Memory: Ch. 9 Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself. If memory was nonexistent, everyone would be a stranger to you; every language foreign; every task new; and even you yourself would be a stranger. Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve information. 1
Flashbulb Memory Ruters/ Corbis A unique and highly emotional moment may give rise to a clear, strong, and persistent memory called flashbulb memory. However, this memory is not free from errors. President Bush being told of 9/11 attack. 2 Stages of Memory
Keyboard (Encoding) Disk (Storage) Monitor (Retrieval) Sequential Process 3
Information Processing Frank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/ Corbis Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works The Atkinson-Schiffrin (1968) three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory, b) short-term memory, and c) long-term memory. 4
Problems with the Model 1. Some information skips the first two stages and enters long-term memory automatically. 2. Since we cannot focus all the sensory information in the environment, we select information (through attention) that is important to us. 3. The nature of short-term memory is more complex. 5 Working Memory
Alan Baddeley (2002) proposes that working memory contains auditory and visual processing controlled by the central executive through an episodic buffer. 6 Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode 1. Some information (route to your school) is automatically processed. 2. However, new or unusual information (friends new cell-phone number) requires attention and effort.
7 Automatic Processing We process an enormous amount of information effortlessly, such as the following: 1. Space: While reading a textbook, you automatically encode the place of a picture on a page. 2. Time: We unintentionally note the events that take place in a day. 3. Frequency: You effortlessly keep track of things that happen to you.
8 Effortful Processing Bananastock/ Alamy Spencer Grant/ Photo Edit Committing novel information to memory requires effort just like learning a concept from a textbook. Such processing leads to
durable and accessible memories. 9 Rehearsal Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZ http://www.isbn3-540-21358-9.de
Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition. Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) 10 Rehearsal The more times the
nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2. 11 Memory Effects 1. Next-in-line-Effect: When you are so anxious about being next that you cannot remember what the person just before you in line says, but you can
recall what other people around you say. 2. Spacing Effect: We retain information better when we rehearse over time. 3. Serial Position Effect: When your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items. 12 Spacing Effect Distributing rehearsal (spacing effect) is better than practicing all at once. Robert Frosts poem could be memorized with fair ease if spread over time.
ACQUAINTED WITH THE NIGHT Robert Frost I have been one acquainted with the night. I have walked out in rain and back in rain. I have outwalked the furthest city light. 13 Serial Position Effect 1. TUV 2. ZOF 3. GEK 4. WAV
5. XOZ 6. TIK 7. FUT 8. WIB 9. SAR 10. POZ 11. REY 12. GIJ Better recall Poor recall Better recall
14 Encoding Meaning Whale Q: Did the word begin with a capital letter? Structural Shallow Encoding Q: Did the word rhyme with the word
weight? Phonemic Intermediate Encoding Q: Would the word fit in the sentence? He met a __________ in the street. Semantic Encoding Craik and Lockhart
(1972) Deep 15 Results 16 Visual Encoding Mental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
Both photos: Ho/AP Photo Showing adverse effects of tanning and smoking in a picture may be more powerful than simply talking about 17it. Mnemonics Imagery is at the heart of many memory aids. Mnemonic techniques use vivid imagery in aiding memory. 1. Method of Loci 2. Link Method 18
Method of Loci List of Items Imagined Locations Charcoal Pens Bed Sheets Hammer . . . Rug
Backyard Study Bedroom Garage . . . Living Room 19 Link Method List of Items Newspaper
Shaving cream Pen Umbrella . . . Lamp Involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together. 20 Chunking Organizing items into a familiar, manageable
unit. Try to remember the numbers below. 1-7-7-6-1-4-9-2-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1 If you are well versed with American history, chunk the numbers together and see if you can recall them better. 1776 1492 1812 1941. 21 Chunking Acronyms are another way of chunking information to remember it. HOMES = Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior
PEMDAS = Parentheses, Exponent, Multiply, Divide, Add, Subtract ROY G. BIV = Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet 22 Hierarchy Complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories. 23
Encoding Summarized in a Hierarchy 24 Storage: Retaining Information Storage is at the heart of memory. Three stores of memory are shown below: Sensory Memory Working
25 Sensory Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding
Events Encoding Retrieval Retrieval 26 Whole Report Sperling (1960) R G T F M Q
L Z S Recall RTMZ (44% recall) 50 ms (1/20 second) The exposure time for the stimulus is so small that items cannot be rehearsed. 27 Partial Report
S X T J R S P K Y Low Tone Medium Tone High Tone Recall JRS (100% recall) 50 ms (1/20 second)
Sperling (1960) argued that sensory memory capacity was larger than what was originally thought. 28 Time Delay A D I N L V O G H Low Tone Time
Delay Recall Medium Tone N__ (33% recall) High Tone 50 ms (1/20 second) 29 Sensory Memory
Percent Recognized The longer the delay, the greater the memory loss. 80 60 40 20 0.15 0.30 0.50
Time (Seconds) 1.00 30 Sensory Memories The duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses. Iconic 0.5 sec. long Echoic 3-4 sec. long Hepatic
< 1 sec. long 31 Working Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding
Events Encoding Retrieval Retrieval 32 Working Memory Working memory, the new name for shortterm memory, has a limited capacity (72) and a short duration (20 seconds).
