Mexico

Mexico From Montezuma to NAFTA and Beyond Chapter 1 Understanding Mexico What is the capital city of Mexico? Mexico City What are the differences in socioeconomic status between southern Mexico and northern Mexico? The South of Mexico is poor, agricultural, rural, provincial, peasant, and alienated from Mexico City. The North, however, is more industrialized, urban, unionized, and richer; it receives attention

and benefits from Mexico City. Chapter 1 Understanding Mexico According to the book, how would you describe Mexicos relationship to the United States? Historic view of the United States, so far from God, so near to the United States. Mexicans are hospitable to millions of U.S. citizens who work or visit their country. Mexicans share a vast U.S. border in which they desire to own U.S. products, sell more goods to the U.S than to any other country, solicit U.S. investment for growth, and have millions of relatives living in the United States Mexico, however, is conversant in the idea that throughout history, Americans took more than one-third of their territory, have invaded Mexico several times, and have meddled in Mexican affairs (political and economic) Contentious debate over undocumented immigrants who violate U.S. law by entering and remaining in the United States

Chapter 1 Understanding Mexico What are the three major groups of races/ethnicities within Mexico? Indians (indigenous Mexicans), mestizos (mixed Indian and Spanish ancestors), and direct descendants of the conquering Spaniards. Which of the three groups are more likely to live in the city, be more prosperous, and better educated professionals or owners of land? Spanish descendants

Chapter 1 Understanding Mexico Which of the three groups make up the largest part of Mexicos population? Mestizos Which of the three groups are most likely to migrate to the United States? Mestizos Chapter 2 A Divided Land: Mexicos Natural Environment and Native Peoples What mountain range divides Mexico? Eastern

Sierra Madre and Western Sierra Madre in between these two mountain ranges lies the central plateau, which contains the northern and central portions of Mexico this is where the majority of Mexicos eighty-seven million people are located and where agriculture thrives Sierra Madre del Sur further divides the south of Mexico this area highlights the difficulty that exists regarding communication and transportation Chapter 2 A Divided Land: Mexicos Natural Environment and Native Peoples What two main bodies of water surround Mexico? Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico

Regarding rivers, the Rio Grande is the largest and runs one-thousand miles between the United States and Mexico rivers used for agricultural irrigation What are the main natural resources within Mexico? Trees/timber, silver (Mexico is the largest producer of silver), lead, zinc, copper, gold Chapter 2 A Divided Land: Mexicos Natural Environment and Native Peoples What indigenous people lived in Mexico?

Aztecs dominated before Spanish Conquest, the Mayans, Zapotecs, the Olmec civilizations (earlies civilization in the New World, mother culture) known for artwork, architecture, development of a calendar, religious beliefs that featured Quetzalcoatl, which later became the god of the Aztecs. What contributed to the decline of the Olmec around 400 B.C.? Social upheaval elite becoming oppressive and demanded increase of labor which led to the commoners revolting Chapter 2 A Divided Land: Mexicos Natural Environment and Native Peoples

What was the name of the largest city within early indigenous civilization? Teotihuacan oftentimes compared with ancient Rome due to its monumental size, widespread influence, and imposing structures At its peak, what was the population of Teotihuacan? 125,000-250,000 covering more than twelve square miles the Mayans were able to stay relatively independent from its influence Chapter 2 A Divided Land: Mexicos Natural Environment and Native Peoples

What contributed to the downfall of the many ancient Olmec tribes and the Mayan civilizations? Due to agricultural failure, around 640 A.D., Teotihuacan was invaded, looted, burned, and deliberately destroyed this downfall initiated a period of confusion and migrating populations throughout central Mexico this sparked growth within Mayan culture Tikal was the largest Mayan city, as well as the presence of other Mayan centers located in southern Mexico they were the premier scientists of pre-Hispanic America writing and calendars advanced, as well as mathematical development. There is no consensus about their decline in A.D. 900 but many theories credit the lack of food, internal rebellions, or northern invaders as causes for their demise. Chapter 2 A Divided Land: Mexicos Natural Environment and Native Peoples

What was the name of the various groups, that existed in the north, after the downfall of the Olmec and Mayan tribes? The various groups are referred to by the generic term Chichimec. Among these groups, the most significant was the Toltecs. The Toltecs built elaborate palaces, and showed off their riches by the presence of gold, jewels, and seashells. Toltec power waned as droughts, and attacks by rival tribes ultimately led to their downfall. Where does Mexico receive its name? Mexico received its name from the Mexica, commonly known as the Aztecs Chapter 2

A Divided Land: Mexicos Natural Environment and Native Peoples What were the Aztecs like? The Aztecs were relative latecomers to the central Mexico valley when they arrived the valley was already divided into city-states. These city-states were comprised of the descendants of the Teotihuacan and the Toltecs As the Aztecs entered the picture, they were perceived as crude and were despised by the farmers in the region. Part of their reputation was attributed to their use of gruesome human sacrifices, and the stealing of their neighbors wives. The Aztecs were excellent warriors, and either took-over or formed alliances with localized tribes. The Aztecs formed an elaborate capital city called Tenochtitlan which joined forces with nearby cities of Texcoco and Tlacopan. Chapter 2 A Divided Land: Mexicos Natural Environment and Native Peoples

How did natural disasters effect Aztec society? Natural disasters led to a famine which caused thousands to flee or die. This resulted in the prioritization of food access which led to military expansion and dominance. How large was Tenochtitlan and what was its society like? At its height, Tenochtitlan had an estimated population of 80,000 to 250,000 more than six times larger than Seville, which was the largest city in Spain at the time. There were tall pyramids, written language, and a developed spoken language. Society was highly stratified the last emperor Montezuma II had thousands of servants and an unlimited number of concubines. Under the emperor, other elite groups existed, such as administrative clans, merchants and craftsmen, nobles, commoners, and slaves. Religion permeated all aspects of Aztec society.

Chapter 2 A Divided Land: Mexicos Natural Environment and Native Peoples Why did the Aztecs partake in human sacrifice? The Aztecs considered themselves to be at the mercy of the elements, and constantly thought of the end of the world. To them, natural disasters were viewed as gods displeasure. To make god happy, the Aztecs had to feed one of their gods, Huitzilopochtli, blood in order to buy more time on earth. The dread of the inevitable destruction of the Mexica-Aztec only resulted in an ever-increasing amount of human sacrifice. Besides sacrifice, other personal measures were taken to please the gods. Attention to religious ritual, self-control, and conformity were key to Aztec life. Etiquette guidelines, and gender roles were strictly defined to insure proper behavior. Aztec society was based more on intimidation, as opposed to loyalty.

Chapter 3 Enter the Spaniards According to the author, was the native population of Mexico preconditioned to succumb to Spanish domination? Yes the author cites personality traits regarding Montezuma as reasoning for this argument. Montezuma was superstitious, and worried about fatalism (doomsday events that may end their existence). He ruled with great authority, but events seemed ominous. Social unrest, lightening strikes, and an appearance of a comet did not help with tribal confidence. Indian mythology also spoke of a return from the east of the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl. When Hernan Cortes arrived, Montezuma may have thought Cortez was Quetzalcoatl. Chapter 3 Enter the Spaniards

What was the name of the young Indian woman who served as a translator, and later married Cortez? Dona Marina or La Malinche or Marina Chapter 3 Enter the Spaniards When in route to the capital city, Tenochtitlan, how did Indians react to Cortes arrival? The overall attitude was hospitality the Indians welcomed Cortes as a deliverer from brutal Aztec control. Gripped by fear and indecision, Montezuma invited Cortes into the capital.

Shortly after arrival, what did Cortes do to Montezuma? Cortes seized Montezuma and made him his prisoner. Cortes used Montezuma as his mouthpiece, as he controlled the Indian masses and governed from behind the throne. Chapter 3 Enter the Spaniards What caused Cortes to leave the capital city of Tenochtitlan? A new Spanish expedition from Cuba reached the Mexican shore with orders to limit Cortess power. Cortes wanted to march to the coast and persuade his compatriots to join him. He, in turn, left one of his lieutenants in command of the Aztecs.

What occurred in Tenochtitlan shortly after Cortess departure? An uprising took place, as pushback to the ruthless policies initiated by Cortess lieutenants the Spanish leaders were barricaded in the palace and threatened with starvation. Upon his return, Cortes asked Montezuma to arrange for supplies, but Montezuma refused. Eventually Cortes convinced Montezuma to address his people and order them to obey the Spaniards. Chapter 3 Enter the Spaniards Who killed Montezuma, and how did he die? Angry Aztecs killed Montezuma by stoning him the angry

mob grew and caused the Spaniards to leave the capital. Who was Cuauhtemoc? Cuauhtemoc was Montezumas successor who instilled harsh policies against the Spaniards. All Spanish prisoners were executed, and Indians who were friendly to the Spanish were also killed. Chapter 3 Enter the Spaniards In May 1521, Cortes and his men returned to capture the city. What are some reasons, cited in the book, for how an outnumbered Spanish army defeated the Aztecs? The genius and tenacity of Cortes regarding his bold move in capturing

Montezuma and ruling behind the throne. This allowed for the gradual transition from Aztec to Spanish power. Another factor was the oppressive nature of Aztec rule which created a favorable climate in which the other tribes would accept and then ally themselves with the conquistadores. Another factor was Indian religion and superstition (Fatalism). Who killed Cuauhtemoc? After remaining in captivity and frequently tortured, the Spanish hung Cuauhtemoc, after Cortes became convinced he was urging Indians to rebel. Chapter 3 Enter the Spaniards What is meant by the notion that Cortes the conqueror became Cortes the builder?

Cortes built a fleet to explore the west coast of Central America in an attempt to try to discover a route to the Spice Islands. He erected palaces and churches. He brought cattle and sheep from Spain and encouraged silk production. He planted wheat and sugarcane. He built two sugar mills, which were the first on the continent and christened his domain New Spain. How was Cortess growth in power and deeds viewed by Spain? Many Spaniards demonstrated jealousy, as many lusted for his glory and power. The viceroy of Spain, Antonio de Mendoza, blocked many projects Cortes planned. Cortess time had passed living his later part of life with a feeling of neglect by his own country, Cortes died in 1547. Chapter 3 Enter the Spaniards What did Father Bartolome de las Casas write about, in regards to the

Spanish presence in the Caribbean? De Las Casas wrote about the harsh treatment Indians were subjected to by the Spanish. He wrote elaborate accounts about the harsh treatment, and is said to be a factor in the creation of the Black Legend (exaggerated Spanish cruelty in the New World) Describe the encomienda system. It entailed assigning Indian groups or inhabitants of a town or village to a Spaniard who would extract labor and tribute for them while providing for their Christianization. The system did not involve title to the land on which the Indians lived and labored nor did it involve ownership of the Indians. Indians were free subjects but had to pay tribute in order to work on the land. Absentee owners would delegate control to overseers who abused

Chapter 4 The Emerging Colony By the end of the 1600s, what areas of the Spanish empire were sparsely populated? The northern region present day California, Arizona, and New Mexico these regions were not effectively occupied through most of the colonial period. The Spanish introduced an institutional apparatus to govern New Spain. Who was the highest representative of the king within this system? The Viceroy or viceregent. They ruled with almost complete authority over administrative, political, and judicial affairs. Until the 18th century, there were only two viceroyalties New Spain (Mexico) and Lima (Peru). Under the viceroy, a series of governorships were created

to administer the various territories. Governors were subject to the audiencia. Chapter 4 The Emerging Colony What was the role of the audiencia? It combined judicial, advisory, and executive powers which had the right to supervise and investigate the administrative actions of various officials. Hearings could take to investigate the administrative actions of various officials. The role involved offering a form of check and balance to insure no misbehaviors took place by higher officials. The audiencia reported back to the crown about a colonys overall performance. What was the role of the cabildo?

The cabildo governed at the local level. It was a political, judicial, and administrative unit for each new settlement. Officials visited the territories under their jurisdiction and dispensed justice in rural areas. They could fill-in for the absence of a governor or his lieutenant. Their roles slowly diminished as royal government became better organized. Chapter 4 The Emerging Colony How did the Catholic Church and Spain benefit from the conversions of Indians to Christianity? The Church benefited from conversion in terms of wealth. The church benefited from the protection of the Spanish crown. The tithe or tax helped increase riches. Property owned by the church was exempt from paying taxes. Education was also in the hands of the church. This led to church leaders being some of the most educated people

within society. Chapter 5 Colonial Economy and Labor What is mercantilism? It is where the colonies supply minerals and raw materials to the mother country, that can be then converted into manufactured products and sold back to the colonists. Spain believed, as did other European powers, that colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country. Local manufacture and industry were discouraged. Chapter 5 Colonial Economy and Labor What Spanish port became the center of trade

between Spain and Mexico? The Casa de Contratacion, or House of Trade, located first in Seville and eventually in Cadiz conducted all trade. Once or twice yearly, fleets traveled to and from the colonies bringing all items of trade. The Casa supervised commerce and navigation, issued ordinances to regulate trade, and tried cases that resulted from violations of Casa regulations. Chapter 5 Colonial Economy and Labor What are Consulados? Consulados were powerful merchant guilds composed of prominent Spanish businessmen who monopolized most transactions. The Casa protected the merchants and

excluded competition. The consulados sold and bought goods and furnished capital for commercial enterprises. The Crown did exercise direct control on taxing certain products such as mercury, gunpowder, and salt. Overall, there were more than fifty different taxes. The Crown also collected tribute from the Indians and sold licenses, offices, and land. Chapter 5 Colonial Economy and Labor Due to high prices of Spanish products, the desire for a variety of European goods, and the decline of Spain as a major maritime power, what region became the center for smugglers? The Caribbean became the center of operations for smugglers. Smuggling, particularly in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, became a profitable and important commercial activity, usually welcomed by colonial settlers,

frequently tolerated by greedy Spanish officials, and always opposed by the Spanish Crown. Piracy was also a challenge. Using the Caribbean as their base of operations, French, English, and Dutch pirates terrorized coastal Spanish towns, plundering and seizing Spanish gold and silver. Chapter 5 Colonial Economy and Labor Despite Mexicos initial wealth after a major gold and silver rush, why did the country remain an impoverished nation? Spain squandered much of its wealth from the New World in futile dynastic, religious, and territorial wars in Europe. Spain remained greedy, as the country hoped for greater wealth to satisfy the ambitions of mediocre monarchs.

