Observations on Gas Permeability Measurements under HPHT ...

Formate brines Some published milestones 2005 -2010 Saudi Aramco start using K formate to drill and complete (with ESS) in HPHT gas wells 2005 OMV Pakistan start using K formate to drill and complete (with ESS) in HPHT gas wells 2006 First MPD operation in Gravel pack Kvitebjrn with K/Cs with K formate formate designer brine in

fluid Statfjord B 2007 2008 Petrobras use K formate brine for open hole gravel packs in Manati field 2009 First of 12 completions in the Kashagan field with K/ Cs formate Totals West Franklin F9 well (204oC) perforated in K/Cs formate brine 2010

K/Cs formate brines used as well perforating fluids in 11 HPHT gas fields in UK North Sea : Dunbar, Shearwater, Elgin, Devenick , Braemar , Rhum, Judy , Glenelg , Kessog , Jura and West Franklin 1999-2011 Potassium formate from Addcon Saudi Aramco have been drilling HPHT gas wells with potassium formate brine since 2003 Potassium formate from Addcon Saudi Aramco use of formate brines, 2003-2009 7 deep gas fields 44 HPHT wells drilled 70,000 ft of reservoir drilled at high angle 90,000 bbl of brine recovered and re-used

Good synergy with ESS, also OHMS fracturing Potassium formate from Addcon Summary from Aramcos OTC paper 19801 Potassium formate from Addcon Pakistan - OMV use potassium formate brine for HPHT deep gas well drilling and completions Potassium formate from Addcon Extracts from OMVs SPE papers and SPE presentations note 1,700 psi overbalance, and 350oF Potassium formate from Addcon North Sea - K/Cs formate brines used as combined HPHT drill-in and completion fluids 33 development* wells drilled and completed in 7 HPHT offshore gas fields Huldra (6 ) Tune (4) Devenick (2) Kvitebjoern (8 O/B and 5 MPD) Valemon (1) Kristin (2) Drilled only Vega (5)

* Except Valemon (appraisal well) Mostly open hole stand-alone sand screen completions Potassium formate from Addcon Tune field HP/HT gas condensate reservoir drilled and completed with K formate brine, 2002 4 wells : 350-900 m horizontal reservoir sections. Open hole screen completions. Suspended for 6-12 months in formate brine after completion Potassium formate from Addcon Tune wells - Initial Clean-up Operators view (direct copy of slide) June 2003 Wells left for 6-12 months before clean-up Clean-up : 10 - 24 hours per well Well performance Qgas 1.2 3.6 MSm3/d PI 35 200 kSm3/d/bar Well length sensitive Well length [m MD] 0 100 200 300 400 500

600 700 800 900 1000 3350 3400 Depth [m TVD MSL] 3450 3500 3550 A-11AH A-12HT2 A-13H A-14H A-11 AH plugged back No indication of formation damage

3600 Match to ideal well flow simulations (Prosper) - no skin Indications of successful clean-up Before After SIWHP SIDHP SIWHP SIDHP Shut-in pressures bara bara bara bara Water samples during clean-up A-11 AH 169 388 A-12 T2H 175 487 414 510 Formate and CaCO3 particles A-13 H 395 514 412 512

Registered high-density liquid in separator A-14 H 192 492 406 509 Tracer results A-12 T2H non detectable A-13 H tracer indicating flow from lower reservoir first detected 5 sd after initial clean-up <-> doubled well productivity compared to initial flow data No processing problems Oseberg Field Center Potassium formate from Addcon Tune Production of recoverable gas and condensate reserves since 2003 (NPD data) Good early production from the 4 wells - No skin (no damage) - 12.4 million m3 gas /day - 23,000 bbl/day condensate Good sustained production - 90% of recoverable hydrocarbon reserves produced by end of Year 7 NPD current estimate of RR: - 18.3 billion m3 gas - 3.3 million bbl condensate Rapid and efficient drainage of the reservoir Potassium formate from Addcon Huldra field HPHT gas condensate reservoir drilled and completed with K/Cs formate brine, 2001

6 production wells 1-2 Darcy sandstone BHST: 147oC TVD : 3,900 m Hole angle : 45-55o Fluid density: SG1.89-1.96 230-343 m x 81/2 reservoir sections Open hole completions, 65/8 wire wrapped screens Lower completion in formate drilling fluid and upper completions in clear brine Potassium formate from Addcon Huldra Production of recoverable gas and condensate reserves since Nov 2001 (NPD data) Plateau production from first 3 wells - 10 million m3 gas /day - 30,000 bbl/day condensate

Good sustained production - 78% of recoverable gas and 89% of condensate produced by end of Year 7 - Despite rapid pressure decline..... NPD current estimate of RR: - 17.5 billion m3 gas - 5.1 million bbl condensate Rapid and efficient drainage of the reservoir Potassium formate from Addcon Kvitebjrn field HPHT gas condensate reservoir drilled and completed with K/Cs formate brine, 20042013 13 wells to date 8 O/B, 5 in MPD mode 100 mD sandstone BHST: 155oC TVD : 4,000 m Hole angle : 20-40o Fluid density: SG 2.02 for O/B 279-583 m x 81/2 reservoir sections 6 wells completed in open hole : 300-micron single wire-wrapped screens.

