Metals & Non-Metals

METALS & NON-METALS Ms. Everett DEFINITION OF METAL Elements that are good conductors of heat and electric current. This is the majority of the elements on the periodic table. 1. Malleable: material that can be hammered or rolled into flat sheets or

other shapes. what are some common ones? PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 2. Ductile: material that can be pulled out, or drawn, into a long wire. common ones? 3. Conductive: ability to transfer heat and electric current. Some metals are also magnetic: ability to attract and repel forces.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES All metals are solids at room temperature, except mercury (which is a liquid). CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 1. Reactivity: how easily or quickly a substance reacts with other substances. Most reactive metals found on the left

side of the periodic table, and less reactive going left to right. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 2. Corrosion: The gradual wearing away of a metal due to a chemical reaction. Example: Iron is somewhat reactive iron oxide is rust. (Iron plus oxygen) From Li down to Fr. Lose one electron to react.

GROUP 1: ALKALI M E TA L S Not found alone in nature because too reactive. Shiny and soft Na--> seawater, salt beds, food K--> food and electric current in body Beryllium down to Radium.

Gray-White, hard, and good conductors Lose 2 electrons to react. GROUP 2: ALKALINEE A RT H M E TA L S Less reactive than group 1, but more reactive than other metals. Mg mixed with Al for airplanes, ladders, and wheel rims Ca bones, muscles, teeth Groups 3 through 12.

Familiar metals (copper, iron, nickel, gold) TRANSITION METALS Hard, shiny, good conductors, colorful compounds formed Less reactive than groups 1 and 2 Ex: gold used in jewelry because wont rust/react Still, most never found uncombined (must be extracted)

Cadmium red paint, Cobalt blue paint. Chromium green paint GROUPS 13-15 Only some of the elements here are metals. Never uncombined (must be

extracted) Most familiar: Al, Tin, Lead Sn coats steel to prevent corrosion Al cans, rocketships

Pb auto batteries and weights for balancing tires L AN T H AN ID E S First row (on top) under the periodic table. Mixed with common metals to make alloys Some rare ones are

used to make very strong magnets. Second row (bottom row) under periodic table. Only Ac, Th, U and Pa occur naturally on Earth ACTINIDES Uranium used for nuclear power. Very unstable break apart easily (may only last a fraction of a

second after made) Elements with more than 92 protons. SYNTHETIC ELEMENTS Made in a lab by forcing nuclear particles to crash into one another. Particle Accelerators: move atomic nuclei faster and faster until theyre reached very high speeds to make

heavier elements. More difficult the larger the elements become. PARTICLE ACCELERATOR NON-METALS AND SEMIMETALS An element that lacks most of the properties of a metal. NONMETALS

Poor conductors of heat and electricity Dull and brittle Gases at room temperature: oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, chlorine, hydrogen, noble gases PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Solids at room temperature: carbon,

iodine, sulfur, phosphorus, selenium Liquid at room temperature: bromine Non-metal + Metal lose an electron to form a bond. Ex: NaCl CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Non-metal + non-metal share electrons to form a bond.

Ex: H2O 80% of Earths atmosphere is nitrogen gas, N2 FUN FACTS O2 oxygen gas, what you breathe O3 ozone collects in upper atmosphere to shield from radiation from the sun, but highly

reactive at ground level Sulfur rotten egg smell, rubber bands, tires, sulfuric acid Group 17 elements. halogen means salt-forming VERY REACTIVE (pure are dangerous to humans) Ex: fluorine gas, or chlorine gas HALOGENS

When make compounds, they are useful! C+ F non-stick pans F compounds fluoride in toothpaste Ca + Cl salt for roads when theyre icy Ag + Br film Na + Cl table salt NOBLE GASES Group 18 Do not form

bonds not reactive Some will kind of form bonds (very rare and done in a lab) Ne Lights Xenon headlights on cars

Helium in balloons All in Earths atmosphere all the time HYDROGEN Makes up more than 90% of the atoms in the universe, but only 1% of the mass of Earths crust, oceans, and atmosphere. Rarely pure (usually in a compound like H2O)

Not like other elements so its alone on the table. SEMIMETALS Some properties of metals and some properties of non-metals Also called metalloids

Most common: Silicon (silicon oxide is glass) Temperature and light affect how well these conduct electricity which are good for us!

Computer chips, transistors, lasers Ex: Ge, Arsenic, Si ALL FINISHED! Fill out the review questions and turn into your class periods tray.

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