Chapter 5 Colonial Economy and Labor While the main productive centers in rural areas were the mines and haciendas (plantations), what was the main from of production in the urban areas? The obraje, or textile sweatshop, was the main form of production in urban areas. Luxury items such as expensive fabrics were imported from Spain from European countries and then shipped to the colonies at inflated prices. Most of the population in Mexico could not afford these expensive fabrics. As a result, local textile mills developed throughout major cities in New Spain. Chapter 5 Colonial Economy and Labor

Who worked at the textile mills in New Spain? Indians, black slaves, and common criminals, who were assigned to the mills to fulfill their sentences, worked at the textile mills. In addition to textiles, these obrajes produced smaller crafts and products. What were the working conditions like in textile sweatshops? The conditions were miserable at best. Workers were placed behind locked doors and forced to work long hours with little rest and poor food. Although conditions in the mines and haciendas were difficult, the obrajes seem to have been worse, probably only a notch above being in prison. All appear half naked and deformed. The doors remain constantly shut. All were unmercifully flogged if they commit the smallest trespass.

Chapter 5 Colonial Economy and Labor What was the repartimiento? It was an organized labor practice that was created as the Indian population declined, the encomienda system was abolished, and the need to organize and tighten control over the dwindling native population grew. The repartimiento or apportionment consisted of an allotment of laborers by Spanish officials to a Spaniard or Creole for a specified period of time to work in the mines, produce foodstuffs, or build highways, churches, and other public facilities. The Indians were to be paid and not abused. However, there was a gap between theory and practice, and the Indians were overworked, abused, and frequently never even paid. Chapter 5 Colonial Economy and Labor

The eventual decline of the repartimiento, due to Indians already being accustomed to paying tribute to support their rulers, gave way to which insidious and longer lasting system? Debt peonage became widespread in the late colonial period. Employers induced Indians to work for wages and advanced them money and goods on their salaries. Because enough money was advanced, the workers could never hope to pay off the debt. In addition, because they legally could not abandon their place of employment until all debts were paid, they became debt peons and were tied to their bosses for life. Their debts were inherited by their children, which perpetuated the system indefinitely. Chapter 5 Colonial Economy and Labor Despite the economic system preserving the colonies under Spanish control for more than three centuries, what problems did

it create that still effects Mexico today? It created an economy that is dependent on the outside world, one that stifled innovation, commerce, and industry. It fostered social and ethnic inequalities, which surfaced violently during the wars for independence. It promoted a landed elite whose power was based on the large haciendas and the bondage of Indians. This landed oligarchy encouraged regionalism and localism. The glory of the early days had faded, and by the end of the eighteenth century, the colonies languished as decaying remnants of a once powerful and prosperous empire. Chapter 6 The Bourbon Century Where were the Bourbons from? Charles II died without an heir, which gave the Bourbons of France the best claim to the Spanish throne, and in 1701

Philip of Anjou was proclaimed king of Spain. The Bourbons found an impoverished and demoralized Spain. The country was ravaged by wars, ruined by inefficiency and corruption, economically dependent on other European powers or merchants, and estranged from its declining colonial empire. Chapter 6 The Bourbon Century What type of reforms did the Bourbons impose upon the colonies in Spanish-America? They created the Ministry of Marine and Indies, which assumed most of the functions of the Council of the Indies. This ministry became a royal agency for the issuance of new orders dealing with finance, commerce, and other colonial matters. The Bourbons also sought to emphasize stronger and more centralized control and greater efficiency in extracting wealth from Spanish America.

Monopolies increased while Spain continued to prohibit colonial access to world markets. Chapter 6 The Bourbon Century What were the intendente? The Bourbons split up New Spain into twelve territories. The intendente were officials that controlled finances, justice, and war. This new bureaucracy tightened control over the collection of taxes and revenue, supervised royal monopolies, strengthened defense, reduced smuggling and banditry, and engaged in a massive construction program. New silver mines were discovered, tobacco became an important cash crop, as did hides and cochineal. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, New Spain was the most productive and important Spanish colony, the envy of Europe, and the proud possession of Spain.

Chapter 6 The Bourbon Century What initiatives did Jose de Galvez, the visitor general, employ in New Spain? De Galvez lowered taxes and tariffs, made quicksilver more easily available to miners, established a colonial militia, created new territorial organization, and attempted to encourage further settlement in the north. The lack of mineral wealth and labor discouraged northern migration. Chapter 6 The Bourbon Century Why were the Jesuits expelled from Spain and all its colonies, and their properties confiscated in 1767?

First it was part of a European movement directed at society. The Jesuits had become too powerful, too wealthy, and too independent. They had previously been expelled from Portugal and Brazil. In New Spain, they controlled great numbers of Indians, numerous urban properties, and vast rural territories. This power-threat pushed the Crown to expel them. The Spanish were also fearful the Jesuits may spread dangerous ideas that were not officially sanctioned by the crown, as the Jesuits had a societal allegiance to the pope. Chapter 6 The Bourbon Century How did the Jesuits respond to Spanish expulsion? Reaction to the expulsion was violent. Initial shock and disbelief soon gave way to riots and demonstrations. Public officials were insulted and stoned; mobs roamed the streets chanting death to Spaniards Galvez mobilized an army

and crushed the rebellion. Eighty-five men were executed, and almost a thousand were either jailed or banished, all of whom were Indian or mestizo. Jesuit plantations were seized and either abandoned or divided. Jesuit schools were closed, and Indians were now left to fend for themselves, often protected by neither Church nor state. Chapter 6 The Bourbon Century What was the overall impact of the Bourbons in New Spain? The Bourbons produced a degree of economic recovery and allowed for freer economic play. Businessmen who now enjoyed newfound prosperity demanded freer trade and more freedom. Smugglers and importers of non-Spanish goods suffered and grew dissatisfied as they disliked the increased taxation and the effectiveness of the Bourbon officials in collecting taxes. Crown monopolies hurt many producers, such as those in the tobacco industry. The great masses, however, benefited little from the

reforms. Indians and mestizos continued to live in poverty, while some were still indebted for life. - those who had everything and those who had nothing Despite the differences between rich and poor, a new middle class developed lawyers, accountants, small merchants, and planters. Overall the administrative reforms made the colonial system more efficient and allowed for an increase in revenues for the Crown, which caused significant resentment. Chapter 7 Independence or Revolution What racial/ethnic groups were discontent after Bourbon reform? The Indians and mestizos were now required to work harder and produce more for their revived economy and the demanding mother country. The Creoles saw their

possibility for upward political and economic mobility curtailed by Spanish policies. What events occurred when Bourbon power collapsed in Spain? The monarchy was taken over temporarily by Napoleons French armies, civil war broke out: clericals v. anti-clericals, conservatives v. liberals, Creoles v. peninsulares, and Indians and mestizos against all. Chapter 7 Independence or Revolution Though it is difficult to establish a casual connection between economic discontent and a desire for independence, what are some factors that influenced radical Creole ideologies toward independence?

By the early nineteenth century, the Creoles developed a love for their birthplace. A national spirit seemed to develop, and many in Mexico felt a separate and distinct identity. Ideologies from the European Enlightenment, directly from English and French sources, circulated throughout Spain. The Enlightenment inspired a radical group of Creoles to advocate for ending the caste system, as well as curtailing social and economic inequalities. Two Creole priests belonged to this group, and would lead a movement for independence Miguel Hidalgo and Jose Maria Morelos. Chapter 7 Independence or Revolution What happened during the Grito de Dolores? On September 16, 1810, Hidalgo called for the end to bad government and abuses and the removal of the peninsulares from power. Short after calling for independence, he expressed support

for the Church and the deposed King Ferdinand VII and opposed the French occupation of Spain. Indians and mestizos joined the rebellion. The total amount of protestors were about 100,000 and took several small towns, massacred the Spanish defenders, looted the stores and government offices, and marched on the Mexico City. The Spanish government responded and publicized the violence and horror from this movement. Many Creoles fearfully defected. Hidalgo retreated but issued edicts abolishing Indian tribute and black slavery. He ordered lands restored to Indian communities and called for the end of state monopolies. A Spanish army advanced, and captured Hidalgo. He was executed in 1811, and repented and reaffirmed his loyalty to the Spanish Chapter 7 Independence or Revolution What was Jose Maria Morelos ideology for independence? After Hidalgos poorly organized uprising, Morelos organized a well-trained army and launched a campaign in Southern Mexico

that culminated in the capture of two strategic cities Oaxaca and Acapulco. In the territories under his control, Morelos confiscated Spanish lands and wealth, while also abolishing slavery and tribute. In 1813, Morelos called upon his congress to consider his social and economic program which called for Mexican independence, abolition of class distinction, and the abolition of slavery and tribute. It also called for the opposition of Church taxes. His proposals were far-reaching but laid the foundations for later reformers well into the twentieth century. Chapter 7 Independence or Revolution What stalled Morelos movement? Bitter rivalries within the movement, mounting opposition from fearful conservative peninsulares and Creoles, and Spanish military efficiency and superiority doomed the rebellion. Morelos was captured, tried, and executed in 1815. Although

two of his lieutenants, Victoria and Guerrero, continued guerilla warfare, it was left to the conservative Creole aristocrat Col. Agustin de Iturbide to lead Mexico into independence. Chapter 7 Independence or Revolution What changes occurred in Spain that precipitated independence? In 1820, a liberal movement forced the autocratic Spanish King Ferdinand VII to reinstate the liberal constitution in 1812 and to install a constitutional monarchy in Spain. The new government was controlled by liberal anticlerical elements determined to establish a reformist, constitutional government with guarantees of the rights of men, freedom of the press, representative government, and a parliamentary system. The changes in Spain were welcomed in Mexico by liberal, anticlerical, and separatist

Creoles as well as remnants of the insurgent armies. Chapter 7 Independence or Revolution How did the peninsulares, conservative Creoles, and the Church hierarchy feel about the liberal policies in Spain? They felt that an independent Mexico, which could suppress and control the masses of Indians and mestizos, and could protect their own interests as well as those of the Church, seemed preferable to remaining under the uncertain control of a liberal Spain. They turned to de Iturbide a Creole aristocrat to fight for an independent Mexico. What three guarantees were granted in the February 24, 1821 Plan of Iguala?

It delineated a conservative program based on three guarantees of religion, independence, and equal treatment for the peninsulares and Creoles. The secure these guarantees, the army was called upon as protector and safekeeper of the new order. Chapter 7 Independence or Revolution After a new realignment of forces led to the quick expulsion of Spain and the establishment of an independent Mexico, what new position did Augustin de Iturbide take? Augustin de Iturbide was crowned Emperor Agustin I on July 21, 1822. He spent lavishly, reorganized the church, asserted his authority to appoint church officials, and launched an invasion southward into Central America in a futile attempt to annex the newly independent countries of that region. Mismanagement, corruption, and waste flourished.

Chapter 7 Independence or Revolution What was the relationship between Iturbide and U.S. President James Monroe like during the early 1820s? Monroe expressed his unhappiness that Mexico had established a monarchy and hoped that republican forces would eventually emerge victorious. Monroe sent diplomats to Mexico to interview Iturbide. Joel Roberts Poinsett concluded in a society not remarkable for strict morals, Iturbide was distinguished for his immorality. He is no scrupulous about the means he employs to obtain his ends. Iturbide sent Manuel Zozaya, a Mexican minister, to Washington. Why did President Monroe ultimately decide to recognize the Mexican government, while also appointing a minister (Poinsett) to be in charge of US-Mexican affairs?

