Dr. Yoga Sundram DVM., MS., PhD. South Georgia

Dr. Yoga Sundram DVM., MS., PhD. South Georgia College The main themes of Microbiology 2 Microbiology is the study of organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye. A microscope is needed to view them.

Microorganisms include: bacteria viruses fungi protozoa helminths (worms) algae 3

Immunology Public health microbiology and epidemiology Food, dairy and aquatic microbiology Biotechnology

Genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology 4 Nutrient production and energy flow Decomposition

Biotechnology Genetic engineering Bioremediation

Infectious disease 5 Nearly 2,000 different microbes cause diseases. 10 B new infections/year worldwide

13 M deaths from infections/year worldwide 6 7 Procaryotes and eukaryotes Procaryotes Microscopic, unicellular organisms. Lack nuclei and membrane-bound organelles Eucaryotes Unicellular and multicellular organisms. Have nuclei and membrane-bound

organelles Viruses Acellular, parasitic particles composed of a nucleic acid and protein 8 Insert figure 1.5 basic cell and virus structures 9

Procaryotes are measured in micrometers. Viruses in nanometers Helminths are measured in millimeters. 10

Insert figure 1.7 measurements 11 300 years of contributions by many Prominent discoveries include: microscopy

scientific method development of medical microbiology microbiology techniques 12 Insert figure 1.8 Dutch linen merchant

First to observe living microbes Single-lens magnified up to 300X 13 Insert figure 1.9 (a) microscope 14

Early belief that some forms of life could arise from vital forces present in nonliving or decomposing matter (flies from manure, etc) A general approach to explain a natural phenomenon Form a hypothesis - a tentative explanation that can be supported or refuted by

observation and experimentation A lengthy process of experimentation, analysis and testing either supports or refutes the hypothesis. 16 Results must be published and repeated by other investigators.

If hypothesis is supported by a growing body of evidence and survives rigorous scrutiny, it moves to the next level of confidence - it becomes a theory. If evidence of a theory is so compelling that the next level of confidence is reached - it becomes a Law or principle. 17

John Tyndall and Ferdinand Cohn each demonstrated the presence of heat resistant forms of some microbes. *Cohn determined these forms to be endospores. Sterility requires the elimination of all life forms including endospores and viruses.

18 Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes observed that mothers of home births had fewer infections than those who gave birth in hospital Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis correlated infections with physicians coming directly from autopsy room to maternity ward

Nosocomial Infections - infections acquired during stay in hospitals 19 Joseph Lister introduced aseptic techniques reducing microbes in medical settings to prevent infections involved disinfection of hands using chemicals

prior to surgery use of heat for sterilization 20 Many diseases are caused by the growth of microbes in the body and not by sins, bad character, or poverty, etc. Two major contributors:

Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch 21 Insert figure 1.11

Showed microbes caused fermentation and spoilage Disproved spontaneous generation of microorganisms Developed pasteurization Demonstrated what is now known as Germ Theory of Disease Developed a rabies vaccine 22

Established Kochs postulates - a sequence of experimental steps that verified the germ theory Insert figure 1.12 Identified cause of anthrax, TB, and cholera

Developed pure culture methods 23 Formal system originated by Carl von Linn (1701-1778)

Concerned with: classification orderly arrangement of organisms into groups nomenclature assigning names identification discovering and recording traits of organisms for placement into taxonomic schemes 24 Domain - Archaea, Bacteria & Eukarya Kingdom Phylum

Class Order Family Genus species 25 Binomial (scientific) nomenclature

Gives each microbe 2 names: Genus - noun, always capitalized species - adjective, lowercase Both italicized or underlined Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) Escherichia coli (E. coli) 26

Changes favoring survival are retained and less beneficial changes are lost. All new species originate from preexisting species. Closely related organism have similar

features because they evolved from common ancestral forms. Evolution usually progresses toward greater complexity. 27 Bacteria - true bacteria, peptidoglycan Archaea - odd bacteria that live in extreme environments, high salt, heat,

etc. Eukarya- have a nucleus and organelles 28 Insert figure 1.15 Woese-Fox System 29

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