Sir George Hamilton observed that he could accurately remember up 33 to 7 beans thrown on the floor. If there were more beans, he guessed. Capacity The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information (1956). Ready?
MUTGIKTLRS YP You should be able to recall 72 letters. George Miller 34 Chunking The capacity of the working memory may be increased by Chunking. F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M
FBI TWA CIA 4 chunks IBM 35 Duration Brown/Peterson and Peterson (1958/1959) measured the duration of working memory by manipulating rehearsal. CHJ
MKT HIJ 547 547 544 541 CH?? The duration of the working memory is about 20 sec.
36 Working Memory Duration 37 Long-Term Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term
Unlimited capacity store. Estimates on capacity range from 1000 billion to 1,000,000 billion bits of information (Landauer, 1986). R.J. Erwin/ Photo Researchers The Clarks nutcracker can locate 6,000 caches of buried pine seeds during winter and spring. 39 Memory Feats 40
Memory Stores Feature Sensory Memory Working Memory LTM Encoding
Copy Phonemic Semantic Capacity Unlimited 72 Chunks Very Large
Duration 0.25 sec. 20 sec. Years 41 Storing Memories in the Brain 1. Through electrical stimulation of the brain, Wilder Penfield (1967) concluded that old
memories were etched into the brain. 2. Loftus and Loftus (1980) reviewed Penfield's data and showed that only a handful of brain stimulated patients reported flashbacks. 3. Using rats, Lashley (1950) suggested that even after removing parts of the brain, the animals retain partial memory of the maze. 42 Synaptic Changes In Aplysia, Kandel and Schwartz (1982) showed that serotonin release from neurons increased after conditioning.
Photo: Scientific American 43 Synaptic Changes Both Photos: From N. Toni et al., Nature, 402, Nov. 25 1999. Courtesy of Dominique Muller Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) refers to synaptic enhancement after learning (Lynch, 2002). An increase in neurotransmitter
release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses. 44 Stress Hormones & Memory Heightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Continued stress may disrupt memory. Scott Barbour/ Getty Images 45
Storing Implicit & Explicit Memories Explicit Memory refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. Implicit memory involves learning an action while the individual does not know or declare what she knows. 46 Hippocampus Hippocampus a neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories.
Weidenfield & Nicolson archives 47 Anterograde Amnesia After losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) remembered everything before the operation but cannot make new memories. We call this anterograde amnesia. Anterograde Amnesia (HM)
Memory Intact No New Memories Surgery 48 Implicit Memory HM is unable to make new memories that are declarative (explicit), but he can form new memories that are procedural (implicit). A
B C HM learned the Tower of Hanoi (game) after his surgery. Each time he plays it, he is unable to remember the fact that he has already played the game. 49 Cerebellum Cerebellum a neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories. 50
Retrieval: Getting Information Out Retrieval refers to getting information out of the memory store. Spankys Yearbook Archive Spankys Yearbook Archive 51 Measures of Memory In recognition, the person must identify
an item amongst other choices. (A multiple-choice test requires recognition.) 1. Name the capital of France. a. b. c. d. Brussels Rome London Paris
52 Measures of Memory In recall, the person must retrieve information using effort. (A fill-in-the blank test requires recall.) 1. The capital of France is ______. 53 Measures of Memory In relearning, the individual shows how much time (or effort) is saved when learning material for the second time.