President Monroe was concerned that rejecting Zozaya would hurt Mexican relations, and would antagonize U.S. business interests eager for trade with Mexico. Chapter 7 Independence or Revolution What events led up to the execution of Iturbide? Old insurgents, unemployed rebels, and the ambitious and disappointed Army officers opposed his policies, and his flamboyant wasteful style. By December 1822, opposition turned into full rebellion. The old insurgent generals, Victoria and Guerrero, and a young officer named Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, joined forces and pronounced against Iturbide. They issued the Plan of Casa Mata, which called for the abolition of the empire, the end of Iturbides rule, and the establishment of a federal constitutional republic. Iturbide escaped into exile, only to return several months later to lead a counterrebellion. He was arrested, tried, and executed in 1824. He died

proclaiming his love for Mexico and the Catholic religion. The independence of Mexico ended up as a conservative Creole reaction to the liberalism of Spain and an attempt to maintain the power and privilege of the white minority. Independence unleashed uncontrollable forces for change. Chapter 8 The Age of Santa Anna What major problems occurred during the emergence of Mexico as an independent republic? The years of warfare destroyed the economy, increased social and political tensions, and caused enormous suffering and misery. Of a population of seven million, an estimated half a million died during the wars for independence. Devastation in the countryside and in the cities left thousands unemployed. Disease, banditry, and violence were rampant.

Who was the first president of Mexico? The first president of Mexico was Guadalupe Victoria, who inherited an empty treasury and a devastated economy. Agricultural production was at a standstill due to the many farms and haciendas that had been destroyed or abandoned. Chapter 8 The Age of Santa Anna What were the conditions in the urban areas like after Mexican independence? In the urban areas, conditions were not much better. Many cities remained isolated from the rural areas owing to poor transportation or cut off by the rebels and bandits. Few goods and products were moving. With few shipments of raw cotton, the prosperous textile industry ground to a halt. Obrajes closed. Laborers, particularly Indians and mestizos, sank to new levels of

poverty. The peninsulares moved back to Mexico. The anti-Spanish policies of the new government increased apprehension among the few peninsulares left in the country. Finally, in 1825, the Mexican government accused them of conspiring with Spain to regain its lost colony and expelled all Spaniards from Mexico . Chapter 8 The Age of Santa Anna How would you describe the social atmosphere in Mexico during Victorias time as president? People remained divided. The inexperience, bickering, and corruption of the new governing elites aggravated the already precarious economic conditions. The Creoles inherited power with little or no experience in government. The divided nation was riddled with regionalism and nationalism. Oftentimes, the military became a tool of unscrupulous military as well as civilian leaders intent on using force to promote their own narrow interests. Indians and mestizos seemed uninterested in the political process and were primarily

concerned about eking out an existence. Liberals supported the guiding role of the state over the Church, whereas the conservatives advocated a Church that would guide the destinies of the nation. Chapter 8 The Age of Santa Anna What did liberal theoretician Jose Maria Luis Mora advocate? He advocated individual as opposed to communal property rights. He attacked the special privileges of corporate entities such as the Church and the army because he felt they prevented economic growth. Mora also advocated a federalist form of government and a limited democracy. What did conservative theoretician Lucas Alaman advocate?

He advocated a strong central government and Catholic Church, and supported corporate ownership in mining and industry. The conservatives wanted a strong unified Mexico under Church influence even at the expense of freedom. The liberals wanted a decentralized Mexico with an emasculated Church even at the expense of a fragile nation. Chapter 8 The Age of Santa Anna Describe the Mexican Constitution of 1824. The Constitution was partially modeled on the United States Constitution. It organized Mexico as a federal republic composed of nineteen states and four territories. A division of powers between executive, judicial, and legislative was established. The legislator was bicameral, and each state was represented by two

senators and one deputy for every eighty thousand citizens. The states were granted stronger powers than those of the United States. The president and vice-president was elected by the state legislator for a four-year term. Catholicism was made the official state religion, and the president was granted extraordinary powers in emergency situations, which was a provision often used by later leaders to assume dictatorial powers. Chapter 8 The Age of Santa Anna What was the political atmosphere like in Mexico for the 50 years following the Constitution of 1824? For the next fifty years, constitutions and laws hardly mattered. Violence and instability permeated the political process. Violence came to be accepted as a legitimate means of promoting change, which is not to say that profound economic or social change occurred. On the contrary, most of the changes were at the top of the political spectrum. Leaders replaced one another advocating

liberal or conservative causes, while the basic structure of society remained little changed. During this period, thirty different individuals occupied the presidency. No president, except the first one, lasted for more than two consecutive years. Rebellions and coups occurred almost annually. Chapter 8 The Age of Santa Anna Of the earlier powers involved in Mexico, which one became the most important? Great Britain became the most important. The British saw Mexico as a large and profitable market for their growing textile industry, among others. The British were quick to recognize the independence of Mexico, as well as the rest of Latin America, and dispatched commercial and trade missions to the region. As Mexicos economy floundered, the British were also eager to loan money to the new nation. British capital invested in Mexicos mining industry.

A large proportion of Mexican trade was with England. Chapter 8 The Age of Santa Anna Why was the United States at an early disadvantage in regards to trade with Mexico? The Mexicans seemed suspicious of their northern neighbor and of its Manifest Destiny. The first American representative to Mexico, Joel Poinsett, did not help matters. Poinsett muddled continuously in the internal affairs of the country. Poinsett was strongly anti-Spanish and sided with the liberals in helping them organize a Masonic lodge, which they hoped would become the leading center of radical thought. The United States would have to wait until the last decades of the century to exercise great influence in the economic and political affairs of its southern neighbor.

Chapter 8 The Age of Santa Anna Describe the rise of Santa Anna within the Mexican political scene. Antionio Lopez de Santa Anna was born in Veracruz, from a well-to-do business family. Santa Anna graduated from the military academy in time to join the royalist army against independence leaders. In 1821, he defected to the pro-independence forces of Iturbide, and received the rank of colonel and later general. He soon turned against Iturbides short-lived empire and supported the republican forces. An ambitious, flamboyant, and erratic leader, Santa Anna ruled Mexican politics for a quarter of a century and served as president six times. He shifted his political allegiances and ideologies to suit his own objectives. In 1829, Santa Anna was catapulted to national prominence when he defeated the Spanish army that was trying to reconquer Mexico. The defeat of the Spanish army not only increased Santa Annas popularity but also consolidated the independence of the new Mexican republic. It helped formulate what later became the major tenets of Mexicos foreign policy self determination, nonintervention, and Latin American solidarity.

Chapter 8 The Age of Santa Anna Describe Santa Annas presidency in the 1830s. In 1833, the state legislatures elected the savior of the nation as president. As vice president, Santa Anna selected Valentin Gomez Farias, a distinguished writer and intellectual, as well as a strong advocated of liberalism. Santa Anna tired quickly of the daily presidential routine and preferred to leave the governing to his vice president. How did Farias govern? The liberal administration of Gomez Farias introduced several anti-military, anti-clerical reforms. The size of the army was reduced, and military officers would now be subjected, for the first time, to civilian, instead of

military, tribunals. The attack on the church was more profound. Clergymen would be allowed to preach only about religious matters. All education from now on would become secular. Because of the large number of priests, the University of Mexico was closed down. The government, not the Church or the pope, would make all clerical appointments, and nuns and priests were allowed to forswear their vows. Finally, the payment of mandatory taxes to support the church was Chapter 8 The Age of Santa Anna What was Santa Annas reaction to Fariass radical reforms? The Church, the army, and conservative elements banded together to oppose the regime. Rebellion and violence erupted all over the country. Smelling a popular cause, Santa Anna reversed his traditional support for the liberals, joined the conservative elements, overthrew his vice-president, and marched victorious on Mexico City. Santa Anna abolished all of Fariass reforms and established a Catholic, centralist dictatorship. He eliminated the

Constitution of 1824, and replaced it with the Constitution of 1836. The states were converted into military departments that were commanded by army officers who had been appointed by Santa Anna. The right to hold public office was reserved to those with property and income, and the right to vote was restricted. The new regime and constitution dealt a death blow to the federalist experiment and instituted a centralized dictatorship led by the military. Chapter 8 The Age of Santa Anna Describe U.S. migration to Texas. Significant numbers of U.S. citizens had entered Texas during the early nineteenth century. The Mexicans granted the Austin family from the United States permission to settle approximately three hundred Catholic families in the region. Yet, many more came in. Most were not Catholic. The Mexican government became alarmed and in 1829 issued an emancipation proclamation, in hopes that the abolition of slavery would

deter further U.S. immigration. The abolition was not enforced and more U.S. settlers continued to enter Texas. In 1830, Mexico prohibited all migration from the United States. The official ending of U.S. migration was but one of the grievances of the U.S. Texans. They felt underrepresented in the state legislature and were unhappy with Mexicos legal system. The Mexican governments insistence on integrating and exercising great control over Texas increased resentments. When Santa Anna abolished the federalist constitution and imposed a centralist state, some Mexican liberals opposed to Santa Anna helped the Texans establish the Lone Star Republic and choose David Burnet as president. Chapter 8 The Age of Santa Anna What happened at the Alamo? Santa Anna organized an army of approximately six thousand men and marched into Texas. On March 6, 1836, at the battle of El

Alamo or the massacre at the Alamo the Mexicans routed the Texans, killing all of the defenders of El Alamo. How did the Texans respond to the Alamo? Opposition to Mexican brutality increased within the United States, along with sympathy for the Texans cause. With renewed support and weapons from the North, the Texans reorganized under the leadership of Sam Houston. Houstons forces surprised Santa Anna's arm. At the Battle of San Jacinto and under the cry of remember the Alamo, the Mexicans were soundly defeated, Santa Anna was captured, and Texas became independent. Chapter 8 The Age of Santa Anna What problems arose after Santa Annas defeat? As a prisoner, Santa Anna promised the Texans to never

again use force against them. Santa Anna met with U.S. President Andrew Jackson for a brief discussion on the future of Texas and on U.S.-Mexican relations. In 1837, Santa Anna returned to Veracruz and insisted that the promises he made while a prisoner should not be honored and that Texan independence should not be recognized. For the next eight years, the Texas Republic remained a thorny issue in U.S.Mexican relations. The Mexicans refused to recognize the independence of Texas, and the United States refused to admit Texas into the Union. Chapter 8 The Age of Santa Anna What other war did Santa Anna fight in? Shortly after the Texas conflict, a short war with France took place. French businessmen in Mexico had filed numerous claims against the Mexican government as their properties had been damaged or destroyed during Mexicos unending civil strife. One of these claims was by a French owner of a pastry shop, whose store had been

ransacked by Mexican army soldiers. When the king of France failed to receive any compensation for the claims, a French naval force blockaded and bombarded Veracruz on April 16, 1838. The Pastry War had started, but ended quickly as the Mexicans expelled the French from Veracruz. Leading the Mexican forces was General Santa Anna. He lost his leg during this conflict, and placed it in an urn at the national cemetery. Santa Anna soon retired and left the chores of governing to others. Chapter 8 The Age of Santa Anna How does the book describe Santa Annas legacy? Santa Anna is described as a brave and energetic, yet irresponsible, corrupt, and egotistical nineteenth-century military caudillo that reflected the worst of Mexicos early years. He was both the product and the cause of Mexican instability. The deep divisions within society, the weakness of political institutions except for the military, and the ambitions and, at times, lack of

principles of many political leaders made the age of Santa Anna a disastrous period in Mexican history. Economically in ruins and about to lose a significant chunk of territory, Mexico floundered. Santa Anna was about to play his last, and probably worst, act in the Mexican tragedy as leader of a war with the United States. Chapter 9 The U.S.-Mexican War What were the causes of the U.S.-Mexican War? The United States and Mexico had a long-standing border dispute, which included the annexation of Texas. Mexico also refused to pay the United States a debt owed for the mistreatment of U.S. citizens and for property either confiscated or destroyed in Mexico. There was also a belief within prominent sectors of the American political establishment that the whole of the North American continent must eventually be controlled by the United States. Combining land grabbing with political idealism, these expansionists proclaimed that it was the manifest destiny of the

United States to extend the beliefs of democracy and the American way of life wherever possible. The issue of the boundary disputes also centered on the North American involvement in Texas. The Americans had coveted Texas since the turn of the nineteenth century. Chapter 9 The U.S.-Mexican War Despite U.S. citizens enthusiastically supported Texass fight for independence, what existed within the political atmosphere in the United States that prevented its annexation? The problem of annexation centered on the issue of slavery. Northern congressmen feared that if Texas was permitted into the Union, it would enter as a slave state. Unwilling to create political turmoil in the United States, President Andrew Jackson recognized Texass independence in 1837, instead of offering it statehood. Therefore, any potential confrontation with Mexico over Texas was sidestepped for ten years. For the time being, Texas remained an

independent republic. During Texass presidency of Bonaparte Lamar, Texas incurred a heavy debt, mostly owed to the United States. Likewise, the British hoped to impede the westward expansion of the United States by creating a separate nation along its border. Chapter 9 The U.S.-Mexican War How was the Texas issue viewed by the Mexicans? In Mexico, the loss of Texas infuriated the Mexican people, who demanded that their leaders recover it, by force, if necessary. The Mexican political leadership reacted in two ways: first it encouraged border raids by Mexican troops into Texas; and then it warned the U.S. government that any attempt to annex Texas would create a state of war between the two countries. President Jose Joaquin Herrera, who had succeeded Santa Anna as president in 1844, after Santa Anna was exiled went so far as to ask the Mexican

congress for a declaration of war to take effect if the United States annexed or invaded Texas. Chapter 9 The U.S.-Mexican War What was U.S. President James Polks views on expansionism? James Polk was elected in 1844, and ran for the presidency on a platform advocating westward expansion and that the territories of Texas and Oregon be added to the United States. The United States initiated formal annexation procedures for Texas. Polks election was considered to be a mandate from the American people on the issues of annexation. On March 1, 1845, Texas was formally offered annexation by the United States. Thirty-days later, Mexico responded by severing diplomatic ties with the United States. Further aggravating the situation was the fact that the United States now claimed its southern border at the Rio Grande river, which infuriated the Mexicans, who

considered the border to be at the Nueces River. Chapter 9 The U.S.-Mexican War What was the concept of Manifest Destiny? The term manifest destiny was coined in 1845 by John L. OSullivan, editor of the Democratic Review, to describe the U.S. destiny to conquer and occupy North America. This belief was not new, however, as Thomas Jefferson and others had spoken about the hope and need for the citizens of the United States to control all of the Americas. Although there were Americans who objected to this sense of superiority and even racism toward other cultures, President Polks election signified a victory for those who dreamed of U.S. rule from coast to coast. Furthermore, Polk did not even try to conceal this wish to incorporate the western part of the continent into the United States. Unfortunately, Mexico was in the way of the expansionists dreams; Texas became the battleground.

