Multiculturalism in Australia

Multiculturalism in Australia Foreign Studies B/Academic English B 20 December 2016 What is multiculturalism? What is multiculturalism? Norms & Principles in Government

Demographics Policies Society Multiculturalism in Australia 1. Demographics 2. Government Policies 3. Norms and Principles in Society n a i

l tra s u A ty ti n Ide Australian Va

lues What is multiculturalism? Norms & Principles in DEMOGRAPHICS Government Policies Society

Demographically, Australia is a mul ticultural country 1 Australians Diverse Backgrounds Generation Second FirstThird-plus Generation

Generation Australians Australians Australians Australians Diverse Backgrounds First Second Generation Generation Australians

Australians Third-plus Generation Australians (5.3 (4.1 million million 27%) 20%) (10.6 million 53%) Second First Generation

Generation Australians Australians Third-plus Generation Australians Demographics What points do you think are inter esting? 2

From: Migration, Australia, 2014-15, ABS, 3412.0 3 From: Migration, Australia, 2013-14, ABS, 3412.0 4 From: Migration, Australia, 2014-15, ABS, 3412.0 5

From: The Scanlon Foundation, 2016, Mapping Social Cohesion: The Scanlon Foundation Surveys 2016 6 Ancestry = From: ABS, 2012, Cultural Diversity in Australia, Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2071.0 7

From: ABS, 2012, Cultural Diversity in Australia, Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2071.0 8 From: ABS, 2012, Cultural Diversity in Australia, Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2071.0 Diverse Backgrounds What points do you think are inter esting? Australians Diverse Backgrounds 1 in 4

Australians was born overseas Over 270 ancestries are identified with 7.5 million people have migrated to Australia since 1945

Over 260 languages are spoken; 4 million people speak a language other than English Demographic Overview Very diverse population compared to the past Increasing immigration from Asia Slightly decreasing immigration from UK/Europe Why has this changed?

When and why did multiculturalis m become the norm in Aus tralia? What is multiculturalism? 9 positi ve

History of Government Policies Towards Unrestrictive Immigration & Multiculturalism negative ? 1880s 1901 1940s-1950s

1960s-1970s 1980s-1995 1996-2007 now positi ve

History of Government Policies Towards Unrestrictive Immigration & Multiculturalism negative ? 1880s 1901 1940s-1950s

1960s-1970s 1980s-1995 1996-2007 now Gold Rush (Chinese Miners) 1850s Japanese Workers 1880s

(Pearl Divers, Sugar Cane Laborers) positi ve * Fear of Asian Invasion * Australian identity issues negative ?

1880s 1901 1940s-1950s 1960s-1970s 1980s-1995 1996-2007

now positi ve * White Australia Policy * Immigration Restriction Act 1901 Restricting immigration of non-Europeans (non-British) negative

? 1880s 1901 1940s-1950s 1960s-1970s 1980s-1995

1996-2007 now positi ve * Post WW2 Immigration of displaced people & refugees (inc. Central/Southern Europeans) * Assimilationist Policy negative

? 1880s 1901 1940s-1950s 1960s-1970s 1980s-1995

1996-2007 now positi ve * Rejection of White Australia Policy * Rejection of restricted immigration Refugees from Vietnam 1975-1985 * First Multiculturalism policy

* Racial Discrimination Act 1975 negative ? 1880s 1901 1940s-1950s

1960s-1970s 1980s-1995 1996-2007 now First Multiculturalism Policy Birth of Multicultural Australia Equal opportunities for all Right to maintain culture

Special services and programs as necessary Services and programs should be designed in cons ultation with migrants Racial Discrimination Act 1975 First Multiculturalism Policy Birth of Multicultural Australia Equal opportunities for all Right to maintain culture Special services and programs as necessary Services and programs should be designed in cons

ultation with migrants Racial Discrimination Act 1975 positi ve History of Government Policies Towards Unrestrictive Immigration & Multiculturalism negative

? 1880s 1901 1940s-1950s 1960s-1970s 1980s-1995

1996-2007 now Multiculturalism Policy Continues Multiculturalism is a part of Australian identity Evolution of Multicultural Australia Right to express heritage, language and religion Right to equality of treatment and opportunity Develop & utilize the skills of all Australians Obligation to accept basic principles of Australian s ociety

Responsibility to accept the rights of others to exp ress their culture and beliefs Multiculturalism Policy Continues Multiculturalism is a part of Australian identity Evolution of Multicultural Australia Right to express heritage, language and religion Right to equality of treatment and opportunity Develop & utilize the skills of all Australians Obligation to accept basic principles of Australian s ociety Responsibility to accept the rights of others to exp

ress their culture and beliefs positi ve * Is multiculturalism just for migrants History of Government Policies or for all Australians?

