV) Background images (cultural or biblical) Lake of fire: heavenly scene, purifying, holy God (Dan 7:10) Devil and Beasts: fallen angels Angels were immortal, fiery beings [Jesus birth story] Angels could be confined in a lake of fire [1 Enoch] 10

------------------How could fire torment a being of fire? [NOT applied to humans!] torment origin: test to prove whether genuine or not; Perhaps sense = will never test as genuine (?) Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire; 15 and anyone whose name was not found written in the book of life was thrown into the lake of fire. (Rev 20:14-15, NRSV) 14 Background images (cultural or biblical)

Hades: a holding place for the dead (Sheol > Hades) Dualistic notion of soul = immortal person distinct from the body comes from Greek culture c. 5th cent B.C.E. Soul dwells in Hades until it transmigrates Tours of better and worse places in Hades Second death = final death (concept in Egypt and Mesopotamia) Book of Life = registry from which names could be blotted out (3:5) Humans: unlike angels & not immortal, would be consumed by fire [1 Enoch 90, opposite silence of Rev.]

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