Chapter 9 The U.S.-Mexican War Before the U.S.-Mexican War, what were the views in the United States of the Mexicans? Proponents of Manifest Destiny over Texas argued that it was the U.S. mission to seize the territory because Mexico was unworthy to possess it. Newspapers editorialized about this duty to save the land from the lazy, immoral, and corrupt Mexicans. Some even argued for the outright annexation of Mexico. The dispute over Mexicos failure to pay recompense for its treatment of U.S. citizens and their property further aggravated people within the United States. In 1845, Polk was willing to exchange the amount due for the Mexican recognition of the U.S. border at the Rio Grande and the right of the United States to purchase New Mexico and California. Mexico perceived the offer as a threat to its nationhood, and promptly rejected it.

Chapter 9 The U.S.-Mexican War What events led up to the first gunshots of the U.S.-Mexican War? In 1845, Polk sent John Slidell, a Democratic politician from Louisiana, to Mexico to try to resolve the dispute over the annexation of Texas and the U.S. claim of the Rio Grande River as the border. Slidell was also instructed to buy California. An agreement was not met. The failure to negotiate a deal led Polk to order General Zachary Taylors troops to the Rio Grande. Mexico perceived Taylors advance as an act of war, and the Mexican government ordered Taylor to retreat to the Nueces River. Taylor ignored the Mexican warning, which precipitated the start of armed conflict. On April 25, 1846, the first shots of the war were fired. On May 13, 1846 the United States Congress declared war on Mexico, as Polk called upon 50,000 volunteers to join the U.S. military. Thousands of young men heeded the presidents call and enlisted. Chapter 9

The U.S.-Mexican War What regions of the U.S. were the most opposed to the war? The most supportive? There was strong opposition to the U.S.-Mexican War in the Northeast, where many believed that the expansionist demands came mostly from cotton growers whose purpose for the war was to acquire territories for slavery. The war was the most popular in the West, and most of the army volunteers came from the Mississippi Valley. What role did Santa Anna play in the war? While the war was being fought in the West, Santa Anna returned to Mexico with the help of the United States. He had convinced Polk that he could end the war on American terms if he were allowed to return to Mexico. Santa Anna quickly realized that the Mexican people wanted to

resist the Americans, so that capitulation to the Americans would be politically impossible. He assumed control over the military again and moved his troops to engage Taylors forces. The two armies clashed at the Battle of Buena Vista in February 1847. Santa Anna was forced to retreat after suffering heavy casualties. Chapter 9 The U.S.-Mexican War Despite being ten times larger, why did the Mexican army get defeated by the United States? The Mexican army consisted mostly of underfed, poorly trained, and poorly motivated Indian conscripts who had been equipped with old weapons purchased from Great Britain two decades earlier. The jealousies, divisions, and bickering within the Mexican military also contributed to its defeat.

What terms were included within the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo? The treaty, ratified by the U.S. Congress on March 10, stipulated the Rio Grande as the boundary between the United States and Mexico. Mexico recognized the U.S. annexation of Texas, and ceded the California and New Chapter 9 The U.S.-Mexican War What legacy did the war leave behind? Although more than thirteen thousand U.S. soldiers dies in Mexico, in the United States, the war became nothing more than a footnote, soon overshadowed by the issue of slavery and the Civil War. The same cannot be said of the Mexicans. The war left a legacy of hatred and hostility toward the United States. It created a lasting phobia in

Mexican consciousness toward any act that could be perceived as interventionist. In Mexican schools, children recite tales of the valiant struggle against the U.S. invader. The war, in Mexico, is not referred to as the Mexican-American war, but as the was of the North American invasion. The war left Mexico in chaos, poor, and disunited. Both the liberals and conservatives blamed each other for the defeat. The aftermath of the conflict would lead Mexico to anarchy, civil war, and French intervention. Chapter 10 Prelude to Revolution: La Reforma What was Santa Annas main priorities when becoming the perpetual dictator of Mexico in 1853? Santa Anna, along with conservative leader Lucas Alaman, focused on programs about economic development. New roads and telegraphs were built, and unoccupied lands

were colonized. What were the consequences to Mexico after Lucas Alamans death? Without Alamans influence, Santa Annas excesses became notorious. He increased the size of the army, and Spanish and Prussian officers were brought to Mexico to improve and discipline it. Most liberals were either repressed or sent into exile. Santa Anna spent lavishly and borrowed heavily to keep his flamboyant dictatorship alive. Chapter 10 Prelude to Revolution: La Reforma Who did Santa Anna turn to for financial relief? Ironically, Santa Anna turned to the United States for financial relief. The U.S. government wanted

the Mesilla Valley (a chunk of land in present-day southern New Mexico and Arizona) to build a railroad to California. Santa Anna negotiated the sale of this territory to the United States for ten million dollars. This became known as the Gadsden Purchase. Santa Annas lavish spending and increased taxation rallied internal opposition. To make matters worse, bubonic plague spread throughout the country. Chapter 10 Prelude to Revolution: La Reforma What demographics and ideals were developing in the South in opposition to Santa Anna? In the south, the center of old liberalism, a new generation was emerging that was prepared to challenge the existing order. Fiery and nationalistic, this generation had been educated in secular schools established since

independence. Many of them were mestizos, and some Indians, who rose to prominence in the politics and administration of the provinces, primarily Michoacan and Oaxaca. They rejected the Hispanic Catholic tradition and advocated subordinating the Church and the army to civil authorities, representative democracy, federalism, and a nation of small landholders. While they feared their northern neighbor, they admired U.S. institutions and economic development and longed for a prosperous and Chapter 10 Prelude to Revolution: La Reforma What is the background about the leader of this new generation of political activity? The leader of this new generation a man who would dominate Mexican history for the next two decades was Benito Juarez. A pure blooded Zapotec Indian, Juarez was born in Oaxaca in 1806. Orphaned at an early age, and

unable to speak Spanish until the age of twelve, he left his familys adobe hut and moved to Mexico City to work as a household servant. His philanthropic master provided him with a limited education and encouraged him to become a priest. Juarez, however, was more interested in law and, after much hardship, graduated as a lawyer. Chapter 10 Prelude to Revolution: La Reforma What political positions was Juarez elected to? As law soon gave its way to politics, Juarez was elected to the national Congress in Mexico and served as a provisional governor of his state. As governor, he refused Santa Annas request for refuge in Oaxaca after the Mexican-American War. Juarez considered Santa Anna a disgrace for Mexico and wanted nothing to do with the opportunistic caudillo. In 1848, Juarez was elected for a full term as governor. His administration was considered honest and progressive.

Although he failed to introduce major revolutionary changes, he constructed rural schools, developed the port of Huatulco, which encouraged trade and commerce for the state, and reduced the large bureaucracy. By the time he left office, the state was on a sound fiscal footing, and Indians had a greater stake in the administration of this Chapter 10 Prelude to Revolution: La Reforma How did Santa Anna respond to Juarezs growing political power in Mexico? Santa Anna remembered Juarezs refusal to allow him to seek refuge in Oaxaca and feared the growing power of the liberal forces. Juarez was arrested and, after several months in jail, was exiled to New Orleans, where he joined other exiled Mexicans plotting the overthrow of Santa Anna. In exile, Juarez met Melchor

Ocampo, who was a liberal ideologue. Describe the start of the rebellion to overthrow Santa Anna. In 1854, Juarez and Ocampo, joined forces in supporting Gen. Juan Alvarez, who was then leading an antigovernment rebellion in the state of Guerrero. From exile, Ocampo and Juarez drafted a general statement of principles, which later became known as the Plan of Ayutla. This broad plan outlined grievances against Santa Anna and advocated a temporary dictatorship, led by the liberals Chapter 10 Prelude to Revolution: La Reforma How did Alvarezs rebellion end? The rebellion spread throughout the country. Although Santa Annas armies were better equipped and trained, they were unable to crush the liberal forces. The rebels utilized

guerrilla warfare. The Plan of Ayutla and the anticlerical, constitutional ideas of liberals captured the imagination of a population tired of dictatorship, corruption, and militarism. In August 1855, sensing that the end of his regime was near, Santa Anna galloped off to Veracruz and exile for the last time. Seventeen years later, he was allowed to return to Mexico, where he died poor and forgotten in 1876. Chapter 10 Prelude to Revolution: La Reforma What were the aims of The Reform? With Santa Anna out of the picture, the stage was set for the bitter conservative-liberal struggle that followed. This struggle, The Reform, lasted several years, cost many lives, produced the Constitution of 1857, and culminated in a bizarre episode the French intervention and the establishment of the Maximilian empire in Mexico. The aims of the reform were clearly a social, political, and economic revolution where the liberals wanted to

destroy societys feudalistic organization, establish constitutional government, destroy the powers of both the church and the army, develop the economy by distributing and making productive the properties and lands of the Church, as well as to create a nation of small property owners. The role of the Church was the issue that captivated liberals the most. For them, an all-powerful institution, usually above the law and controlling much of the wealth of Mexico, was intolerable. Chapter 10 Prelude to Revolution: La Reforma Who took power after The Reform? In 1855, the liberals took power; dressed in black, in a black carriage, and surrounded by Indian masses, Benito Juarez rode into Mexico City. Alvarez became the provisional president, and was later replaced by Ignacio Comonfort. Ocampo became the secretary of the treasury, Miguel Lerdo de Tejada the secretary of

development, and Juarez the secretary of justice. The new government set out to dismantle the institutional structures underpinning the conservative state. Chapter 10 Prelude to Revolution: La Reforma What legislative goals did the liberals have after The Reform? The first piece of legislative action was the Ley Juarez. This law abolished the military and ecclesiastical fueros, which were special privileges that exempted soldiers and clerics from being tried in civil courts. The second major piece was the Ley Lerdo, which prohibited corporations such as the Church or civil communities from owning land not directly used in day-to-day operations. Other laws included the power of registering births, marriages, and deaths were taken away from the Church and given to the state. Cemeteries were also placed under state control. The Church was also prohibited from charging high fees for

administering the sacraments. Chapter 10 Prelude to Revolution: La Reforma What were some negative effects of Ley Lerdo? It partially destroyed the economic foundations of the country. Church properties were mostly well managed, and overseers of these properties, generally treated the mestizo and Indian workers reasonably well. These enterprises also supported charities, as well as educational institutions. Once auctioned, they were not distributed among the poor but fell in the hands of speculators, many of whom were foreigners. The destruction of communal lands did not produce a country of small landholders. Instead of increasing support for the liberals, the Ley Lerdo alienated entire Indian tribes who failed to comprehend this attack on their traditional way of life. Chapter 10

Prelude to Revolution: La Reforma Describe the Constitution of 1857. The Constitution of 1857 incorporated laws issued during the previous months including the Ley Juarez and the Ley Lerdo. The constitution set up a democratic, representative government of a single house; it retained the federal system, but attempted to control its excesses by providing Congress with the power to remove state officials. The liberals hoped to create a balance between the old, traditional congressional subservience and executive preeminence, which provided for greater congressional power. This sparked from fear of regionalism. The constitution also provided a comprehensive bill of rights, which included freedom of speech, the press, petition, assembly, and the mail. It voided names of nobility, and provided the right of habeas corpus. It established a Supreme Court. Finally, it established secular education, and tacitly recognized freedom of religion. Chapter 10

Prelude to Revolution: La Reforma What problems sparked as a result over the debate about the Constitution of 1857? Debate on the constitution had barely ended before the pope injected himself into the internal affairs of Mexico. The pope denounced the reform program and declared null and void the laws and the constitution. The Church also criticized those who had obeyed the liberal government. Chapter 10 Prelude to Revolution: La Reforma Describe the civil war, the War of the Reform, that took place between 1858-1861.

