Medical Robotics - University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Medical Robotics History, current and future applications Overview Introduction Classification Application of Medical Robotics Design of Robotic Telesurgery Historic Companies and Systems Existing surgical systems Strengths and Limitations

Ethical and Safety Considerations Challenges, Future and Conclusion Introduction(1) Definition: Robotic systems for surgery There are computer-integrated

surgery (CIS) systems first, and medical robots second. The robot itself is just one element of a larger system designed to assist a surgeon in carrying out a surgical procedure.. [Taylor, 2003] Introduction(2) CIS

Information flow in CIS Introduction(3) Motivation: Started with the weaknesses and strengths of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) Smaller incisions, shorter postoperative time, reduced infection, faster rehabilitation, lesser pain, better cosmetics, ... Eye-hand coordination, difficulty in moving arms, degree of motion

Introduction(4) MIS Minimally invasive surgery uses techniques of surgical access and exposure that significantly reduce trauma to the body compared to traditional incisions. Classification Depending on the degree of

surgeon interaction during the procedure: Supervisory-controlled; Telesurgical; Shared-control; Application of Medical Robotics(1) Laboratory Robots

For pre-programmed tasks High repetitions Perform multiple-tests in parallel Manufacturers include, Thermo Electron Corp, Hamilton Co, Central Research Laboratories (CRL), A Dover Diversified Co etc. Application of Medical Robotics(2) Telesurgery

Surgeon sits at a console Has controls to move the robotic arms Does not operate on the patient directly Mainly used in minimally invasive surgeries

Application of Medical Robotics(3) Surgical Training Robots used as surgical training simulators Used for medical resident students Residents lack expertise and this

helps in avoiding legal, social and economic problems The Second Generation Robotic Telesurgical System for Laparoscopy during tests in the Experimental Surgery Lab at UC San Francisco

Application of Medical Robotics(4) Telemedicine and Teleconsultation Telecommunciation channels to communicate with other physicians/patients Control an external camera which in

turn controls an endoscopic camera used to share images with a remote surgeon Application of Medical Robotics(5) Rehabilitatio n Assistive robots Wheelchair

with intelligent navigational control system Application of Medical Robotics(6) Remote surgery Surgeon can be anywhere in the world

Remotely controls the robotic surgical system Very useful for treating wounded people in battlefields Application of Medical Robotics(7) Laparoscopic Surgery Performed in the abdominal cavity

using MIS Abdomen cavity is expanded using CO2 Uses Laparoscopic instrument Fiber optic channels to illuminate the inside of abdominal cavity Lens optics to transmit image CCD camera at the outer end Image displayed on high resolution TV Application of Medical Robotics(8) Laparoscopic

Surgery Traditional laparoscope instruments have limitations Has 4 DOFs - Arbitrary orientation of instrument tip not possible Reduction in dexterity

Reduction in motion reversal due to fulcrum at entry point Friction at air tight trocar reduction in force feedback Lack of tactile sensing Design of Robotic Telesurgery(1) Minimally Invasive Surgery

Surgery performed by making small incisions < 10mm dia Reduces post-operative pain and hospital stays Form of telemanipulation Instruments have a camera attached to transmit inside image to the surgeon Design of Robotic Telesurgery(2) The

Concept Telerobotics is a natural tool to extend capabilities in MIS The goal is to restore the manipulation and sensation capabilities of the surgeon Using a 6 DOF slave manipulator, controlled through a spatially consistent and intuitive master

Design of Robotic Telesurgery(3) The Concept Telesurgical system concept Design of Robotic Telesurgery(4)

Considerations: Compatibility Backdrivabilit Actuators impedance Actuators receive tool-to-tissue force Loss of power can lead to dropping of a heavy tool and undesirable high accelerations in the actuator Design of Robotic Telesurgery(5) Considerations:

Human-Machine Interface Video system used to capture images inside the patient Backlash-loss of motion between a set of movable parts Choose the appropriate mechanism for the required transmission Choose passive gravity balance over active gravity balance Design of Robotic

Telesurgery(6) Haptic Feedback Sensation of touch lost in robotic surgery Receiving haptic information and using it to control the robotic manipulators Needed to achieve high fidelity Types

Force (kinesthetic) feedback Tactile (cutaneous) feedback Design of Robotic Telesurgery(7) Haptic Feedback Hand tie tradition suturing mechanism Instrument tie estimate of

performance (same type of feedback as resolved-force feedback) Robotic tie suturing task performed by da Vinci Design of Robotic Telesurgery(8) Haptic Feedback Experimental

results Accuracy cannot be improved to the level of hand ties by using force feedback Hand tie had the lowest NSD. Repeatability can be improved by using force feedback in robotic surgical systems Both instrument and robot reduces the performance margin between expert and novice users

Design of Robotic Telesurgery(9) Haptic Feedback Fidelity ability to detect compliance variations in the environment P (Position error) +FF (kinesthetic force feedback) control architecture to determine if the use of force sensor on slave manipulator will

provide fidelity Historic Companies and Systems(1) First Robotic assisted surgery 1988 PUMA 560 Light duty industrial robotic arm to guide laser/needle for sterostactic brain

surgery Historic Companies and Systems(2) First Robotic urological surgery 1992 PROBOT-assisted TURP in Guys Hospital in London leaded by Wickham Historic Companies and

Systems(3) First commercially available robotic system, 1992 ROBODOC for orthopaedic hip surgery Historic Companies and Systems(4) First

RCT of transatlantic telerobotics surgery Between Guys and John Hopkins Hospitals PAKY-RCM percutaneous access robot (Kavoussi group developed in 1996) Existing surgical systems(1) AESOP

(Computer Motion), 1994 Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning a voiceactivated robotic arm for camera holder First approved surgical robotic system by FDA Existing surgical systems(2) AESOP

