Fig. 16.1 Fig. 16.2 Basic Terms Used for Feeding Mechanisms of Vertebrates
1. Suspension-feeding (= filter-feeding) - filter small particles (alive or dead, depending on species) out of water column 2. Suction-feeding - open mouth, suck in food 3. Ram-feeding - open mouth, swim over food Ram-Suction Index - compares movement of food relative to
movement of feeder 4. Inertial-feeding - inertia of food is used to move it in oral cavity 5. Transport - movement of food within oral cavity (by water currents in aquatic vertebrates or tongue in tetrapods) 6. Mastication - physical reduction of food size by chewing
Fig. 16.3 Wear Patterns of Teeth are Functionally Important Enamel is > 95% inorganic matter; it is the hardest substance in
vertebrate bodies Enamel is harder than dentine Dentine is harder than cement These properties mean that teeth can be self-sharpening
Some Important Terms for Teeth Polyphyodont - multiple generations of tooth replacement (most vertebrates) Diphyodont - two sets of teeth: milk and permanent (most mammals; incisor, canine and premolar teeth are replaced)
Monophyodont - a single set of teeth (e.g., cetaceans) Homodont - teeth of similar shape along jaw Heterodont - teeth of different shape along the jaw Tooth plate or Toothplate - at least two uses are common: 1. Many individual teeth fused together at their bases;
separate cusps are still visible (e.g., in pharynx of fishes) 2. Fusion of individual teeth during ontogeny: separate cusps may not still be visible (e.g., lungfishes, chimaeras) Fig. 16.4
Fig. 16.5 Types of Mammalian Teeth and Dental Formulae Incisor teeth (I), typically these are replaced
Canine teeth (C), typically these are replaced Premolar teeth (P), typically these are replaced Molar teeth (M), typically these are not replaced Formulae are expressed as type # in upper jaw/# in lower jaw I 5/4, C 1/1, P 2/2, M 4/4 = opossum
I 2/2, C 1/1, P 2/2, M 3/3 = humans Fig. 16.6 Carnassial Pair: P4-M1
Fig. 16.7 Terms for Mammalian Molars Tribosphenic molars - plesiomorphic condition seen in
opossums and insectivores Bunodont molars - low-crowned condition seen in omnivores such as humans and pigs Lophodont molars (e.g., Rhinoceros, Fig. 16-9A) Selenodont molars (e.g., deer, Fig. 16-9B).
Molarization of premolars (remember that premolars are replaced wheras molars are not replaced.) High-crowned, or hypsodont, molars (e.g., horse, Fig. 16 -9C). Fig. 16.8
Teeth of Herbivores Fig. 16.9
Jaw Mechanics of Actinopterygians 1: Early Actinopterygians Fig. 16.10 Jaw Mechanics of Sharks
Fig. 16.11 Jaw Mechanics of Actinopterygians 2: Teleosts
Fig. 16.12 Jaw Mechanics of Aquatic Salamanders (Ambystoma) Fig. 16.13
Cranial Kinesis in Varanid Lizards Fig. 16.14
Jaw Mechanics of Cats Fig. 16.15 Jaw Mechanics of Carnivores versus Herbivores
Fig. 16.16 Palates
Fig. 16.17 Tongues Fig. 16.18
Role of Tongue in Feeding System of Lizards Fig. 16.19
Salivary Glands Fig. 16.20 Fig. 16.21
Kinesis and Fang Erection System of Rattlesnakes Focus 16.1
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