Conservative General Zuloaga issued the Plan of Tacubaya, dissolved Congress, and arrested Juarez. While President Comonfort attempted to mediate, the lines were being drawn. Liberals in the provinces supported the Constitution; conservatives in Mexico City proclaimed Zuloaga president. Juarez managed to escape to Queretaro, where his supporters named him the president. The liberals, with Juarez, established their government in Veracruz, where they received military aid from abroad. Juarez issued decrees implementing the constitution and included a complete separation of church and state. In Mexico City, Zuloaga declared the Reform Laws null and void, swore allegiance to the pope, and prepared to destroy the liberals. While France, England, and Spain offered their support to the conservative cause, Washington supported the liberals. War raged on and the liberals prevailed. In January 1861, Juarez entered Mexico City, dressed in black, as the victor. Chapter 11 Maximilian and Foreign Intervention What was the political climate in Mexico like following the civil war?

Disgruntled conservative and liberal generals and soldiers roamed the countryside, private armies pillaged and plundered the partly destroyed haciendas, highways in disrepair became even more dangerous, and commerce was at a standstill. The years of war had produced a profound cleavage in society. While some advocated forgiveness and reconciliation, others called for justice and vengeance. Changes in the Juarez cabinet were frequent, debate in the Congress was tumultuous, and speeches were fiery. Mobs in the streets would throw rocks at buildings and loot other places. Guerilla armies attacked liberals and conservatives that roamed the countryside. Conservative militants for instance, shot and killed Melchor Chapter 11 Maximilian and Foreign Intervention What difficulties did Juarez face while president?

Mexico had little to no money in the treasury, as well as a bankrupt country. The income from the sale of expropriated Church properties was much less than anticipated, as much land was sold below its true value. Borrowing from abroad seemed the only way to finance government operations. Mexico, however, already owed plenty of money, and European powers were more interested in collecting their old debts than in lending fresh money. In 1861, Juarez declared a two-year moratorium on the payment of Mexicos foreign debt. European powers protested, and wanted their money faster. Chapter 11 Maximilian and Foreign Intervention What European countries intervened within Mexico? In 1861, as the United States was preoccupied with their civil war, European powers decided to act. On October 31, 1861,

representatives from Spain, France, and England signed the Convention of London. They agreed upon a joint occupation of the Mexican ports until their money was repaid. They further agreed that they would not acquire any Mexican territory or interfere in the internal affairs of the Mexican government. How was France different in their treatment of Mexico? Under the rule of Louis Napoleon III, nephew of Napoleon I, France had embarked on an aggressive foreign policy. Napoleon III aimed at establishing French hegemony over large and distant lands. He coveted a spot in the New World, and thought Mexico would be a good solution to his expansionist desires. Supporting the Church and the Catholic elements of Mexico also played well into French Chapter 11 Maximilian and Foreign Intervention What role did Jose Manuel Hidalgo play in encouraging French occupation of Mexico?

The numerous Mexican exiles living in Paris encouraged the monarchs ambitions. In particular, Hidalgo charmed and befriended Empress Eugenie. A conservative land-holder, Hidalgo had lost his lands in Mexico and wanted revenge against the liberals. The empress had introduced him and other Mexican refugees to Napoleon. Napoleon was convinced, and wanted to restore monarchial rule in Mexico and establish a French empire in America. In early 1862, the occupation of Mexico began. Spanish, English, and French troops landed in Veracruz. It soon became apparent to the Spanish and English that France was intent on collecting more than payment for debt. After a series of meetings, the English and Spanish withdrew from Veracruz. Chapter 11 Maximilian and Foreign Intervention What did France do to try to restore monarchial order in Mexico, once the other European powers left Veracruz?

The French army marched inland toward Puebla. Juarez ordered his army, commanded by Ignacio Zaragoza, to resist the French invaders. The battle for Puebla cost both sides dearly, but a young Mexican officer, Porfirio Diaz, distinguished himself helping to repel the invaders, many of whom had been weakened by disease and heat exhaustion. The French army retreated and waited for reinforcements. Napoleon III was infuriated, and ordered thirty-thousand troops to Mexico. With the reinforcements, Juarez and his men had to retreat into the mountains. Chapter 11 Maximilian and Foreign Intervention Who became the French monarch of Mexico? Napoleon and his advisors settled on an unemployed prince to rule Mexico - Maximilian Hapsburg. He was well-educated, had traveled extensively, and had commanded the imperial fleet. In 1857, the same year Mexican liberals issued their constitution,

Maximilian married Princess Charlotte Amalie, daughter of the king of Belgium. Soon thereafter, he moved into his castle in Miramar near Trieste to await royal assignment. Representatives of Napoleon and of Mexican conservatives visited him in Miramar to offer him the Mexican throne. Maximillian, who was in his early thirties, was eager to accept. His only condition was that the Mexicans approve his tenure. A rigged plebiscite was soon arranged in Mexico under the supervision of the French army. The Mexicans voted overwhelmingly for their new monarch. Maximilian and his wife, who had been renamed Carlota, arrived in Veracruz in May 1864, to the disdain of the Mexican people. Chapter 11 Maximilian and Foreign Intervention Was Maximilians rule more liberal or conservative? How did this effect his supporters? If the conservatives had hoped for a proclerical, reactionary monarch they were quickly and sadly disappointed.

Maximilian was eager to help the poor and the oppressed and to abolish injustices. A romantic idealist, he was ideologically closer to the liberals. He soon alienated his conservative supporters. He refused to abolish the laws of the reform, to return confiscated Church properties or to reestablish the Catholic religion to the exclusion of all others. He declared a free press, proclaimed a general amnesty, and appointed a moderate liberal as secretary of foreign affairs. He also passed legislation that established a school system, abolished peonage, and regulated a Mexican navy, which he hoped to build. Chapter 11 Maximilian and Foreign Intervention What was Maximilians relationship with the liberals? Maximilian seemed to love Mexico and to enjoy his role as a monarch. He wore Mexican clothes and spoke of we Mexicans. He praised the leaders of Mexican

independence. He traveled widely and enjoyed riding in the mountains. Maximilian had hoped to be the monarch of all Mexicans, and to attract liberal support. Yet, most liberals wanted nothing to do with him. Although some joined his administration, more from economic need than from conviction, a hard core led by Juarez and Lerdo de Tejado swore revenge and continued guerilla warfare from the northern mountains. Juarez proclaimed, I shall never yield to a foreign enemy, I shall wage the war that the whole nation has accepted until Maximilian recognizes the justice of our cause. Chapter 11 Maximilian and Foreign Intervention What events helped Juarez and his supporters in their opposition to French monarchial control? Prussias successful wars against Denmark and Austria increased Napoleons apprehension of Mexican control. Defending France

became his urgent priority. Opposition to the Mexican adventure was increasing within France. In 1866, Napoleon instructed his generals in Mexico to crush the rebels and prepare to return to France. The second event was the end of the U.S. civil war. The United States watched with concern and consternation over what occurred in Mexico. The U.S. government opposed French intervention in Mexico, as a violation of the Monroe Doctrine, and feared French expansionist objectives in the region. President Lincoln protested mildly to the French, refused to recognize Maximilian, and maintained recognition of the Juarez government. In 1864, the U.S. House of Representatives passed a resolution Chapter 11 Maximilian and Foreign Intervention How did the U.S. efforts against France accelerate at the end of the civil war?

The U.S. increased diplomatic pressure on the French. Weapons began to flow freely to the rebels, and several thousand Union veterans joined the Juarista army. President Johnson and Secretary of State Seward now urged Napoleon to leave Mexico. The mood in the U.S. turned ugly, as some Americans even called for a U.S. military intervention in Mexico to expel the French. General Grant argued for an armed expedition with his nearly forty-thousand troops stationed along the Rio Grande. Calmer heads prevailed and war fever gave way to forceful diplomacy. Finally, Napoleon set up dates for evacuating the army. Chapter 11 Maximilian and Foreign Intervention What happened to Maximilian after his stubbornness over leaving the throne?

Maximilian appointed a conservative cabinet and prepared to lead his troops personally against Juarez and the rebels. With the French army in retreat and with a reduced number of soldier, Maximilian faced the more numerous and better organized Juarez army. At the colonial city of Queretaro, Maximilians army was routed and the emperor was forced to surrender. Juarez decided Maximilians fate, and court martialed him. Juarez sentenced Maximilian to death, and executed him on June 19, 1867. Napoleon gambled in Mexico and lost. While shocked at the barbarous Mexicans, Europeans turned away from Mexico, never again to intervene militarily there. Conservatives within Mexico were labeled as vende patrias those who were willing to sell their nation to a foreign power. Beaten and discredited, many conservatives emigrated from Mexico. Many, however, also stayed Chapter 11 Maximilian and Foreign Intervention What problems did Juarez inherit when reclaiming power?

Juarez entered Mexico City on July 15, 1867. The liberals were now identified with Mexicos sovereignty and national independence, and Juarezs popularity had reached its peak. However, governing Mexico was no easier now than it had been previously. While the liberal-conservative feud that had dominated political life seemed to have abated, rivalries persisted among liberal caudillos. Absorbing in the civilian sectors the thousands of soldiers who had fought against Maximilian and who were being discharged from the army was at best a difficult task. Juarez inherited a paralyzed economy, a burdensome foreign debt, and lawlessness and violence in the rural areas. Chapter 11 Maximilian and Foreign Intervention What did Juarez do to tackle Mexicos problems? Juarez tackled Mexicos problems forcefully and optimistically. With the help of his able secretary of the treasury, Matias Romero,

he developed an economic program that advocated exploiting mineral resources by attracting foreign capital, improving transportation facilities, and organizing an efficient bureaucracy. The tax and tariff structures were revamped as incentives to foreign, as well as domestic, capital. Still, Mexicos instability failed to attract much foreign investment. Juarez also organized a rural police force, the Rurales, which imposed order to the countryside, making roads safer and commerce possible. To foster national unity, he pardoned and freed conservatives and proMaximilian elements. Mining activity was revived. Commerce flourished. A railroad between Mexico City and Veracruz, which had been started in 1837, was now completed. A secular education system was established. This established positivism, Chapter 11 Maximilian and Foreign Intervention How did Juarez approach foreign policy? In foreign affairs, Juarez fostered Mexicos prestige. He developed closer relations with the

United States and publicly acknowledged U.S. support during the war against Maximilian. Secretary of State Seward visited Mexico in 1869, and the two countries submitted pending claims to a mixed arbitration commission. Relations with Europe also improved but at a slower pace. Most Latin American countries supported Juarez and welcomed the expulsion of the French and the restoration of Mexican republicanism. Chapter 11 Maximilian and Foreign Intervention What were the results of the Elections of 1871? Of the three candidates for president, Juarez, Lerdo de Tejada, and Porfirio Diaz, none received the required plurality of votes. The election was thrown to Congress, and Juarez was elected president. An ambitious military leader, Diaz denounced Juarez and staged an unsuccessful

insurrection. Discontented former officers and soldiers, the provincial political bosses, and the remnants of the defeated conservatives all joined in opposition to Juarez. They wanted power. They did not have to wait long, as on July 18, 1872, Juarez suffered a heart attack and died in office. Chapter 12 The Porfiriato What was the state of Mexico after the French left Mexico and Diaz took power? Regionalism and localism still flourished, and the forces for decentralization was still strong. Mexico, however, emerged from the anti-French crusade more unified and proud of having defeated and expelled a mighty invader. The victorious liberals set out to pacify the country and to develop a more modern economy.

What were the ideals, during the Porfiriato, of the new Mexican elite? The new Mexican elite was concerned less with ideas and more with action. They wanted to bring order from the existing chaos. The central government had to have the power and authority to bring about the political control and the economic transformation of the country. Local caudillos had to be subjugated, the army had to be modernized and reduced, and a new professional Chapter 12 The Porfiriato Describe the background of Porfirio Diaz. Diaz was born in Oaxaca in 1830 and came from a poor Indian family with some Spanish blood. His father died when he was three, and the young Porfirio had to work to

help his struggling mother. He studied for the priesthood, and later law but dropped out of both. During the 1850s he joined the army and fought on the liberal side during the War of the Reform. At thirty-two he achieved the rank of brigadier general. Diaz gained national fame by fighting the French and defeating them. From the military, he turned to politics, and became the deputy in 1868. Diaz had a disastrous experience in the Mexican Congress, partially due to his lack of education. In 1871, he ran unsuccessfully for president against Juarez and Lerdo de Tejada. Chapter 12 The Porfiriato What did Diaz do after his defeat in the race to become president? What Diaz failed to achieve through ballots, he achieved through bullets. In 1871, Diaz rebelled against Juarezs reelection. In the Plan de la Noria, he proclaimed that the

reelection of the president was contrary to the principles of the liberal revolution and the 1857 constitution. His rebellion quickly crashed and Diaz retired to Veracruz. After Juarezs death, Lerdo de Tejada assumed the presidency. In the next election, Diaz opposed Lerdo but was soundly defeated. Lerdo failed to unify the country and lacked a support base. This gave Diaz time to build up his own support. Chapter 12 The Porfiriato What happened in the election of 1876? When Lerdo announced in 1876 that he sought reelection, the opposition shifted their support to Diaz. Diaz launched a nationwide rebellion, and proclaimed the Plan of Tuxtepec. The plan charged Lerdo with violating state rights, wasting public funds, and reducing elections to a farce. The plan called for no reelection of the president and state governors. The Porfirista army easily defeated the

pro-Lerdo forces. On November 21, 1876 Lerdo escaped to the United States and Diaz occupied Mexico City. Chapter 12 The Porfiriato What was Diazs objectives when he first became president? For the next third of the century, Diaz either directly or indirectly controlled the destinies of Mexico. No single man had ever wielded so much power for such a long time in Mexican history. The first task for Diaz was the pacification of the country. He knew that in order to attract foreign and domestic investors and to retain power himself, he needed to cripple any opposition to his rule. His pacification was swift and brutal. The rural police force was improved. They received the authority to shoot on sight enemies of the Porfiristas. Opponents were arrested or shot. His pacification encouraged trade and commerce. Relations also expanded with Western Europe and Latin America. The U.S. did not recognize Diaz until mid-1877. For the next three decades,

U.S.-Mexican commercial and diplomatic relations flourished, and the U.S. maintained close and friendly relations with Mexico. Chapter 12 The Porfiriato After Diazs first four-year term ended, who did he support in the next election? Diaz announced he would not seek reelection. Instead he supported Manuel Gonzalez, a young military leader and his secretary of war. Gonzalez had fought with Diaz against Lerdo and was trusted to keep the presidential seat warm for the return of Diaz in four years. What did Gonzalez focus on when he was president?

