Saturn Ring Structure - Outline F B A

Saturn Ring Structure - Outline F B A D C

E and G rings not shown Saturn Rings Backlit Exaggerated Color Earth E G F A BD

C Rings, Ringlets, Details Rings in gaps between rings A, B and F rings Ring Details

C Ring (Left) and B Ring (Right) Details Ring Details (D, C, B, A, F) Enceladus and Saturns E Ring Enceladus is spraying ice into space

These chunks go into orbit around Saturn These form the E ring

Enceladus Ripples in the Rings Each radius orbits at a different speed As small moons pass ring particles, their orbits are distorted Their orbits wobble slightly Net effect: they move away from the small moon

Moons clear gaps around themselves Moon: Daphnis Shepherd Moons Pandora

Pairs of moons can keep a ring between them Very narrow rings usually have a pair of shepherd moons

Saturns F-ring is kept in place by Prometheus and Pandora Q. 54: Narrow Rings Prometheus Jupiters Rings Faint and dark Mostly microscopic dust Some portions are dust from known moons

Remainder probably dust from undiscovered moons Uranuss Rings 13 known rings

Very dark material Shepherd moons for bright ring Small amounts of dust between rings

Composition varies by ring, but typically Ice with dark covering? Typical size object around 1 m Source: Probably collisionally shattered moon(s)

Shepherd Moons for Uranuss Ring Shepherd Moons ring Neptunes Rings

5 known rings Very dark material Mostly tiny dust Probably shattered moons? The Dregs of the Solar System Dwarf Planets

August 24, 2006: IAU defines a planet 1.Goes around a star 2.Is big enough to be round 3.Is much bigger than all other things in its neighborhood combined A dwarf planet satisfies 1 and 2, but not 3 A small solar system body satisfies only 1

Confirmed Dwarf Planets: Ceres Pluto Haumea Makemake Eris

Outline of the Dregs The Kuiper Belt Pluto and its moon Charon Eris The Oort cloud

Comets Meteoroid showers Asteroids Ceres

Meteorites Comets/Kuiper Belt How We Know Multiple missions to Comet Halley (86) Telescopes ICE Ongoing Suisei Sakigake Vega 1

Vega 2 Giotto Stardust Mission Wild-2 (04), sample return (06), Tempel 1 (11) Deep Impact mission Tempel 1 (with impactor, 05), Hartley 2 (10) Rosetta Orbiter and Lander Churyumov- Gerasimenko (14-16) New Horizons Pluto/Charon flyby (15)

Ultima Thule flyby (January 19) Recent Missions to Kuiper Belt / Comets Rosetta New Horizons The Kuiper Belt Icy bodies, some rock/dust Mostly beyond Neptune

Too sparse to coalesce More than 1000 known Probably about 100,000 larger than 100 km Size: All are smaller than our Moon Six or so known with diameter > 1000 km Kuiper Belt: Location Pluto and its Moons

1 medium moon Charon 4 known small moons Styx Kerberos Nix Hydra

Pluto & Charon: Size, Orbit, Rotation Pluto half the size of Mercury Charon half the size of Pluto Close together Tidally locked to each other Actual separation Pluto

Charon Pluto Composition Large rocky core

Frozen ice (mostly water) mantle Frozen nitrogen layer Very thin atmosphere Changes seasonally

Mostly nitrogen Pluto Surprises Pluto has mountains on its surface Almost certainly made of water ice Pluto has almost no craters on it! Young surface Difficult to explain Ultima Thule

After passing Pluto system, New Horizons was redirected to examine a small Kuiper belt object near its path An obscure KBO called Ultima Thule was chosen as the target 33 km in length On Jan. 1, 2019, New Horizons made its closest approach and took images

These pictures are still being returned Eris Eris has one known small moon

Orbit more eccentric than Pluto Orbit more inclined than Pluto Eris Eris

Dysnomia Largest Kuiper Belt Objects Eris and Pluto would be considered large moons Composition similar to many outer moons

Q. 55: Mass of Kuiper Belt Objects Moon Kuiper Belt Objects

Planetismals Formed in outer solar system Never coalesced - too few Giant Planets toss them around Tossed out - join the Oort Cloud Tossed in - become short period comets

Kuiper Belt and Short Period Comets Neptune distorts orbit Object becomes a comet Neptune

Kuiper Belt The Oort Cloud Icy bodies, some rocks/dust Billions of objects Hundreds or thousands of AU from the Sun Passing stars can change their orbits Swing in to become long period comets

Comets Comet McNaught Comet Kohoutek Comet Hale-Bopp Comet Swan

Comet Classification Short Period comets Less than 200 years Started in the Kuiper Belt Long Period comets More than 200 years Started in the Oort Cloud Parts of Comets

Icy nucleus - some dust 1-50 km is diameter Only part that exists far from Sun Coma Size of the Sun! Expanding gasses plus dust from the heated nucleus Easiest part to see Tail(s) 1 AU in length!

Dust tail charged specks of dust Ion tail individual charged particles Q. 56: Size of Comets Parts Parts of Comets Comet Tails Solar wind pushes particles away from the Sun

It points behind when inbound It points ahead when outbound Comet West Dust Tail Ion Tail Coma

Parts of Comets Ion Tail Dust Tail Coma Comet Haley Comet Haley

Dust Tail Coma Ion Tail Nucleus of Comet Haley Nucleus of Churyumov- Gerasimenko

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