Muscular System

Muscular System Learning Objectives 1. To recap antagonist and agonist muscles. 2. To understand the muscles in the spine and their function. 3. To be able to use PEE in a longer answer question. Test your knowledge! Joint Movement Elbow Flexion Shoulder Shoulder Horizontal extension Abduction Hip Extension

Knee Extension Ankle Dorsiflexion Spine Lateral flexion Radio-ulnar Pronation Hip Adduction Wrist Extension Agonist Antagonist

Test your knowledge! Joint Elbow Shoulder Shoulder Hip Knee Movement Flexion Horizontal extension Abduction Extension Extension Ankle Spine Dorsiflexion Lateral flexion Radio-ulnar Hip Pronation Adduction

Wrist Extension Agonist Bicep brachii Trapezius Antagonist Tricep brachii Pectoralis major Deltoid (middle) Gluteus maximum Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius Tibialis anterior External and internal obliques Latissimus dorsi Iliopsoas Bicep femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus

Pronator teres Adductor longus, brevis & magnus Wrist extensors Supinator Gluteus medius & minimus Wrist flexors Gastrocnemius External and internal obliques Muscles of the spine Core stability is essential for mechanical efficiency, injury prevention and rehabilitation from injury. They provide a solid base for all other muscles to work upon and create movement. Two core muscles in particular contract prior to any movement of the limbs to stabilise the lumbar spine. Multifidus Lays either side of the spine and connects to each lumbar vertebrae.

It contracts to extend the spine and is essential for good posture. Transverse abdominus Connects the lumbar vertebrae and wraps around the trunk to meet at the front of the abdomen. Provides stability to the spine. Developing core strength Improves balance, posture and alignment. Increases twisting strength. Strength training will improve muscle tone. The greater the core muscle tone, the greater the core stability and posture. Minimises risk of injury and lower back pain.

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