Remainder of wells cased and perforated Potassium formate from Addcon A few of the highlights from Kvitebjoern Fast completions and high well productivity Kvitebjoern well Completion time (days) A-4 17.5 A-5 17.8 A-15 14.8 A-10 15.9

A-6 12.7 * Operator comments after well testing (Q3 2004 ) * Fastest HPHT well completion in the North Sea Potassium formate from Addcon The target well PI was 51,000 Sm3/day/bar This target would have had a skin of 7 A skin of 0 would have given a PI of 100,000 THE WELL A-04 GAVE A PI OF 90,000 Sm3/day/bar (ANOTHER FANTASTIC PI) The Well PI was almost double the target Kvitebjrn Production of recoverable gas and condensate reserves since Oct 2004 (NPD data) Good production reported from first 7 wells in 2006 - 20 million m3 gas /day - 48,000 bbl/day condensate Good sustained production (end Y8) - 37 billion m3 gas - 17 million m3 of condensate - Produced 70% of original est. RR by end of 8th year NPD : Est. RR have been upgraded - 89 billion m3 gas (from 55) - 27 million m3 condensate (from 22)

Note : Shut down 15 months, Y3-5 - To slow reservoir pressure depletion - Repairs to export pipeline Potassium formate from Addcon Economic benefits of using formate brines SPE 130376 (2010): A Review of the Impact of the Use of Formate Brines on the Economics of Deep Gas Field Development Projects SPE 145562 (2011): Life Without Barite: Ten Years of Drilling Deep HPHT Gas Wells With Cesium Formate Brine Potassium formate from Addcon Economic benefits from using formate brines - Good well performance and recovery of reserves High production rates with low skin * We selected formate brine to minimise well control problems and maximise well productivity* * Quotes by Statoil relating to Kvitebjoern wells (SPE 105733) Potassium formate from Addcon

Economic benefits from using formate brines - More efficient and safer drilling Better/safer drilling environment saves rig-time costs Stable hole: see LWD vs. WL calipers in shale Elimination of well control* and stuck pipe incidents Good hydraulics, low ECD Good ROP in hard abrasive rocks * See next slide for details a remarkable record of zero well control incidents in all 15 HPHT drilling operations and 20 HPHT completion operations Potassium formate from Addcon Economic benefits from using formate brines - Improved well control and safety Elimination of barite and its sagging problems Elimination of oil-based fluids and their gas solubility problem Low solids brine Low ECD (SG 0.04-0.06) and swab pressures

Inhibition of hydrates Ready/rapid surface detection of well influx Elimination of hazardous zinc bromide brine Potassium formate from Addcon Economic benefits from using formate brines - More efficicient/faster completions - Drill-in and completing with formate brine allows open hole completion with screens - Clean well bores mean no tool/seal failures or blocked screens - Completion time 50% lower than wells drilled with OBM fastest HPHT completion operation ever performed in North Sea (12.7 days) Potassium formate from Addcon Economic benefits from using formate brines - Operational efficiencies Flow check fingerprint for a Huldra well

Duration of flow back (minutes) Fluid Gain (bbl) No differential sticking Pipe and casing running speeds are fast 30 0.8 Mud conditioning and flow-check times are short 15 0.56 20 0.44 30

0.56 Displacements simplified, sometimes eliminated Potassium formate from Addcon Economic benefits from using formate brines - Good reservoir definition if Cs present in fluid High density filtrate and no barite Filtrate Pe up to 259 barns/electron Unique Cs feature - makes filtrate invasion highly visible against formation Pe of 2-3 b/e LWD can see the filtrate moving (e.g. see the resistivity log on far right drill vs ream Good for defining permeable sands (see SAND-Flag on log right )

Consistent and reliable net reservoir definition from LWD and wireline Potassium formate from Addcon Economic benefits from using formate brines - Good reservoir imaging Highly conductive fluid Clear resistivity images Information provided: - structural dip - depositional environment - geological correlations Potassium formate from Addcon Formate brines Summary of economic benefits provided to users Formate brines tend to improve oil and gas field development economics by :

Reducing well delivery time and costs Improving well/operational safety and reducing risk Maximising well performance Providing more precise reservoir definition Potassium formate from Addcon Formate brines as packer fluids in GOM BHT (C) BHT (F) Start Date 8.6 KFo 149 300

1/2005 WC 165 A-8 8.6 KFo 149 300 1/2006 Devon WC 575 A-3 ST2 9.5 KFo 132 270 5/2005 WOG/Devon MO 862 #1 12.0 NaKFo 215

420 4/2005 5/2006 Well P&A H2O production G-3 in excellent condition BP/Apache HI A-5 #1 11.5 NaKFo 164 350 2/2002 4/2008 Well P&A - Natural depletion S13Cr in excellent condition ExxonMobil MO 822 #7 12.0 NaKFo

215 420 2001 EPL ST 42 #1 11.5 NaKFo 133 272 2006 EPL ST 41 #F1 13.0 NaKFo 105 222 2006 EPL

EC 109 A-5 11.5 NaKFo 121 250 2006 EPL ST 42 #2 12.8 NaKFo 132 270 2006 Dominion WC 72 #3 BP1 10.0 NaFo 121 250

2006 EPL WC 98 A-3 ST1 12.7 NaKFo 153 307 2006 EPL WC 98 A-3 10.8 NaKFo 154 310 2007 OPERATOR LOCATION Devon

WC 165 A-7 Devon Potassium formate from Addcon Packer Fluid (ppg) End Date Comments BP High Island Na/K formate brine as packer fluid for 6 years 177C, 14,000 psi Well worked over and recompleted with Cs formate 1.4 g/cm3 Na/K formate used as packer fluid

Tubing retrieved 6 years later Tubing was in excellent condition. S13Cr tubing failed from CaCl2 packer fluid Potassium formate from Addcon

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