List List Jet Dagger Tree Kite Silk Frog Ring Jet
Original Relearning Dagger Trials Trials Tree Saving X 100 Relearning Kite Trials 10 5 Silk X 100
10 Frog Ring 1 day later It took 10 trials to learn this list It took 5 trials to learn the list 50% 54
Retrieval Cues Memories are held in storage by a web of associations. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory. water smell fire smoke Fire Truck heat
hose truck red 55 Priming To retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you must first activate one of the strands that leads to it. This process is called priming. 56
Context Effects Scuba divers recall more words underwater if they learned the list underwater, while they recall more words on land if they learned that list on land (Godden & Baddeley, 1975). Fred McConnaughey/ Photo Researchers 57 Dja Vu Dja Vu means I've experienced this before. Cues from the current situation
may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience. The New Yorker Collection, 1990. Leo Cullum from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved 58 Context Effects After learning to move a mobile by kicking, infants most strongly respond when retested in the same context rather than in a different context (Butler & Rovee-Collier, 1989). Courtesy of Carolyn Rovee-Collier,
Rutgers University 59 Moods and Memories We usually recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood. Emotions, or moods, serve as retrieval cues. Jorgen Schytte/ Still Pictures 60 Forgetting
An inability to retrieve information due to poor encoding, storage, or retrieval. Encoding Failure We cannot remember what we do not encode. 61 Which penny is real? 62
Storage Decay Poor durability of stored memories leads to their decay. Ebbinghaus showed this with his forgetting curve. 63 Retaining Spanish Bahrick (1984) showed a similar pattern of forgetting and retaining over 50 years. Andrew Holbrooke/ Corbis
64 Retrieval Failure Although the information is retained in the memory store, it cannot be accessed. Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) is a retrieval failure phenomenon. Given a cue (What makes blood cells red?) the subject says the word begins with an H (hemoglobin). 65 Interference Learning some new information may disrupt
retrieval of other information. 66 Retroactive Interference leep prevents retroactive interference. Therefore, i leads to better recall. 67 Motivated Forgetting Motivated Forgetting: People unknowingly
revise their memories. Culver Pictures Repression: A defense mechanism that banishes anxietyarousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. Sigmund Freud 68 Why do we forget?
Forgetting can occur at any memory stage. We filter, alter, or lose much information during these stages. 69 Memory Construction While tapping our memories, we filter or fill in missing pieces of information to make our recall more coherent.
Misinformation Effect: Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event. 70 Misinformation and Imagination Effects Eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned about the event. Depiction of the actual accident. 71
Misinformation Group A: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other? Group B: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? 72 Memory Construction A week later they were asked: Was there any broken glass? Group B (smashed into) reported more broken glass than Group A
(hit). 73 Source Amnesia Source Amnesia: Attributing an event to the wrong source that we experienced, heard, read, or imagined (misattribution). 74 Discerning True & False Memories Just like true perception and illusion, real
memories and memories that seem real are difficult to discern. Simon Niedsenthal When students formed a happy or angry memory of morphed (computer blended) faces, they made the (computer assisted) faces (a), either happier or (b) angrier. 75 False Memories Repressed or Constructed? Some adults actually do forget childhood episodes of abuse.
False Memory Syndrome A condition in which a persons identity and relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of a traumatic experience, which is sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists. 76 Childrens Eyewitness Recall Childrens eyewitness recall can be unreliable if leading questions are posed. However, if cognitive interviews are neutrally worded, the accuracy of their recall increases. In cases of sexual abuse, this usually suggests a lower
percentage of abuse. 77 Memories of Abuse Are memories of abuse repressed or constructed? Many psychotherapists believe that early childhood sexual abuse results in repressed memories. However, other psychologists question such beliefs and think that such memories may be constructed. 78
Constructed Memories Loftus research shows that if false memories (lost at the mall or drowned in a lake) are implanted in individuals, they construct (fabricate) their memories. Don Shrubshell 79 Consensus on Childhood Abuse Leading psychological associations of the world agree on the following concerning childhood sexual abuse:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Injustice happens. Incest and other sexual abuse happens. People may forget. Recovered memories are commonplace. Recovered memories under hypnosis or drugs are unreliable. 6. Memories of things happening before 3 years of age are unreliable.
7. Memories, whether real or false, are emotionally upsetting. 80 Improving Memory 1. Study repeatedly to boost long-term recall. 2. Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material. 3. Make material personally meaningful. 4. Use mnemonic devices:
associate with peg words something already stored make up a story chunk acronyms 81 Improving Memory 5. Activate retrieval cues mentally recreate the situation and mood. 6. Recall events while they are fresh before you encounter misinformation. 7. Minimize interference:
LWA-Dann Tardiff/ Corbis 1. Test your own knowledge. 2. Rehearse and then determine what you do not yet know. 82
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