Gonzalez won the election by a large majority. His administration was characterized by significant economic development coupled with major corruption. Concessions were provided to American railroad builders, usually after significant donations to government officials. Real estate corporations were permitted to survey public lands. A new mining code was issued, which modified old Spanish laws. Chapter 12 The Porfiriato How did the new mining codes become a central issue during the Mexican revolution? Spanish law had traditionally established that the subsoil rights belonged to the state. The new code vested ownership of coal, oil, and other mineral rights on the owners of the surface, so that in providing concessions for land cultivation, the government was also providing ownership of valuable soil rights. This would become a

major issue of contention between the U.S. and Mexico during the Mexican revolution in the early twentieth century, when U.S. oil properties were confiscated by the Mexican revolutionary regime. Chapter 12 The Porfiriato How did Gonzalezs presidency end, and how did this set up the return of Diaz? By the end of his term, the Gonzalez government was on the verge of financial collapse, riddled with graft, and carrying an enlarged foreign debt. There had been significant economic growth, which was primarily the result of foreign investments. Gonzalezs popularity was dwindling, and many clamored for the return of Diaz.

Describe Diazs changes when he returned to the presidency. Diaz was elected to a new four year term. This time, he had no intention of relinquishing power or abiding by his earlier promises of effective suffrage and no reelection. While out of power, Diaz married Carmen Romero Rubio, the daughter of a Lerdista statesman and member of the Creole upper class. She was 18, and he was 51. They traveled widely, primarily to the U.S. Instead Chapter 12 The Porfiriato What reforms did Diaz introduce to Mexico when becoming president again? Diaz entered a close relationship with the Church. He met with the leadership of the Mexican Church and agreed to ignore the laws of the reform. Religious schools were permitted to flourish. The Church prospered, and its ranks were swelled by Spanish, Italian, and French priests. In return, the Church preached obedience to Diaz and his regime. Diaz made

state and federal governments the tools of his wishes. Diaz appointed all twenty-seven state governors and provided them with concessions to run gambling, prostitution, and liquor monopolies. He generously rewarded loyalty and harshly punished betrayal. To modernize the country, Diaz turned to a group of young and bright Mexican economists. Led by Jose Limantour, the son of a French immigrant, members of this group became known as the cientificos. They believed that Mexico was not ready for democracy and that a dictatorship was the only suitable form of government for their country. Managing the economy was what they did best. Duties were lowered on many imports, a series of loans at low interest rates were secured in Europe. The U.S. invested heavily in Mexico, primarily in mining, land, and oil. Commerce and manufacturing flourished Chapter 12 The Porfiriato What was Diaz and the Porfiriatos view on Indians? Land throughout Mexico was thrown open to colonization, primarily by foreigners. About one-fifth of the entire area of the

country was sold at below-market prices to speculators and foreign investors. Even the remaining lands of the Indian communities were open to settlement. When the Mayas and Yaquis protested and rebelled, the Diaz forces brutally suppressed them, and thousands of Indian prisoners were transferred to work as slave laborers in plantations and haciendas. Debt peonage also reappeared. For the cientificos and for the Porfiriato leadership, the Indians were considered inferior. They felt that the nation could expect very little from the indigenous population. They lacked education and good health, and were the poorest sector of society. The cientificos encouraged European immigration in part because Europeans were considered better workers. As a group, Indians were hopelessly condemned to a lower status and Chapter 12 The Porfiriato How would you define Diazs Mexico at the turn of the century? By the turn of the century, Mexico was a relatively prosperous and

peaceful nation enjoying excellent credit and reputation abroad, but this peace and prosperity had a price. Below the sea of tranquility brewed the sources of violent instability. Masses of Indians were oppressed and abandoned. An expanding working class, which had developed with industrialization and economic growth, had neither unions nor rights and was brutally repressed whenever it attempted to assert its demands. There was a growing and nationalistic middle class that resented the power and wealth of the upper classes and foreigners. Finally, there was a frustrated intelligentsia that longed for freedom and change, which had been influenced by socialist, anarchist, and various other foreign ideas. Chapter 12 The Porfiriato What was the significance of an interview between Diaz and the United States in Pearsons Magazine? (1908) In 1908, Diaz told James Creelman, an American newspaperman, that he would not seek reelection in 1910. Intended for a U.S.

audience, the news spread like wildfire throughout Mexico and ignited the flames of hope and opposition. Two books critical of Diaz soon appeared. The Mexican sociologist Andres Molina Enriquez published Los grandes problemas nacionales (The Grave Naitonal Problems), which was a stinging indictment of his dictatorship. A wealthy landowner, Francisco I. Madero, wrote a more popular and influential work, La sucesion presidencial en 1910 (The Presidential Succession in 1910). In it Madero explained that the problems of Mexico were political and called for free and honest elections and the formation of an anti-reelection party dedicated to the principles of the 1857 constitution. Chapter 12 The Porfiriato Describe Maderos anti-reelection movement. Madero traveled throughout the country advocating honest elections and no reelection. His popularity increased as great numbers cheered his speeches. By mid-1910, the antireelection movement had developed to such an extent that

it held a convention in Mexico City and nominated Madero for the presidency. Diaz reacted harshly by arresting Madero and numerous supporters. He also announced that the father-land still needed him, and that he would run for president again. When the elections were held, very few doubted the result, Diaz was reelected for another term. Chapter 12 The Porfiriato What players developed in the revolt against Diaz? Various groups that had hoped to succeed Diaz saw their hopes and aspirations shattered. Madero was eventually released and traveled to Texas. There he drafted the Plan of San Luis Potosi, declared the recent elections illegal, appointed himself provisional president, and called on all Mexicans to rise in arms to overthrow the Diaz dictatorship. In the north, Pascual Orozco a storekeeper and his friend Doroteo Arango, better known as Pancho Villa a cattle rustler and guerilla fighterrose in rebellion and organized an army. In the south, Emiliano Zepata a horse trainer and small landholder called on Indians to rebel and to reclaim their lands. To the cry of death to the hacendados, Indians and mestizos rose in arms against

their masters as well as against the Diaz army. Rebellion spread throughout the countryside. In Mexico City, the otherwise obedient Congress called for Diazs resignation. Without consulting the dictator, Limantour negotiated with the rebels and agreed to Diazs resignation. A new government with a provisional president would be set up, which would be followed by popular elections. On May 23, 1911, after a bloody clash in Mexico City, Diaz resigned and left for exile in Europe. With Diazs departure, his thirty-five year dictatorship crumbled. He left behind a more modern and unified country. Yet the country longed for change. The mantle of power was now passing to a younger generation that was destined to lead Mexico into a new period of violence, turmoil, and finally revolution. Porfirio Daz is one of Mexicos most controversial figures: many see him as a dictator, while others praise his promotion of economic development. Was tyranny a necessary price for progress? Chapter 13

The Mexican Revolution Prior to the Mexican Revolution, what dynamics over time contributed to the weakening growth of democratic institutions? The seeds of nationalism, democracy, and electoralism were planted during the century after independence, but they flourished only occasionally. The rise of the military, the propensity toward violence, the firmly rooted social and economic conflicts, the unwillingness of leaders to accept electoral votes, and the legitimacy of the electoral process all weakened democratic institutions. Personalismo was also very strong. Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution Describe nationalism in Mexico prior to the Mexican Revolution.

Nationalism manifested itself primarily in opposition to the United States and foreign intervention. The U.S. war with Mexico and the Maximilian empire fostered a xenophobic mentality among the Mexicans. They feared and distrusted foreigners, while admiring and welcoming the economic contributions to the modernization of the country. What types of people were calling for change during the Diaz regime? A frustrated middle class, a local business community indignant at the arrogance and control of foreign capital, urban youth longing for freedom, a working class in constant protest and influenced by socialist and anarchist ideas, an Indian peasantry in the state of serfdom who were oppressed by the hacendados ready to rebel to recover its dignity and lands, and a group of theorists of change questioning the existing order were all calling for change during

Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution What were the main causes of the Mexican Revolution? The revolutionary leaders that rose in political rebellion believed nationalism, the redemption of the Indians, the recovery of natural resources, and a more independent, anti-American posture in foreign affairs were all the basic tenets of the revolution. What did the revolution lack? The revolution that developed was principally experimental, piecemeal, and pragmatic. As the first major revolution of the twentieth century, it had no models, but even if it had, the Mexicans wanted to find Mexican solutions to Mexican

problems and were unwilling to import ideological models. The revolution lacked a clear, defined ideology, and for the first decades, was essentially an agrarian revolution. Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution Describe Maderos rise to power, and shortcomings as president. When Madero entered Mexico City in June 1911, he was hailed with greater enthusiasm than any previous victorious political leader. This small man, with a high pitched voice and nervous mannerisms, was seen as the rescuer of Mexico from the long and sinister dictatorship. He was soon elected president by an overwhelming majority. Madero felt that people wanted freedom more than bread. He allowed free speech and a free press, while also guaranteeing the right of assembly. He proposed to restore the Constitution of 1857 and return the lands illegally taken from the Indians. Yet, he had no economic program, and had no talent for governing at such a crucial time. While he preached freedom

and love, his brother organized a brutal secret police and wielded real power. Nepotism and corruption flourished. The president soon lost popularity, and refused to return land to the Indians. Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution Who was the leader of the movement against Madero, and what did he seek to accomplish? The leader of the movement was Emiliano Zapata. Disillusioned with the Madero regime and its failure to fulfill its agrarian promises, he called his people to arms and issued the Plan of Ayala. The plan called for immediate restoration of the lands illegally taken and the seizure of one third of the lands of the hacendados. Waging guerilla warfare, Zapata began distributing lands in Puebla and Morelos. The Zapatistas, through their continued fighting, grew their reputation and gained many followers.

Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution Besides Zapata, who were some other figures, still loyal to the Diaz regime, that wanted to overthrow Madero? Bernardo Reyes, an ex-Porfirian general, attempted to organize the remnants of the Porfirian army to stage a counterrevolution. He failed and was arrested, but while in jail he continued to plot. Felix Diaz, Porfirios nephew, headed an abortive rebellion to install his uncles style of regime with himself at the helm. He was also arrested. Pascual Orozco, an ex-Maderista general, accused the president of selling out to the United States and landed elements and of betraying the interests of the working class. His uprising was quickly crushed, and Orozco escaped to Arizona. Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution

Describe Henry Lane Wilsons displeasure with the Madero administration. Madero also incurred the displeasure of Henry Lane Wilson, the U.S. ambassador to Mexico. While President William Howard Taft was initially sympathetic to Madero, he feared that the Mexican president could keep neither order nor protect U.S. properties. An aggressive and arrogant diplomat, Ambassador Wilson was associated with the Guggenheim business ventures, which were in competition with those of the Madero family. He became a bitter enemy of the Mexican government and reported to Washington that Mexico was seething with discontent. He threatened Madero with U.S. intervention and meddled constantly in the internal affairs of the country. Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution Describe the chain of events leading up to the tragic ten days.

By early 1913, military leaders were ready to act against Madero. Diaz and Reyes were released from prison and marched on the presidential palace. Forces there remained loyal to Madero, and, when Reyes and his men reached the gates, they were met with a burst of fire that killed Reyes and numerous innocent people on their way to Mass. Madero then made the fatal mistake of appointing General Victoriano Huerta as head of the palace guard. Huerta was an unscrupulous, ambitious, and brutal general. Huertas loyalty was only to himself. He longed for the elimination of Madero so that he could assume the presidency. Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution Describe the tragic ten days. For a few days in February 1913, the tragic ten days, Huerta and

Diaz blasted each other with artillery, which killed more innocent bystanders than troops from either side. The U.S. ambassador, Wilson, saw this as an opportunity to influence events. Wilson arranged a secret meeting with the warring generals, and an agreement was struck. Huerta would become provisional president, to be succeeded by Diaz after elections could be held. Madero and his vice president would be exiled to the United States. Once the Pact of the Embassy, as the agreement became known, was finalized, Huerta arrested Madero, and Wilson introduced Huerta to the diplomatic corps as the savior of Mexico and urged them to recognize him as the new head of Mexico. Huertas pledges of safe-conduct for Madero was not honored. Maderos brother was delivered to soldiers who tortured him to death. The president and vice-president were mysteriously killed Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution What was the United States response to the tragic ten days?