Existing surgical systems(3) ZEUS (Computer Motion) Marketed in 1998 Existing surgical systems(4) Da

Vinci (Intuitive Surgical) Initially developed by US Department of Defence in 1991 Intuitive Surgical acquired the prototype and commercialized the system Approved by FDA in July 2000 Existing surgical systems(5) Da

Vinci Surgical system by Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Existing surgical systems(6) Da Vinci Surgical system by Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Surgical Console - 3D display and master control

Patient side cart - two or three instrument arms and one endoscope arm EndoWrist Instrument - 7 DOFs, quick-release levers InSite Vision System - high resolution 3D endoscope and image processing equipment Existing surgical systems(7) Da Vinci Surgical system by

Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Existing surgical systems(8) Da Vinci Surgical system by Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Video Existing surgical

systems(9) Advantages of Da Vinci Surgical: Technically Patented Endowrist: 6 degrees of movement 3-D vision (Dual channel endoscopy) and magnified view (x12) Tremor suppression and scaling of movement Surgeon

Ergonomic advantage Shorter learning curve Patient Better outcome Existing surgical systems(10) Advantages: Existing surgical systems(11)

6 degree movements Existing surgical systems(12) Da Vinci surgical system in a general procedure setting Existing surgical

systems(13) da Vinci Surgical System U.S. Installed Base 1999 2008 Strengths and Limitations(1) Strengths: Physical separation Wrist action

Tremor elimination Optional motion scaling Three-dimensional stereoscopic image Electronic information transfer (Telesurgery) Strengths and Limitations(2) Limitation Reluctance to accept this technology

(trust) Additional training Fail proof? Most of the sensors use IR transmission Highly efficient visual instruments are needed Cannot be pre-programmed Task-specific robots are required Latency in transmission of mechanical movements by the surgeon Longer operating time Strengths and

Limitations(3) Limitation Cost for the Da Vinci system: The average base cost of a System is $1.5 million Approximately $ 160,000 maintenance cost a year Operating room cost, $150 per hour Hospital stay cost, $600 per day Time away from work, $120 per day

Ethical and Safety Considerations When there is a marginal benefit from using robots, is it ethical to impose financial burden on patients or medical systems? If a robot-assisted surgery fails because of technical problems, is it the surgeon who is responsible or others?

Challenges, Future and Conclusion Haptic feedback A safe, easy sterilizable, accurate, cheap and compact robot Reliable telesurgical capabilities Compatibility with available medical equipment and

standardizing Autonomous robot surgeons Reference Robotics in surgery: history, current and future applications. New York: Nova Science Pub-. lishers; 2007 J.E. Speich, J. Rosen, 'Medical Robotics,' In Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, pp. 983-993, Marcel Dekker, New

York, 2004. http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/medical/ laparobot.html http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/BI108/ BI108_2005_Groups/04/index.html http://faculty.cs.tamu.edu/dzsong/teaching/ fall2005/cpsc689/ Thanks!

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • 24.1 The Carbon Cycle  Carbon is cycled through

    24.1 The Carbon Cycle Carbon is cycled through

    Arial MS Pゴシック Times Times New Roman Helvetica Symbol Blank Presentation 1_Blank Presentation 24.1 The Carbon Cycle Figure 24.1 24.1 The Carbon Cycle 24.1 The Carbon Cycle 24.1 The Carbon Cycle Figure 24.2 24.2 Syntrophy and Methanogenesis 24.3 The Nitrogen...
  • Post-Settlement Political and Economic Factors

    Post-Settlement Political and Economic Factors

    Deutsches Plakat Museum, Essen, Germany/Archives Charmet/The Bridgeman Art Library * The French invasion of the German Ruhr (1923) began a crisis that brought strikes and rampant inflation in Germany. Here French troops have commandeered a German locomotive during one of...
  • Cubisme et futurisme - maupassant-lyc.spip.ac-rouen.fr

    Cubisme et futurisme - maupassant-lyc.spip.ac-rouen.fr

    « Nous chanterons les foules agitées par le travail, par le plaisir ou par l'émeute : nous chanterons les marées multicolores et polyphoniques des révolutions dans les capitales modernes ; nous chanterons la ferveur nocturne vibrante des arsenaux et des...
  • Honeymoon in Greece

    Honeymoon in Greece

    CheapOair. Kayak. Adams 2/26/2019. Since Athens is the starting point, let's find hotels! Shown is . The Central Athens Hotel. with rates starting at $125. (All prices will be shown as the nightly rate on August 12th) Adams 2/26/2019. The...
  • Enterprise Information System

    Enterprise Information System

    Lecture-6 Part -II Implementation of Information System in Support of the Organization's Strategy Thepul Ginige*
  • Why &#x27;deflection&#x27; matters-Part II: Places, encounter ...

    Why 'deflection' matters-Part II: Places, encounter ...

    To assess the need for multilevel modeling, we first ran a multilevel logit model to obtain the district level variance, likelihood ratio test, and intraclass correlation (ICC). The likelihood ratio test compares the goodness of fit of hierarchical model to...
  • Industry Mall Inquiry and Basic Navigation Webinar

    Industry Mall Inquiry and Basic Navigation Webinar

    Industry Mall Basic Navigation and Product Search Webinar ... Main Menu A list of convenient navigation shortcuts Linkbox A list of convenient navigation shortcuts to items such as product collateral and documentation Search is a quick way of locating products...
  • COMP 790: Statistical Language Processing

    COMP 790: Statistical Language Processing

    Intransitive? Building dictionaries for learners of foreign languages Guiding statistical parsers f = frequency of intervals of size s s = size of interval p = varied between 1 and 1.3 xxx xxx xxx xxx Raw bigrams Filtered bigrams In...