s t n a Pl r e w Rad o P r a ioa e l c u ct i v N eD atin g Nuclear Chemistry elp treating certain cancers
Radioactive Tracers Nuclear Chemistry *Nuclear Chemistry involves changes inNUCLEUS the__________ When the atomic nucleus of 1 *Transmutation element __________________________________ is changed into the nucleus of a different element _____________________________________________ The ratio of protons to neutrons *Stability of Nuclei_____________________________ determines the stability of a given nucleus. _____________________________________________ *Should be between equal numbers of protons and neutrons to 2x protons as neutrons **Nuclei above atomic # 83 are unstable** Radioisotopes- Unstable nuclei spontaneously decay to form products that are more stable
They Emit (give off) radiation in the Symbol following forms: Largest and least able to penetrate *Alpha Particles: or *Beta Particles: or *Positron or *Gamma Radiation Penetrating Power Smaller, can be stopped by a few mm of Al foil
Not a particle, highest Penetrating power Penetrating Power Check Table O and N for info on these types of problems Radioactive Decay Examples: 222 Alpha Decay:226Ra Rn 2 86 88 Beta Decay: 4 Pb
Alpha Particle He Bi e 214 214 0 82 83 -1 Positron Emission: 37 K
19 37 18 Ar Beta Particle 0 e Positron +1 Law of conservation of mass and charge: Mass and charge can not be created or destroyed, what is on one side of the reaction MUST equal what is on the other side. Types of Transmutations Natural Transmutation: ____________________________ Occurs naturally. Alpha,
Beta and Positron emission. ___________________________________________ Artificial Transmutation: _____________________________ When we bombard a nucleus ____________________________________________________ With high energy particles to bring about a change. Collide a charged particle (proton or ) Type 1: _____________________________________ with a target nucleus _____________________________________ A neutron collides with a target Type 2: ___________________________________ nucleus Natural vs Artificial Transmutation Examples: Natural Artificial **Single Reactant** Decay 43
Sc 21 14 6 C **2 Reactants** 14 43 Ca 20 14 7 N 7 N He
4 He 2 Al 4 27 2 13 17 O 8 30 15 1 H
1 P 1 n 0 Fission A reaction involving the SPLITTING of *Fission: __________________________________________ a heavy nucleus to produce a lighter one. ___________________________________________________ captures (collides *The nucleus of a heavy atom with) ____________________ a Neutron = unstable, so it splits 2 middle weight nuclei ___________________________________________ *The be ________________________ + product
neutronswill + energy Radioactive ___________________________________ *These products will be ______________ Fission Nuclear Power Plant Fission Reaction Fusion reaction involving the COMBINING *Fusion: A ______________________________________ of light nuclei to produce a heavier nucleus _____________________________________________ a HUGE amount of energy * Produces _____________________________ not as radioactive *Products are ___________________________ the sun and takes theHydrogen *Fusion occursin ___________ _________ nuclei and converts it toHelium _________ with the aid of a
lot of energy and high pressure. Matter to Energy Conversion of matter to energy: There is NO loss of mass in there nuclear reactions but a conversion of very little matter into a great deal of energy!!! Half Life *Radioactive substances decay at a constant rate= Half Life __________ Pressure Temperature and ________________ Concentration __________, _______________ Does NOT affect the half life period!!!!!!!! time it takes for of the atoms in a Half Life: The ____________________________________________ Given sample of an element to decay. _____________________________________________________ **The shorter the half life, the ________________________ Less stable the isotope is.
Half Life 50 g C14 1 half life 25 g C 14 1 half 12.5 g life C14 1 half life C14 (1 half life)
5,730y (2 half lives) 11,460y 6.25 g (3 half lives) 17,190y How to Calculate a Half Life Problem Divide them and get the Number of Half Lives *If given 2 times: ____________________________________________ Start with the larger mass and keep cutting *If given 2 masses: __________________________________________ it in half until you get to the smaller mass in the problem. _____________________________________________________________ (The number of times you cut it in half is the number of half *If there is only 1 mass and 1 time in the problem : lives.) Look at table N for another time (half life if specific isotope) (Then follow the rule for 2 times given)
_____________________________________________________ ***Always find out how many half lives you are dealing with before you do anything else.*** Example: Part A *Cr-51 has a half life of 28 days. What fraction will remain after 168 days? Answer: 168d = 28d 6 half lives xxxxx= 1hl 1hl 1hl 1hl 1hl
1hl 1/64 Continuation of last problem Part B If the original mass of Chromium-51 was 52g, what mass will remain after 168 days? (use info from last problem) Answer: Use the info of 6 half lives from last part. 1hl 1hl 52g 26g 1hl 13g 1hl 6.5g 1hl
3.25g 1hl 1.625g .813g Hint: When you are given an amount and asked to back track to the original amount.. (how much was in the original) =Multiply by 2 Hint: When you are given an amount and asked how much will be left after X amount of time (total mass remaining) = cut in half Uses for Radioisotopes I 131 Detection and treatment of thyroid conditions. *Patients are given small amounts and then a radiogram can be used to help diagnose a disorder. *Large doses will accumulate in the thyroid to destroy some of it to reduce the production of thyroxin.
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