Network Devices - Pennsylvania State University

IST 228\Ch1\Internetworking Collision/Broadcast Domain The term collision domain defines the set of devices for which their frames could collide A broadcast domain is a set of NICs for which a broadcast frame sent by one NIC will be received by all other NICs in the broadcast domain. Hub? Bridge? Switches? Routers? 1 IST 228\Ch1\Internetworking Identify collision and broadcast domains for each case

2 IST 228\Ch1\Internetworking 10-Mbps Ethernet No hub, switch, or wiring panel. The series of cables creates an electrical bus the carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) 10Base2: 10Mbps, baseband technology, almost 200 meters 10Base5: 10Mbps, baseband technology, almost 5 00 meters 3 IST 228\Ch1\Internetworking Ethernet Networking with a Hub

Half-Duplex 10BaseT 1. The network interface card (NIC) sends a frame. 2. The NIC loops the sent frame onto its receive pair. 3. The hub receives the frame. 4. The hub sends the frame across an internal bus so that all other NICs can receive the electrical signal. 5. The hub repeats the signal to each receive pair to all other devices. 4 IST 228\Ch1\Internetworking

Ethernet Networking with a Switch Full Duplex Ethernet Full-duplex means that an Ethernet card can send and receive concurrently. Use a switch or direct connection from host to using a crossover cable. The switch interprets the electrical signal as an Ethernet frame and processes the frame to make a decision. Hub Layer 1 Switch Layer 2 5

IST 228\Ch1\Internetworking 6 Basic Ethernet Features 10Base2, 10Base5 Single bus cabled serially between devices using coaxial cable. 10BaseT with a Hub One electrical bus shared among all devices creating a single collision domain, cabled in a star topology using twisted-pair cabling 10BaseT with a Switch One electrical bus per switch port creating multiple collision domains, cabled in a star topology using

twisted-pair cabling Half Duplex Logic that requires a card to only send or receive at a single point in time. Used to avoid collisions Full Duplex Logic that enables concurrent sending and receiving, allowed when one device is attached to a switch port, ensuring that no collisions can occur. IST 228\Ch1\Internetworking Ethernet Addressing Ethernet uses MAC address burned into each NIC. 48 bits (6 bytes) First 3 bytes assigned by IEEE Unicast MAC Address

Broadcast MAC Address (FFFF.FFFF.FFFF) Multicast Address 7 IST 228\Ch1\Internetworking Ethernet Frames Framing defines how a string of binary numbers is interpreted

Preamble SD: Start frame eliminator Destination MAC address Unicast Broadcast Multicast Source address Length of file DSAP SSAP, SNAP (Subnet Network Access Protocol) Control/Data Frame Check Sequence (FCS) 8 IST 228\Ch1\Internetworking 9 Ethernet Cabling

Straight-Through Cable Host to Switch or hub Router to Switch or hub Rolled Cable Serial Port Crossover Cable Switch to Switch Hub to Hub Host to Host IST 228\Ch1\Internetworking 10 Data Encapsulation [email protected]$ Hello!

Step 1: Data Conversion Application hello Presentation PDU1101010011100100100100 PDU2 PDU1101010011100100100100 Session PDU3 PDU2 PDU1101010011100100100100 Name: Data Stream Step 2: Data segmentation Transport TCP PDU3 PDU2 PDU1 0101010 TCP PDU3 PDU2 PDU1 0100100 :

: Name: Segment IST 228\Ch1\Internetworking 11 Step 3: Packet creation for routing Network IP TCP PDU3 PDU2 PDU1 0101010 IP TCP PDU3 PDU2 PDU1 0100100 :

: Name: Packet or Datagram Step 4: Frame Header Data Link LLC 802.2 MAC 802.3 MAC LLC IP TCP PDU3 PDU2 PDU1 0101010 FCS Name: Frame Step 5: Transmission Physical Layer 10010100001

IST 228\Ch1\Internetworking LAN Design Models Mesh design Hierarchical design Three-layer network model Two-layer network model One-layer network model 12 IST 228\Ch1\Internetworking Three Layer Model Core-layer Distribution Layer a backbone network

connecting all LANs no end user at this level implementation of security and network policies Access Layer 13 IST 228\Ch1\Internetworking Two and One-Layer Model 14

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