Chemistry 1: Chapter 9 Chemistry 1 Honors: Chapter 4 ICP: Chapter 20 PO43phosphate ion Nomenclature HC2H3O2 Acetic Acid C2H3O2acetate ion SAVE PAPER AND INK!!! When you print out the notes on PowerPoint, print "Handouts" instead of
"Slides" in the print setup. Also, turn off the backgrounds (Tools>Options>Print>UNcheck "Background Printing")! Forms of Chemical Bonds Most bonds are somewhere in between ionic and covalent. There are 3 forms bonding atoms:
Ioniccomplete transfer of 1 or more electrons from one atom to another (one loses, the other gains) Covalentsome valence electrons shared between atoms _________ holds atoms of a metal together Common Names A lot of chemicals have common names as well as the proper IUPAC name. Chemicals that should always be
named by common name and never named by the IUPAC method are: H2O water, not dihydrogen monoxide NH3 ammonia, not nitrogen trihydride COMPOUND S FORMED FROM IONS CATION CATION ++ ANION
ANION ---> ---> COMPOUND COMPOUND Na+ + Cl- --> NaCl A Aneutral neutral compound compound requires requires equal equal number
number of of ++ and and -- charges. charges. Predicting Charges on Monatomic Ions KNOW THESE !!!! +1 +2 -3 -2 -1 Cd+2 0
Properties Properties of of Ionic Ionic Compounds Compounds Forming Forming NaCl NaCl from from Na Na and and Cl Cl22 A metal atom can transfer an electron
to a nonmetal. The resulting cation and anion are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces. IONIC COMPOUNDS NH4+ Cl- ammonium chloride, NH4Cl Some Ionic Compounds
Ca2+ + 2 F- ---> CaF2 Mg2+ + N-3 ----> Mg3N2 magnesium nitride Sn4+ + O2- ----> SnO2 Tin (IV) oxide calcium fluoride Formulas of Ionic Compounds Formulas of ionic compounds are determined from the charges on the ions atoms
Na + ions F : Na+ : F : NaF sodium + fluorine Charge balance:
sodium fluoride 1+ 1- formula = 0 Monatomic Ions Writing a Formula Write the formula for the ionic compound that will form between Ba2+ and Cl. Solution: 1. Balance charge with + and ions
2. Write the positive ion of metal first, and the negative ion Ba2+ Cl Cl 3. Write the number of ions needed as subscripts BaCl2 Learning Check Write the correct formula for the
compounds containing the following ions: 1. Na+, S2a) NaS b) Na2S c) NaS2 2. Al3+, Cla) AlCl3 b) AlCl c) Al3Cl 3. Mg2+, N3a) MgN b) Mg2N3 c) Mg3N2
Solution 1. Na+, S2b) Na2S 2. Al3+, Cla) AlCl3 3. Mg2+, N3c) Mg3N2 Naming Compounds Binary Ionic Compounds: 1. Cation first, then anion 2. Monatomic cation = name of the element Ca2+ = calcium ion 3. Monatomic anion = root + -ide Cl = chloride CaCl2 = calcium chloride
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Examples: NaCl ZnI2 sodium chloride Al2O3 zinc iodide aluminum oxide Learning Check Complete the names of the following binary compounds:
Elements that can have more than one possible charge MUST have a Roman Numeral to indicate the charge on the individual ion. 1+ or 2+ 2+ or 3+ Cu+, Cu2+ Fe2+, Fe3+ copper(I) ion iron(II) ion copper (II) ion iron(III) ion Names of Variable Ions These elements REQUIRE Roman Numerals
because they can have more than one possible charge: anything except Group 1A, 2A, Ag, Zn, Cd, and Al (You should already know the charges on these!) Or another way to say it is: Transition metals and the metals in groups 4A and 5A (except Ag, Zn, Cd, and Al) require a Roman Numeral. FeCl3 CuCl SnF4 PbCl2 Fe2S3 (Fe3+) iron (III) chloride (Cu+ ) copper (I) chloride
(Sn4+) tin (IV) fluoride (Pb2+) lead (II) chloride (Fe3+)iron (III) sulfide Examples of Older Names of Cations formed from Transition Metals (you do not have to memorize these) Learning Check Complete the names of the following binary compounds with variable metal ions: FeBr2 iron (_____) bromide