towards unrestrictive immigration & multiculturalism * An increase in negative public opinion towards multiculturalism? negative ? 1880s

1901 1940s-1950s 1960s-1970s 1980s-1995 1996-2007 now

From: The Scanlon Foundation, 2016, Mapping Social Cohesion: The Scanlon Foundation Surveys 2016 positi ve History of Government Policies towards unrestrictive immigration & multiculturalism Australian Values

> Migrant Values negative ? 1880s 1901 1940s-1950s

1960s-1970s 1980s-1995 1996-2007 now Howard Government (1996-2007)

Support for Multiculturalism falls Support for cultural unity & assimilation rises Stressing Great Britain heritage of Australia Migrants given too much money and too many special rig hts Hansonism Anti-Asian Sentiment Asian Invasion Hansonism Howard Government (1996-2007)

Support for Multiculturalism falls Support for cultural unity & assimilation rises Stressing Great Britain heritage of Australia Migrants given too much money and too many special rig hts Hansonism Anti-Asian Sentiment Asian Invasion Hansonism Issues in the late 1990s/2000s

Boat People Asylum Seekers & Refugees Issues in the 2000s September 11 Global Terrorism & Islamic Extremism positi

ve * Swing back towards positive viewPolicies of multiculturalism History of Government *towards Need tounrestrictive do more to immigration help new and&old

migrants multiculturalism adjust to their new lives * Need to get rid of racism and discrimination negative ? 1880s 1901

1940s-1950s 1960s-1970s 1980s-1995 1996-2007 now positi

ve * Swing back towards positive viewPolicies of multiculturalism History of Government *towards Need tounrestrictive do more to immigration help new and&old

migrants multiculturalism adjust to their new lives * Need to get rid of racism and discrimination negative ? 1880s 1901

1940s-1950s 1960s-1970s 1980s-1995 1996-2007 now positi

ve History of Government Policies But there are alwaysimmigration politicians who make negative towards unrestrictive & multiculturalism comments about immigration and multiculturalism

negative ? 1880s 1901 1940s-1950s 1960s-1970s

1980s-1995 1996-2007 now What is multiculturalism? What are peoples attitudes toward s multiculturalism, immigration an d immigrants?

What trends can you find? 10 From: Scanlon Foundation, 2016, Mapping Social Cohesion: Summary Report 2016 11 From: Scanlon Foundation, 2016, Mapping Social Cohesion: Summary Report 2016 12

From: Scanlon Foundation, 2016, Mapping Social Cohesion: Summary Report 2016 13 From: Scanlon Foundation, 2014, Mapping Social Cohesion: Summary Report 2014 14 From: Scanlon Foundation, 2016, Mapping Social Cohesion: Summary Report 2016 What are peoples attitudes toward s multiculturalism, immigration an

d immigrants? What trends can you find? Concluding Thoughts Australia is definitely a multicultural country The majority of the population have positive f eelings towards multiculturalism and immigra nts Concluding Thoughts Australia is definitely a multicultural country The majority of the population have positive f

eelings towards multiculturalism and immigra nts But there is still a lack of mutual understandin g and discrimination Overcoming this is vital for Australia and politi cians can play an important role Selected References Migration, Australia, 2014-15, ABS, 3412.0 , Migration, Australia, 2013-14, ABS, 3412.0 ABS, 2012, Cultural Diversity in Australia, Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2710.0 Australians Today: The [email protected] Scanlon Foundation Survey, Andrew Markus, 2016 The Scanlon Foundation, 2016, Mapping Social Cohesion: The Scanlon Foundation Surveys 2016

The Scanlon Foundation, 2015, Mapping Social Cohesion: The Scanlon Foundation Surveys 2015 The Scanlon Foundation, 2014, Mapping Social Cohesion: The Scanlon Foundation Surveys 2014 ABS, 2008, Social Participation of Migrants The Scanlon Foundation, 2011, Mapping Social Cohesion: Summary Report 2011 ABS, 2006, A Picture of the Nation Nicola Henry, 2010, A Multicultural Australia Australian Multicultural Advisory Council, 2010, The People of Australia: The Australian Multicultural Advisory Councils stat ement on cultural diversity and recommendations to government The Australians Government, 2010, The People of Australia: Australias Multicultural Policy Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (Tom Calma), 2007, Multiculturalism: A position paper by the Acting Race Discrimination Commissioner Elsa Koleth, 2010, Multiculturalism: a review of Australian policy statements and recent debates in Australia and overseas (htt

p://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/rp/2010-11/11rp06.pdf)

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