Fig. 16.1 Fig. 16.2 Basic Terms Used for

Fig. 16.1 Fig. 16.2 Basic Terms Used for Feeding Mechanisms of Vertebrates

1. Suspension-feeding (= filter-feeding) - filter small particles (alive or dead, depending on species) out of water column 2. Suction-feeding - open mouth, suck in food 3. Ram-feeding - open mouth, swim over food Ram-Suction Index - compares movement of food relative to

movement of feeder 4. Inertial-feeding - inertia of food is used to move it in oral cavity 5. Transport - movement of food within oral cavity (by water currents in aquatic vertebrates or tongue in tetrapods) 6. Mastication - physical reduction of food size by chewing

Fig. 16.3 Wear Patterns of Teeth are Functionally Important Enamel is > 95% inorganic matter; it is the hardest substance in

vertebrate bodies Enamel is harder than dentine Dentine is harder than cement These properties mean that teeth can be self-sharpening

Some Important Terms for Teeth Polyphyodont - multiple generations of tooth replacement (most vertebrates) Diphyodont - two sets of teeth: milk and permanent (most mammals; incisor, canine and premolar teeth are replaced)

Monophyodont - a single set of teeth (e.g., cetaceans) Homodont - teeth of similar shape along jaw Heterodont - teeth of different shape along the jaw Tooth plate or Toothplate - at least two uses are common: 1. Many individual teeth fused together at their bases;

separate cusps are still visible (e.g., in pharynx of fishes) 2. Fusion of individual teeth during ontogeny: separate cusps may not still be visible (e.g., lungfishes, chimaeras) Fig. 16.4

Fig. 16.5 Types of Mammalian Teeth and Dental Formulae Incisor teeth (I), typically these are replaced

Canine teeth (C), typically these are replaced Premolar teeth (P), typically these are replaced Molar teeth (M), typically these are not replaced Formulae are expressed as type # in upper jaw/# in lower jaw I 5/4, C 1/1, P 2/2, M 4/4 = opossum

I 2/2, C 1/1, P 2/2, M 3/3 = humans Fig. 16.6 Carnassial Pair: P4-M1

Fig. 16.7 Terms for Mammalian Molars Tribosphenic molars - plesiomorphic condition seen in

opossums and insectivores Bunodont molars - low-crowned condition seen in omnivores such as humans and pigs Lophodont molars (e.g., Rhinoceros, Fig. 16-9A) Selenodont molars (e.g., deer, Fig. 16-9B).

Molarization of premolars (remember that premolars are replaced wheras molars are not replaced.) High-crowned, or hypsodont, molars (e.g., horse, Fig. 16 -9C). Fig. 16.8

Teeth of Herbivores Fig. 16.9

Jaw Mechanics of Actinopterygians 1: Early Actinopterygians Fig. 16.10 Jaw Mechanics of Sharks

Fig. 16.11 Jaw Mechanics of Actinopterygians 2: Teleosts

Fig. 16.12 Jaw Mechanics of Aquatic Salamanders (Ambystoma) Fig. 16.13

Cranial Kinesis in Varanid Lizards Fig. 16.14

Jaw Mechanics of Cats Fig. 16.15 Jaw Mechanics of Carnivores versus Herbivores

Fig. 16.16 Palates

Fig. 16.17 Tongues Fig. 16.18

Role of Tongue in Feeding System of Lizards Fig. 16.19

Salivary Glands Fig. 16.20 Fig. 16.21

Kinesis and Fang Erection System of Rattlesnakes Focus 16.1

Kinesis in Beak of Birds Focus 16.1

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Filing_Rules_1-2_Presentation - Faculty Site Listing

    Filing_Rules_1-2_Presentation - Faculty Site Listing

    Alphabetic Indexing Rules Association of Records Managers & Administrators (ARMA) The professional organization for the records management field recommends following seven rules for consistency in filing. Learning & Understanding Rules Absorb rules in small segments and then apply the rules.
  • Chapter 9

    Chapter 9

    Rothman's causal pies explains the multifactorial nature of causation for many noninfectious diseases. The factors that cause the adverse health outcome are pieces of a pie, with the entire pie making up the sufficient cause for a health problem or...
  • RTRA - University of Ottawa

    RTRA - University of Ottawa

    RTRA - University of Ottawa ... data service
  • Suministro transfronterizo de servicios: La experiencia del sector

    Suministro transfronterizo de servicios: La experiencia del sector

    Lloyd's Un mercado que comprende 62 empresas o consorcios distintos con unos ingresos en concepto de primas superiores a 26.000 millones de dólares EE.UU. en 2005. La mayor parte de los riesgos se aseguran mediante el suministro transfronterizo.
  • Micro-Affirmations Small Acts, Big Impact Presented by Candice

    Micro-Affirmations Small Acts, Big Impact Presented by Candice

    Micro-affirmations can, and should be, practiced intentionally. Micro-affirmations can be especially powerful when given by a person with more social capital than the recipient. Micro-affirmations can be especially powerful when delivering constructive criticism, difficult news, or when the situation is...
  • Welcome to Level 1 Safeguarding Children Presented by

    Welcome to Level 1 Safeguarding Children Presented by

    The outcome star aims to help families assess where they are in relation to the particular section of the star, ie Family Routines. The scale is 1 - 10, with 10 indicating no help required or issues. Professionals and families...
  • Chapter 1 Making Economic Decisions

    Chapter 1 Making Economic Decisions

    Jensen and Meckling developed a theory of the firm based on agency theory. Social Responsibility Wealth maximization does not preclude the firm from being socially responsible. Assume we view the firm as producing both private and social goods, then shareholder...
  • Kapitel 0 Einfhrung in die Programmierung Wintersemester 2013/14

    Kapitel 0 Einfhrung in die Programmierung Wintersemester 2013/14

    G. Rudolph: Einführung in die Programmierung WS 2013/14. Technisches II. Anmerkungen für Studierende aus den Studiengängen. ET / IT + IKT + Physik +