Nomenclature - Chemistry Geek

Chemistry 1: Chapter 9 Chemistry 1 Honors: Chapter 4 ICP: Chapter 20 PO43phosphate ion Nomenclature HC2H3O2 Acetic Acid C2H3O2acetate ion SAVE PAPER AND INK!!! When you print out the notes on PowerPoint, print "Handouts" instead of

"Slides" in the print setup. Also, turn off the backgrounds (Tools>Options>Print>UNcheck "Background Printing")! Forms of Chemical Bonds Most bonds are somewhere in between ionic and covalent. There are 3 forms bonding atoms:

Ioniccomplete transfer of 1 or more electrons from one atom to another (one loses, the other gains) Covalentsome valence electrons shared between atoms _________ holds atoms of a metal together Common Names A lot of chemicals have common names as well as the proper IUPAC name. Chemicals that should always be

named by common name and never named by the IUPAC method are: H2O water, not dihydrogen monoxide NH3 ammonia, not nitrogen trihydride COMPOUND S FORMED FROM IONS CATION CATION ++ ANION

ANION ---> ---> COMPOUND COMPOUND Na+ + Cl- --> NaCl A Aneutral neutral compound compound requires requires equal equal number

number of of ++ and and -- charges. charges. Predicting Charges on Monatomic Ions KNOW THESE !!!! +1 +2 -3 -2 -1 Cd+2 0

Properties Properties of of Ionic Ionic Compounds Compounds Forming Forming NaCl NaCl from from Na Na and and Cl Cl22 A metal atom can transfer an electron

to a nonmetal. The resulting cation and anion are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces. IONIC COMPOUNDS NH4+ Cl- ammonium chloride, NH4Cl Some Ionic Compounds

Ca2+ + 2 F- ---> CaF2 Mg2+ + N-3 ----> Mg3N2 magnesium nitride Sn4+ + O2- ----> SnO2 Tin (IV) oxide calcium fluoride Formulas of Ionic Compounds Formulas of ionic compounds are determined from the charges on the ions atoms

Na + ions F : Na+ : F : NaF sodium + fluorine Charge balance:

sodium fluoride 1+ 1- formula = 0 Monatomic Ions Writing a Formula Write the formula for the ionic compound that will form between Ba2+ and Cl. Solution: 1. Balance charge with + and ions

2. Write the positive ion of metal first, and the negative ion Ba2+ Cl Cl 3. Write the number of ions needed as subscripts BaCl2 Learning Check Write the correct formula for the

compounds containing the following ions: 1. Na+, S2a) NaS b) Na2S c) NaS2 2. Al3+, Cla) AlCl3 b) AlCl c) Al3Cl 3. Mg2+, N3a) MgN b) Mg2N3 c) Mg3N2

Solution 1. Na+, S2b) Na2S 2. Al3+, Cla) AlCl3 3. Mg2+, N3c) Mg3N2 Naming Compounds Binary Ionic Compounds: 1. Cation first, then anion 2. Monatomic cation = name of the element Ca2+ = calcium ion 3. Monatomic anion = root + -ide Cl = chloride CaCl2 = calcium chloride

Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Examples: NaCl ZnI2 sodium chloride Al2O3 zinc iodide aluminum oxide Learning Check Complete the names of the following binary compounds:

Na3N sodium ________________ KBr potassium ________________ Al2O3 aluminum ________________ MgS _________________________ Transition Metals

Elements that can have more than one possible charge MUST have a Roman Numeral to indicate the charge on the individual ion. 1+ or 2+ 2+ or 3+ Cu+, Cu2+ Fe2+, Fe3+ copper(I) ion iron(II) ion copper (II) ion iron(III) ion Names of Variable Ions These elements REQUIRE Roman Numerals

because they can have more than one possible charge: anything except Group 1A, 2A, Ag, Zn, Cd, and Al (You should already know the charges on these!) Or another way to say it is: Transition metals and the metals in groups 4A and 5A (except Ag, Zn, Cd, and Al) require a Roman Numeral. FeCl3 CuCl SnF4 PbCl2 Fe2S3 (Fe3+) iron (III) chloride (Cu+ ) copper (I) chloride

(Sn4+) tin (IV) fluoride (Pb2+) lead (II) chloride (Fe3+)iron (III) sulfide Examples of Older Names of Cations formed from Transition Metals (you do not have to memorize these) Learning Check Complete the names of the following binary compounds with variable metal ions: FeBr2 iron (_____) bromide

CuCl copper (_____) chloride SnO2 ___(_____ ) ______________ Fe2O3 ________________________ Hg2S ________________________

Polyatomic Ions NO3nitrate ion NO2nitrite ion Polyatomic Ions You can make additional polyatomic ions by adding a H+ to the ion! CO3 -2 is carbonate HCO3 is hydrogen carbonate H2PO4 is dihydrogen phosphate HSO4 is hydrogen sulfate

Ternary Ionic Nomenclature Writing Formulas Write each ion, cation first. Dont show charges in the final formula. Overall charge must equal zero. If charges cancel, just write symbols. If not, use subscripts to balance charges. Use parentheses to show more than one of a particular polyatomic ion. Use Roman numerals indicate the ions charge when needed (stock system) Ternary Ionic Nomenclature Sodium Sulfate

Na+ and SO4 -2 Na2SO4 Iron (III) hydroxide Fe+3 and OHFe(OH)3 Ammonium carbonate NH4+ and CO3 2 (NH4)2CO3 Learning Check 1. aluminum nitrate a) AlNO3 b) Al(NO)3 c) Al(NO3)3