The tragic ten days caught the government in Washington by surprise, which placed it in an uneasy position. President Taft and the Republicans were leaving power, and Woodrow Wilson and the Democrats were coming in. The new president immediately recalled Henry Lane Wilson and refused either to appoint a successor or to recognize Huerta. Woodrow Wilson said, I will not recognize a government of butchers. Woodrow Wilson issued a policy on recognition that differed from earlier U.S. policies. President Wilson made his nonrecognition policy of Mexico a general policy for all of Latin America. He hoped this policy would put pressure on Mexico and force the ouster of Huerta. However, Huerta would remain in power Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution Describe Huertas year and a half in power.

Huerta threw most of the members of Congress in jail and inaugurated a savage military dictatorship. He also initiated a mild program of reforms. He built new schools, increased the education budget, and broke with the cientifico tradition. The regime even initiated a modest agrarian reform program, providing free seeds to Indian communities and restoring some ejidos to the Yaqui and Maya Indians. Yet, Huerta had no real social program, and he relied heavily on the military to suppress opposition. His year and a half in power consisted of an orgy of corruption, drunkenness, and repression. Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution What did President Wilson do in his determination to oust Huerta from power and to teach the Mexicans a lesson? Wilson first attempted diplomacy by enlisting British support. He told the British that he was going to teach the

South American republics to elect good men, and that he would work to establish in Mexico a government where foreign contracts and concessions would be safe. Britain withdrew recognition of Huerta and awaited U.S. policy initiatives. Frustrated at the failure of diplomacy, Wilson opened U.S. borders for shipments of weapons to Huertas opponents. Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution Describe one of Huertas opponents Pancho Villa. Villa was an uneducated, orphaned peasant, who was a horse trader and thief. Villa opposed the Diaz regime and joined the Madero forces. Due to his skills as a guerilla fighter, he was given the rank of colonel. Imprisoned for defending the Madero regime, he was able to escape to the United States, where he organized his followers and entered Northern Mexico to fight Huerta. By 1913, he commanded a large army in the north and had became a leader of the people. He

imposed a primitive reform program and built schools. Yet, he imparted justice through the barrel of a gun, and he was never seen without a weapon on his belt. He was cruel toward his enemies and generous with his friends. A brutal and vulgar figure, Villa became a folk hero to some and an opportunistic bandit to others. Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution Summarize the Tampico Incident. On April 9, 1914, the Tampico incident occurred, and the U.S. air was filled with calls for war with Mexico. A group of American sailors landed at that port and mistakenly entered a restricted area. The sailors were arrested and later released. The local commander apologized to the U.S. admiral in charge of the American naval squadron, but the admiral, with the backing of President Wilson, demanded a twenty-one gun salute to the U.S. flag. On April 18, Wilson issued an ultimatum to salute the flag or face the consequences, and upon learning that a German ship was near the

port loaded with ammunition for Huerta, he ordered the U.S. Navy to occupy Veracruz. The marines soon captured the port and the city and lost nineteen men; the Mexicans suffered two hundred losses. The American intervention, which lasted until November 1914, was condemned by both the followers and opponents of Huerta. In Mexico City, congressmen criticized the United States while mobs looted American businesses and burned the American flag. President Wilson Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution How did General Venustiano Carranza avenge Madero and rise to power? Carranza, governor of Coahuila and leader of the anti-Huerta forces to the north, denounced the Tampico occupation as a violation of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Carranza had supported the Madero regime but now organized an army to oppose Huerta. An elderly landowner, this tough, but not particularly brilliant, leader issued his Plan of Guadalupe. It called

for an overthrow of Huerta and the establishment of a constitutional government. Carranza engineered an uneasy coalition that included Villa and Alvaro Obregon, who was probably the most able and principled military chieftain of this troubled period. In the south, Zapata and his guerilla forces were willing to join the anti-Huerta campaign and to accept Carranza as First Chief of the revolution. A series of decisive victories followed, and, as the armies of the north moved south, Huerta Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution How did the overthrow of Huerta cause another period of civil war? The revolutionary forces started fighting with themselves. Zapata and Villa struck an uneasy alliance to oppose Carranza and Obregon. The latter captured Mexico City only to relinquish it to the followers of Villa and Zapata. While Zapatas Indians begged for bread in the city, Villas troops

raped, murdered, and robbed the residents in Mexico. In northern states, Carranza and his followers issued decrees and proclamations advocating agrarian reform, labor rights, and the destruction of the army and the clerical elements. From this chaotic period of bloody civil war, which lasted until 1917, a revolutionary platform began to emerge. Carranza and Obregon began to expound this still amorphous yet profound revolutionary program that would Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution How did Pancho Villa react to his defeat? In defeat, Villa made every effort to provoke the United States. Angered at the American refusal to continue to provide him with weapons, Villa began to murder Americans and then conducted a raid into New Mexico. The U.S. responded by sending General John

Pershing across the border to capture Villa. Unfamiliar with the terrain and weakened by heat and diseases, the U.S. expeditionary force was unable to capture Villa, who took refuge in his friendly mountain hideouts. Villa became a popular folk hero in Mexican songs that ridiculed the gringos and praised the exploits of their native hero. What event caused Wilson to withdraw troops from Mexico? World War I caused Wilson to withdraw expeditionary forces from Mexico. The withdrawal was complete in February 1917, and the U.S. extended recognition to the Carranza regime. The U.S. Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution Describe the Constitution of 1917. Carranza called a constitutional convention and the

Constitution of 1917 was soon drafted and approved. It embodied the ideas and programs of the most radical elements of the revolutionary leadership such as Obregon and Francisco Mugica. For them, the constitution was a weapon that would ensure the success of the revolution. The constitution contained a series of anticlerical measures and three extremely important articles dealing with land tenure, education, and labor. Article 27 was intended to reconquer all the land expropriated or sold in the past and granted exploitation rights only to Mexican nations. Lands seized illegally from the peasantry and Indians was to be restored. Article 3 provided for free and compulsory primary education. Article 123 recognized workers rights to organize, strike, and Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution What issues did Carranza deal with while president? The issues that consumed Carranza were mostly internal. He still

had to contend with the possibilities of renewed military warfare. The Zapatistas in the south were still restless; they demanded land and the implementation of the constitution. When he was unable to defeat Zapatas followers through military means, Carranza plotted to eliminate him. In 1919, Zapata was assassinated by one of Carranzas army officers. Carranza soon turned to implement the constitution. He recovered more than thirty million acres of land, but the promise of land for the masses remained just a promise. Carranzas policy toward labor was no better. When workers protested low wages paid in worthless paper currency, Carranza ordered the army to suppress the labor demands. A young labor leader, Luis Morones seized this opportunity to create an organized labor union the Confederacion Regional de Obreros Mexicanos (CROM) the first Chapter 13 The Mexican Revolution Who did Carranza support for president?

Obregon seemed the obvious and popular successor to the presidency. Carranza, however, had no intention of backing Obregon. Forced to accept the slogan of no reelection, which had helped him come to power, he supported Ignacio Bonilla, Mexican ambassador to Washington. With the backing of CROM, Obregon rebelled. A new army to the north marched once again on Mexico City. Carranza fled ahead of the advancing armies, but one of his own guards assassinated him. Despite the continuous violence, the revolution had advanced significantly. It had awakened a spirit of nationalism and hope that could not be suppressed. Indians and mestizos were now in the forefront of society. The supremacy of the Creole and the foreigner gone; Land distribution and labor organization had made a Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape How did the Mexican Revolution change when Obregon rose to power?

Obregons rise to power initiated a period of economic reform and relative tranquility. The preceding decade had witnessed the dismantling of the Porfirian dictatorship, the development of a revolutionary program embodied in the Constitution of 1917, and a bitter struggle for power among revolutionary leaders. The violence of the early years decreased substantially, and the government focused its efforts on the development of labor unions, agrarian reform programs, and a widespread educational system. The revolution was now becoming a more peaceful process to effect more orderly change. Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape Describe Obregons relationship with CROM and labor. Obregon realized very early that, to consolidate the revolution, workers and peasants had to be incorporated into the revolutionary family. Obregon worked closely with

Morones (Labor president) and CROM. The labor organization received the blessing, as well as the monetary support of the government. Morones supported Obregon and restrained the demands of the growing labor movement. He prevented major strikes and refrained from attacking the capitalist system. By the end of the Obregon administration, CROM enjoyed undisputed control over the labor movement, and membership increased by more than one-million. Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape How did Obregon tackle the issue of land distribution? Peasant groups demand for land and for immediate restitution of the ejidos conflicted with Obregons fear that this would lead to major disruptions and a reduction in agricultural productivity. He believed that Mexico was economically dependent on the hacienda and, therefore, proceeded cautiously. The government distributed approximately three million acres mostly to

communal ejidos. More than three million acres remained in private hands, primarily a few thousand hacendados. The followers of Zapata were allowed to organize, and, although land was not distributed as rapidly as expected, Obregons policies introduced the foundation for a growing alliance between rural groups and the government. Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape How did Obregon tackle the issue of education? Obregon turned to Jose Vasconcelos, one of Mexicos most distinguished intellectuals, and appointed him secretary of education. With increased government funding, Vasconcelos initiated a literacy campaign in the rural areas and built approximately one thousand rural schools. These schools became not only agents of basic education but also centers of learning and culture. A legion of nationalistic, dedicated teachers resembled the priests of the colonial era in the task of

educating the Indians, albeit in a secular fashion. Although he admired Spanish civilization and culture, Vasconcelos wanted to incorporate the Indians into the mainstream of society. Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape What impact did the Obregon administration play in arts and literature? Vasconcelos encouraged the arts and hired Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and Jose Clemente Orozco, Mexicos leading artists, to paint murals on public buildings. The murals depicted some of the themes of the revolution such as nationalism, the glory of Indian civilization, and the struggle between capital and labor. Mexicos artistic renaissance stimulated literary works. Although less dramatic than the murals and at the time less prominent, many of these new books depicting the problems of the revolution had a significant impact on later generations. Books such as The Underdogs, The Eagle and the Serpent, and El Indo focused on

suffering, killing, Indian life, and the history of the Revolution. Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape How was music impacted by the Mexican Revolution? A new nationalistic-nativistic movement was initiated by Manuel Ponce, a young pianist who rejected foreign melodies and emphasized the native folk tradition. This was continued by Carlos Chavez, Mexicos most distinguished musician of the 1930s and 1940s. Describe the relationship between Obregons administration and the United States. Relations with the United States remained tense throughout most of Obregons administration. The U.S. refused to recognize Obregons

advocating an agreement that would protect American properties and rights in Mexico. Oil interests complained that Article 27 should not be applied retroactively. As the Mexican elections approached, Obregon was willing to compromise. He accepted that Article 27 would not be retroactive. Foreign claims for damages incurred during the revolution were allowed, and payments on foreign debts were resumed. In August 1923, President Calvin Coolidge finally recognized Obregon. Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape Who did Obregon choose to succeed him as president? Obregon chose Plutarco Elias Calles, his secretary of the interior to succeed him. Claiming that Obregon had betrayed the revolution, General Adolfo de la Huerta rebelled. Tension increased when Pancho Villa was mysteriously assassinated. Huertas rebellion was quickly crushed despite the support from many conservatives, hacendados, Catholic leaders, disgruntled army officers, and

even some disillusioned revolutionary figures. Several thousand died in the fighting before the government was able to impose order and hold elections. Calles was easily elected. Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape What were some of Calles similarities to the Obregon administration? The Calles presidency coincided with the years of prosperity that preceded the Depression of the 1930s. Increasing quantities of Mexican raw materials were exported to the United States and Europe. Commerce and industry flourished. The tempo of land distribution also accelerated. Approximately eight million acres of land were parceled out, primarily to the ejidos. Calles continued Obregons labor and educational policies. CROM continued to expand, and new unions were organized. Calles accelerated social reforms and was

more eager to enforce the provisions of the 1917 constitution. What are some negative factors of Calless administration? Calles had none of Obregons tolerance and intelligence. He concentrated power in the office of the president and grew increasingly dictatorial as time passed. To the ley de fuga, he added the ley del suicidio. Many of his opponents committed suicide while in jail. Repression and violation of human rights were commonplace. Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape What was Calles strongest challenge? The most serious challenge to the Calles regime came from the Catholic Church and the clergy. Calles anticlerical statements and the unhappiness among conservative, clerical elements finally surfaced in 1926, when the president was attacked in the

conservative press. Called retaliated by deporting approximately two hundred priests and nuns and by closing all religious schools. Religious services ceased. In the states of Jalisco and Michoacan, a violent rebellion broke out. Known as the Cristero War, this bloody uprising was brutally suppressed. For the last time now, the heirs of the anti-Juarez, pro-Maximilian tradition were to test and challenge the power of the new Mexican state. Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape Describe Calles relationship with the United States. Conflict developed with the United States, especially over oil rights. Calles announced that oil companies would have to exchange their land rights for fifty year leases. Oil companies protested, and relations with the United States deteriorated rapidly. The appointment of Dwight Morrow as U.S. ambassador greatly improved relations. Morrow demonstrated a genuine interest in Mexican culture and

generally showed great respect for Mexican traditions and the social changes taking place. Through his ability and congeniality, Morrow established a good working relationship with Calles and soothed Mexican ill will and suspicion of the United States. Mexican courts finally decided that oil companies had to apply for new concessions, but that they would not expire in fifty years. Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape Describe the election of 1928. As the election of 1928 approached, the constitution was modified to provide for a six-year presidential term and the possibility of reelection, if it were not consecutive. Obregon naturally became Calles candidate. Although he was duly elected, he never assumed office, for he was murdered by a religious fanatic in

