On Editing and How to Think from the End

CS 3660 On Editing and How to Think from the End Thinking from the End What you do now in pre-production and production affects what you have later in post

Shoot as though youre going to edit Map it out now to make it work later A Brief History of Editing One scene, one shot-Lumiere Bros. 60 sec. camera

Multiple scenes, multiples shots--George Melies Trip to the Moon continuous in time (like theater) Simultaneous events-- Porters The Great Train Robbery

Parallel editing--D.W. Griffiths The Birth of a Nation; 1st feature Where Does Meaning Come From? Dziga Vertovs Man with the Movie Camera This experimental work aims at creating a truly international absolute language of cinema based on its total separation from the

language of theater and literature. --opening titles Russian Montage and the Kuleshov Effect Kuleshov edited a short film in which shots of an expressionless face of an actor were alternated with various other shots (a plate of soup, a girl, an old womans coffin) The film was shown to an audience who believed that the

expression on the actors face was different each time he appeared, depending on whether he was looking at the plate of soup, the girl, or the coffin--showing an expression of hunger, desire, or grief respectively Juxtaposition Kuleshov experiment, Hegelian dialectic, and the 3rd effect Thesis + Antithesis = Synthesis A+B=X Ex. Image of man + Image of bread = Hunger

Continuous Juxtaposition Example--WALL-E The standard Hollywood movie today has 5000 cuts. --Walter Murch The average shot length (ASL) for U.S. films released in 2007 was 2.5 seconds. Three Editing Philosophies 1.) Continuity Editing

The traditional Hollywood approach to editing that attempts to smooth over the inherent discontinuity of the editing process and to establish a logical coherence between shots Also called invisible editing

Three Editing Philosophies 2.) Montage Editing Not concerned with the depiction of a comprehensible spatial or temporal continuity The cuts between shots are more obvious, less fluid, and non-seamless

Meaning built by the juxtaposition of shots Three Editing Philosophies 3.) Realism or Miseen-Scene Few edits (long takes) with emphasis on composition and camera movement

Is it really realistic? No, we just call it that because Andre Bazin did. Examples Montage vs Mise-en-Scene Types of Cuts 1.) MATCH ON ACTION An edit where two views

of the same action are cut together at a point during the action Commonly used technique in continuity editing, especially in scenes with lots of action Types of Cuts 2.) JUMP CUT

An edit where there is a moment of discontinuity in an action A piece of the action is missing Abrupt jump from one similar shot to another

Types of Cuts 3.) CROSS CUT or PARALLEL CUT An edit where there are two or more actions taking place then cutting back and forth between them Usually involves two

separate scenes--may be happening simultaneously Types of Cuts 4.) GRAPHIC MATCH, or MATCH CUT A cut between two shots that have similar compositions, but different subjects

Types of Cuts 5.) MAGIC EDITS Flash/swish pan Actors block camera Object wipe Fade on camera Transitions Fade In/Fade Out--Transitions where picture eases in from , or out to black

Dissolves--Transitions where two pictures blend into each other for the length of the transition Wipe--Transitions where one image in some way pushes the other out of the frame. Irising, Blocking, Masking,

CGI--Variations on fades, wipes, and dissolves Example Layer Cake (2004) Editing Dialogue & the Master Shot Technique Shooting the entire scene from a wide shot and then

shooting progressively closer shots to cut in later Better for editing but less precise than knowing what you want to shoot and just shooting it Editing Rules 1.) 180 RULE The camera must stay

on one side of the actors so that they appear in opposite sides of the frame (because 2D space) Crossing the line causes disorientation http://www.youtube.com/watch?

v=HdyyuqmCW14 Reason to break rule? Creates confusion/action Editing Rules 2.) CHANGE SHOT SIZE/CHANGE ANGLE Substantial change in angle of camera or view allows for

matching action edit; avoids jump cut Also known as 30 rule Editing Rules 3.) SHOT/REVERSE SHOT Similar shot sizes complementing each other from one angle

and then the opposite or reverse angle Exchanges glances and often used for dialogue Note similar composition and eye-line match Editing Rules 4.) CLEAN ENTRANCES/EXITS Let subject

completely enter and/or exit the frame Once subject out of frame, they can be anywhere When entering, they can enter from anywhere

Long Takes & Mise-enscene Sequences One continuous shot that holds all the action within the frame Lessons from Cover Pacing Generally More action, more shots

Less action, fewer shots Know when to hold Examples Spy Game and Making Things Explode Trailerhttp://www.youtube.com/uumachinima A Day in the Life of a Turret The Dumb Man Gift Horse http://z-studios.com/films/gift-horse/ Ignis Solus Male Restroom Etiquette

More Info The Bare Bones Camera Course for Film and Video by Tom Schroeppel http://classes.yale.edu/film-analysis/ and click on Editing on left side bar

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