2. copper(II) nitrate a) CuNO3 b) Cu(NO3)2 c) Cu2(NO3) 3. Iron (III) hydroxide a) FeOH b) Fe3OH c) Fe(OH)3 4. Tin(IV) hydroxide a) Sn(OH)4 b) Sn(OH)2 c) Sn4(OH)

Naming Ternary Compounds Contains at least 3 elements There MUST be at least one polyatomic ion (it helps to circle the ions) Examples: NaNO3 Sodium nitrate K2SO4 Potassium sulfate Al(HCO3)3 Aluminum bicarbonate or Aluminum hydrogen carbonate

Learning Check Match each set with the correct name: 1. Na2CO3 a) magnesium sulfite 2. MgSO3 b) magnesium sulfate MgSO4 c) sodium carbonate

Ca(HCO3)2 CaCO3 Ca3(PO4)2 a) calcium carbonate b) calcium phosphate c) calcium bicarbonate Mixed Practice! Name the following: 1. Na2O 2. CaCO3 3. PbS2 4. Sn3N2 5. Cu3PO4

6. HgF2 Mixed Up The Other Way Write the formula: 1. Copper (II) chlorate 2. Calcium nitride 3. Aluminum carbonate 4. Potassium bromide 5. Barium fluoride 6. Cesium hydroxide Naming Molecular Compounds CO2 Carbon dioxide

CH4 methane BCl3 boron trichloride All are formed from two or more nonmetals. Ionic compounds generally involve a metal and nonmetal (NaCl)

Molecular (Covalent) Nomenclature for two nonmetals Prefix System (binary compounds) 1. Less electronegative atom comes first. 2. Add prefixes to indicate # of atoms. Omit mono- prefix on the FIRST element. Mono- is OPTIONAL on the SECOND element (in this class, its NOT optional!). 3. Change the ending of the second element to -ide. Molecular Nomenclature Prefixes PREFIX

monoditritetrapentahexaheptaoctanonadeca- NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Molecular Nomenclature: Examples

CCl4 carbon tetrachloride N2O dinitrogen monoxide SF6 sulfur hexafluoride More Molecular Examples arsenic trichloride AsCl3

dinitrogen pentoxide N2O5 tetraphosphorus decoxide P4O10 Learning Check Fill in the blanks to complete the following names of covalent compounds. CO carbon ______oxide CO2

carbon _______________ PCl3 phosphorus _______chloride CCl4 carbon ________chloride N2O _____nitrogen _____oxide Learning Check

1. P2O5 a) phosphorus oxide b) phosphorus pentoxide c) diphosphorus pentoxide 2. Cl2O7 a) dichlorine heptoxide b) dichlorine oxide c) chlorine heptoxide

3. Cl2 a) chlorine b) dichlorine c) dichloride Overall strategy for naming chemical compounds. A flow chart for naming binary compounds. Mixed Review

Name the following compounds: 1. CaO a) calcium oxide b) calcium(I) oxide c) calcium (II) oxide 2. SnCl4 a) tin tetrachloride c) tin(IV) chloride 3. N2O3

a) nitrogen oxide c) nitrogen trioxide b) tin(II) chloride b) dinitrogen trioxide Solution Name the following compounds: 1. CaO a) calcium oxide

2. SnCl4 c) tin(IV) chloride 3. N2O3 b) Dinitrogen trioxide Mixed Practice 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Dinitrogen monoxide Potassium sulfide Copper (II) nitrate Dichlorine heptoxide Chromium (III) sulfate Iron (III) sulfite

Calcium oxide Barium carbonate Iodine monochloride Mixed Practice 1. BaI2 2. P4S3 3. Ca(OH)2 4. FeCO3 5. Na2Cr2O7 6. I2O5 7. Cu(ClO4)2 8. CS2 9. B2Cl4

Acid Nomenclature Acids Compounds that form H+ in water. Formulas usually begin with H. In order to be an acid instead of a gas, binary acids must be aqueous (dissolved in water) Ternary acids are ALL aqueous Examples: HCl (aq) hydrochloric acid HNO3 nitric acid H2SO4 sulfuric acid Acid Nomenclature Review Anion

Ending No Oxygen w/Oxygen Acid Name -ide hydro-(stem)-ic acid -ate (stem)-ic acid

-ite (stem)-ous acid An easy way to remember which goes with which In the cafeteria, you ATE something ICky Acid Nomenclature Flowchart A C ID S s t a r t w i t h 'H ' 2 e le m e n t s 3 e le m e n t s h y d r o - p r e fix

- ic e n d in g n o h y d r o - p r e fix - a t e e n d in g becom es - ic e n d in g - it e e n d in g becom es - o u s e n d in g Acid Nomenclature HBr (aq) No oxygen, -ide

hydrobromic acid carbonic acid sulfurous acid H2CO3 Has oxygen, -ate

H2SO3 Has oxygen, -ite Acid Nomenclature hydrofluoric acid 2 elements H+ F- HF (aq) H+ SO42- H2SO4

H+ NO2- HNO2 sulfuric acid 3 elements, -ic nitrous acid 3 elements, -ous Name Em! HI (aq) HCl H2SO3

HNO3 HIO4 Write the Formula! Hydrobromic acid Nitrous acid Carbonic acid Phosphoric acid Hydrotelluric acid Nomenclature Summary Flowchart Now its Study Time DONE

Rainbow Matrix Game Link on Chemistry on Chemistry I page Use [ ] to represent subscripts since you cant enter subscripts into the computer So H2O would be H[2]O And Al2(SO4)3 would be Al[2](SO[4])[3] Additional Polyatomic Ions (you do not have to memorize these, but they are in the game!) Borate = BO3 -3 ; Silicate = SiO4 -4 ; Manganate = MnO4 -2 (permanganate is -1)

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