Polyatomic Ions NO3nitrate ion NO2nitrite ion Polyatomic Ions You can make additional polyatomic ions by adding a H+ to the ion! CO3 -2 is carbonate HCO3 is hydrogen carbonate H2PO4 is dihydrogen phosphate HSO4 is hydrogen sulfate
Ternary Ionic Nomenclature Writing Formulas Write each ion, cation first. Dont show charges in the final formula. Overall charge must equal zero. If charges cancel, just write symbols. If not, use subscripts to balance charges. Use parentheses to show more than one of a particular polyatomic ion. Use Roman numerals indicate the ions charge when needed (stock system) Ternary Ionic Nomenclature Sodium Sulfate
Na+ and SO4 -2 Na2SO4 Iron (III) hydroxide Fe+3 and OHFe(OH)3 Ammonium carbonate NH4+ and CO3 2 (NH4)2CO3 Learning Check 1. aluminum nitrate a) AlNO3 b) Al(NO)3 c) Al(NO3)3
2. copper(II) nitrate a) CuNO3 b) Cu(NO3)2 c) Cu2(NO3) 3. Iron (III) hydroxide a) FeOH b) Fe3OH c) Fe(OH)3 4. Tin(IV) hydroxide a) Sn(OH)4 b) Sn(OH)2 c) Sn4(OH)
Naming Ternary Compounds Contains at least 3 elements There MUST be at least one polyatomic ion (it helps to circle the ions) Examples: NaNO3 Sodium nitrate K2SO4 Potassium sulfate Al(HCO3)3 Aluminum bicarbonate or Aluminum hydrogen carbonate
Learning Check Match each set with the correct name: 1. Na2CO3 a) magnesium sulfite 2. MgSO3 b) magnesium sulfate MgSO4 c) sodium carbonate
Ca(HCO3)2 CaCO3 Ca3(PO4)2 a) calcium carbonate b) calcium phosphate c) calcium bicarbonate Mixed Practice! Name the following: 1. Na2O 2. CaCO3 3. PbS2 4. Sn3N2 5. Cu3PO4
6. HgF2 Mixed Up The Other Way Write the formula: 1. Copper (II) chlorate 2. Calcium nitride 3. Aluminum carbonate 4. Potassium bromide 5. Barium fluoride 6. Cesium hydroxide Naming Molecular Compounds CO2 Carbon dioxide
CH4 methane BCl3 boron trichloride All are formed from two or more nonmetals. Ionic compounds generally involve a metal and nonmetal (NaCl)
Molecular (Covalent) Nomenclature for two nonmetals Prefix System (binary compounds) 1. Less electronegative atom comes first. 2. Add prefixes to indicate # of atoms. Omit mono- prefix on the FIRST element. Mono- is OPTIONAL on the SECOND element (in this class, its NOT optional!). 3. Change the ending of the second element to -ide. Molecular Nomenclature Prefixes PREFIX
Acid Nomenclature Acids Compounds that form H+ in water. Formulas usually begin with H. In order to be an acid instead of a gas, binary acids must be aqueous (dissolved in water) Ternary acids are ALL aqueous Examples: HCl (aq) hydrochloric acid HNO3 nitric acid H2SO4 sulfuric acid Acid Nomenclature Review Anion
Ending No Oxygen w/Oxygen Acid Name -ide hydro-(stem)-ic acid -ate (stem)-ic acid
-ite (stem)-ous acid An easy way to remember which goes with which In the cafeteria, you ATE something ICky Acid Nomenclature Flowchart A C ID S s t a r t w i t h 'H ' 2 e le m e n t s 3 e le m e n t s h y d r o - p r e fix
- ic e n d in g n o h y d r o - p r e fix - a t e e n d in g becom es - ic e n d in g - it e e n d in g becom es - o u s e n d in g Acid Nomenclature HBr (aq) No oxygen, -ide
hydrobromic acid carbonic acid sulfurous acid H2CO3 Has oxygen, -ate
H2SO3 Has oxygen, -ite Acid Nomenclature hydrofluoric acid 2 elements H+ F- HF (aq) H+ SO42- H2SO4
H+ NO2- HNO2 sulfuric acid 3 elements, -ic nitrous acid 3 elements, -ous Name Em! HI (aq) HCl H2SO3
HNO3 HIO4 Write the Formula! Hydrobromic acid Nitrous acid Carbonic acid Phosphoric acid Hydrotelluric acid Nomenclature Summary Flowchart Now its Study Time DONE
Rainbow Matrix Game Link on Chemistry Geek.com on Chemistry I page http://chemistrygeek.com/rainbow Use [ ] to represent subscripts since you cant enter subscripts into the computer So H2O would be HO And Al2(SO4)3 would be Al(SO) Additional Polyatomic Ions (you do not have to memorize these, but they are in the game!) Borate = BO3 -3 ; Silicate = SiO4 -4 ; Manganate = MnO4 -2 (permanganate is -1)
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