1928. What did Calles do to consolidate power? During the next six years, Calles ruled from behind the scene. To consolidate his power he organized in 1928 the National Revolutionary Party (PNR). This official single party became a cartel, which included labor and peasant leaders, the military, elements of the growing state bureaucracy, and Calles allies and cronies. In 1937 it became the Party of the Mexican Revolution (PRM), and in 1945 it was transformed into the Institutional Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape How did Calles rule through puppet presidents? Unable to succeed himself to the presidency, Calles ruled now through puppet presidents (Gill, Rubio, and Rodriguez). Although

elections were held, the PNR candidates always won, which became the norm in the Calles era. Since that time, no opposition candidate has been able to win the presidency in Mexico. As Calles and his allies became wealthy, they also became more conservative. Many bought fancy homes in Cuernavaca, near their boss on a neighborhood labeled the street of forty thieves. Social reforms were neglected and the tempo of revolution slowed considerably. Fearing the growing power of CROM, Calles encouraged independent unions and virtually destroyed the large labor confederation. The small and unimportant Communist Party suffered a similar fate. Fearing any form of anti-Calles radicalism or opposition, the government persecuted and imprisoned its leaders. The party itself was divided into factions and was Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape By 1934, how did the PNR respond to the Great Depression? The Great Depression caused significant economic problems, as

exports declined, industry suffered, and capital fled the country. Unemployment also increased. A restless generation questioned the purpose and achievements of the revolution and longed for new, honest leadership. Instead of customary external rebellions, conflicts were being fought within the party. A leftwing, strongly influenced by Marxist and Socialist ideas, pushed for a renewed revolutionary momentum. The PNR responded to the growing pressures by issuing the Six-Year Plan. The plan called for acceleration of land distribution, protection of labor rights, conquest of illiteracy, and economic independence. Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape Describe Cardenass background and how he decreased the power of the Calles and his cronies. The Callistas had no desire to relinquish power but recognized the need to propose a reformist candidate for the approaching elections. They settled on Lazaro Cardenas, governor of Michoacan. Army general, cabinet member, and former supporter of Obregon, Cardenas had won a reputation of

honesty and devotion to reform while governor of his state. Having pacified the left by providing a plan and a candidate, Calles hoped for another obedient president who would follow his wishes. Cardenas was elected in July 1934. Cardenas realized that before he could implement the Six Year Plan, he had to rid the country of Calles and his millionaire friends who had subverted the revolution. Cardenas allowed labor strikes, closed the gambling houses that enriched Calles and his friends, and actively cultivated younger army officers. When Calles began to criticize Cardenas, Cardenas exiled Calles to the United States. Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape What types of programs did Cardenas implement? For the next four years, Cardenas implemented a profoundly reformist program. He took over the PNR, purged Calless followers, reorganized it, and renamed it the Party of the Mexican Revolution (PRM). About one-third of the Mexican population received land under the agrarian reform program, most of which

went to the communal ejidos. The most important project of the Cardenas administration was the Laguna cotton ejido on the Coahuila-Durango border. Approximately eight million acres in size and with thirty-thousand families working the land, the ejido produced primarily cotton but also a variety of foodstuffs for commercial sale. Most of the families were also provided with small plots to raise their own animals and crops. In addition to distributing land, the government provided education, social services, and finances. This was a major step in helping rural Mexico. Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape Who were the strongest supporters of Cardenas? The strongest support for the Cardenas regime came from labor. The president fostered the creation of a new labor organization, the Mexican Labor Confederation (CTM). With the backing of Cardenas, CTM grew into the most influential

labor group in the country and soon supplanted CROM. CTM improved the wage structure and obtained a minimum salary for all workers. It sponsored health and recreational programs. The CTM submitted to the government. Even today, a close relationship exists with the government that influences labor decisions; labor, in turn, supports PRI policies and activities. Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape Describe Cardenas approaches to the peasantry. Cardenas promoted the creation of the National Peasant Confederation (CNC). Through membership in the confederation, peasants and poorer elements now had a voice, albeit minor, in the party and its decisions. Cardenas policies went a long way to ensure the continuous support of labor and peasants for the party a coalition that still survives today. His agrarian reform program significantly

weakened the hacienda system that had dominated rural agriculture since colonial times. Cardenas also developed an impressive program of rural education, reorganized the labor movement, and avoided conflict with the Church. Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape How did Cardenas policy toward the Spanish Civil War and the U.S. oil companies in Mexico cause controversy? Cardenas and the CTM supported the Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War and permitted refugees from the war to settle in Mexico. Many Mexicans condemned Cardenas as Communist, and conservative elements vociferously criticized the president. Yet, Mexico was enriched by the many intellectuals, scientists, writers, and artists who refused to return to Francos Spain and settled permanently in the country. Although ideologically to the left of the Mexican political spectrum, these refugees

reinvigorated Mexican cultural life. Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape According to the book, what was the most dramatic event in the Cardenas administration? The most dramatic event of the Cardenas administration was the nationalization of the oil companies. A labor dispute and a strike over wages were arbitrated by the board, and its decision to increase workers salaries was upheld by the Mexican Supreme Court. When the companies refused to obey the court orders, President Cardenas lamented that they had violated Mexican sovereignty and signed a decree nationalizing the holdings of seventeen oil companies in March 1938. Earlier, he had nationalized the railroads. After a brief period of labor management, Cardenas incorporated the railroads as an autonomous unit under state control. The nationalizations were condemned in the United States with calls for intervention and

reprisals. Relations eventually returned to normal, although U.S. foreign investment in Mexico suffered a major setback. Mexicos Chapter 14 The Revolution Takes Shape What is the importance of Cardenas? Despite mounting economic problems, Cardenas retained great popularity and respect. He had significantly advanced the social gains of the revolution and had rekindled the flames of nationalism and national sovereignty. He was the last of the great populist caudillos of the revolution. By 1940, the party was a well-oiled machine confident of its power and control. None of the presidents who followed Cardenas were identified with the violent period of the revolution, nor did they appear to have a desire to move the revolution ideologically closer to the left. In fact, they viewed their immediate tasks as a consolidation of recent gains and the modernization of their country. Although they continued to pay lip service to the Revolution, they were much more conventional bureaucrats and technocrats than revolutionary caudillos.

Chapter 15 Political Stability and Uneven Growth What were the consequences of the Mexican Revolution? By 1940 much had been accomplished. Railroads and oil companies were under state control. The military refrained from open intervention in the political process. Although the hacienda system had not been completely obliterated, millions of acres of land had been distributed, and the ejidos were reinvigorated. Educational opportunities increased. The CTM and peasant groups became integrated components of the party machinery and obediently followed the wishes of the Mexican president. Although poverty still existed, the great masses of the population had hope and faith in the revolutionary leadership and expected a brighter future. Chapter 15

Political Stability and Uneven Growth What were the negative consequences of the Mexican Revolution? Thousands of Mexicans either died or left their country for exile, as a result of the three decades of turmoil. Many lost their properties and hard-earned savings, usually without compensation. Political violence, while decreasing by 1940, continued unabated during the early years, and major leaders of the revolution, such as Madero, Carranza, Obregon, Zapata, and Villa, were all assassinated. Repression and civil rights violations were common. The economy was also suffering. The value of mining did not return to its 1910 price level until 1940. Agricultural and livestock output were half of what it had been in the latter years of the Porfiriato. Chapter 15 Political Stability and Uneven Growth

When was the United States first meeting with Mexico? The impact of U.S. purchases sparked industrial growth during President Avila Camachos presidency. Consumer industries such as food processing, and textiles expanded. New chemical, cement, metallurgical, and beer industries were established. American capital rushed into Mexico for many of these industries. This economic fervor led to a meeting between presidents Roosevelt (FDR) and Camacho near Monterey the first visit by a U.S. president to Mexico. This inaugurated an era of good feelings and cooperation. Chapter 15 Political Stability and Uneven Growth How did President Lopez Mateos view the United States in the 1960s?

Mateos maintained friendly relations with the United States, while opposing American policy toward Cuba. The Mateos administration coincided with the rise of Fidel Castro and the subsequent administration establishment there of a Communist system that was closely aligned with the Soviet Union. Invoking the Estrada doctrine, Mexico refused to break relations with Cuba during the early 1960s, at a time when most of Latin America isolated the Castro regime. President Kennedy visited Mexico in 1961 and was warmly received. In 1962, Mexico condemned the Soviet Union when they surreptitiously introduced nuclear missiles in Cuba. Chapter 15 Political Stability and Uneven Growth Describe youth activism in Mexico during the 1960s.

During the 1960s, worldwide student demonstrations and discontent affected Mexican students. The Cuban revolution, U.S. involvement in Vietnam, and Soviet expansionist policies contributed to student protest and activism. The ideological impact of Castroism, particularly its commitment to violence, anti-Americanism, and internationalism, found receptive ears in Mexico, as well as in many parts of Latin America. The Argentine-born guerilla fighter Che Guevara was idolized throughout the developing world. Students criticized the corruption existent within Mexican government. Demonstrations such as the 1968 event in Mexico Citys Tlatelolco Plaza is an example of violence between students and the Mexican government. Student political activism increased. Chapter 15 Political Stability and Uneven Growth How did Mexicos relationship with the United States change during the 1970s?

Mexico suffered an economic decline resulting from inflation, foreign debt, and reliance on imports. Mexicos decision to vote in support of a UN resolution equating Zionism with racism inflamed the Jewish community in the United States and led to a Jewish tourist boycott of Mexico. This boycott cost Mexico an estimated $200 million in revenue and hurt a hitherto flourishing industry. In 1977, Mexican president Lopez Portillo visited U.S. president Jimmy Carter. Migration of Mexican workers, reduction of U.S. barriers to Mexican agriculture and manufactured goods, and U.S. purchases of oil and natural gas dominated the discussions. Ultimately, the United States declined a proposal for Mexico to build a gas pipeline on the Texas border. Carters visit in 1979 did little to improve relations, especially after the Mexicans reacted bitterly to an innocent remark by Carter regarding Montezumas Chapter 15 Political Stability and Uneven Growth

How did the Reagan administration attempt to influence Lopez Portillo? The U.S. finalized a sale of U.S. supersonic fighter jets to Mexico, which had been denied by the Carter administration. The U.S. also sent General Vernon Walters to Mexico to discuss CubanNicaraguan military aid to the Salvadorian guerillas. During 1981, Reagan also sent Secretary of State Alexander Haig to seek Mexican collaboration for his new initiative for a multinational effort to foster economic development in the Caribbean Basin and to entice Mexico into creating a North American common market, which was a project that was initially announced during Reagans presidential campaign. Mexico reacted coldly to U.S. initiatives. Chapter 15 Political Stability and Uneven Growth How did de la Madrid (1982-1988) and Salinas (1988-1994) change Mexicos economy as well as its relationship with the United States?

The de la Madrid administration began a reversal of state control of the economy and a trend toward privatization, which later accelerated under Salinas. De la Madrid introduced programs that restructured the public sector, reduced costs, increased honesty and efficiency, and generated revenues through fiscal reforms. The government also commenced the sale of state enterprises a process that accelerated after 1985 when oil prices dropped and inflation grew which exacerbated Mexicos fiscal crisis. De la Madrid also instituted measures that combated corruption. The United States also financially bailed out the Mexican economy, while calling for democratization of Mexico. Salinas restructured the economy. Mexico saved on debt payments which enabled it to spend more on social programs, as well as other economic reforms. Chapter 15 Political Stability and Uneven Growth What is NAFTA?

The crowing achievement of the Salinas administration was the North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement. This agreement was between the United States, Mexico, and Canada. This agreement sought to redress an expanding trade deficit and boost the long term prospects for Mexicos economic growth. NAFTA has two supplements: the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) and the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC). Most economic analyses indicate that NAFTA has been beneficial to the North American economies and the average citizen, but harmed a small minority of workers in industries exposed to trade competition. Economists hold that withdrawing from NAFTA or renegotiating NAFTA in a way that reestablishes trade barriers will adversely affect the U.S. economy and cost jobs. However, Mexico would be much more severely affected by job loss and reduction of economic growth in both the

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