ME551/GEO551 Geology of Industrial Minerals Spring 2003

ME551/GEO551 Geology of Industrial Minerals Spring 2007 Commodities, Part 2 Clays, Diamonds, Diatomite, Fluorite, Garnet, Graphite Reminders What is trap rock? Field trip to potash mines next week

Monday leave at 9 AM Tues tour and return to Socorro Hotel Buckets for collecting

Term Projects? March 20 I will not be teachingJim Barker Any questions on the midterm? Due March 9 Clays BentoniteJeremy ClaysIntroduction Stone age

Types ball clay (primarily of kaolinite with illite, chlorite, smectite minerals, quartz) bentonite (smectite with feldspars, biotite, quartz) common clay (illite and chlorite, others) fire clay (kaolinite, halloysite, diaspore) fullers earth (attapulgite, montmorillonite) kaolin Types

layer silicates layers of tetrahedral and octahedral sheets Kaolinite, smectite, illite, chlorite, vermiculite the metal oxides and hydroxides and oxy-oxides gibsite amorphous and allophanes structurally disordered aluminosilicates Allophane, Imogolite

Claysdefinition particle size of less than 2 micrometers family of minerals rock term Claysproperties chemical composition layered structure size

great affinity for water (double in thickness when wet) soak up ions, release the ions later when conditions change Claysproperties

Color plasticity mineral composition absorption qualities firing characteristics clarification properties

h e d r a l Propertiescharge sources c o

o r d i n a t i o n

Two main sources of charge in clay minerals are isomorphous substitution and pH-dependent charges. M g 2 + ,

F e 2 + , F e 3

+ f o r A l + 3

Charge properties Charge development of on silicate clays is mainly due to isomorphous substitution. This is the substitution of one element for another in ionic crystals with out change of the structure. It takes place during crystallization and is not subject to change afterwards. It takes places only between ions differing by less than about 10% to 15% in crystal radii. In tetrahedral coordination, Al3+ for Si4+ and in

octahedral coordination Mg2+, Fe2+, Fe3+ for Al3+. Charges developed as a result of isomorphous substitution are permanent and not pH-dependent. Charge properties In allophanes, some silicate clays e.g. kaolinite, and the metal oxides the main source of charge are termed pH -dependent charges because these charges depend on the pH of the soil. pH depend charges are variable and may either be

positive or negative depending on the pH of the soil. In the metal oxides acid soils tend to develop positive charges because of the protonation of the oh ggoud on the oxide surfaces. Clayuses Ceramics fillers and extenders construction (hydraulic cement, structural clay products,

aggregates) drilling mud fiberglass Iron Ore Pelletizing paper carrier to mix paint and color pigment Ball clayuses Burn to a light color and accepts glaze, plastic

35% floor and wall tile 22% sanitaryware 43% other uses Bentoniteuses Clay consisting of smectites Common clayuses

56% brick 20% cement 16% lightweight aggregate 8% other uses (fillers and extenders) Fire clayuses 73% refractories

27% other uses Fullers earthuses mineral substance characterized by the property of absorbing basic colors and removing them from oils fulling of wool to remove oil and grease 75% absorbent uses 25% other uses

Kaolinuses Near white containing kaolinite 55% paper 7% refractories 38% other uses Kaolinuses

mildew-resistant latex paints

vinyl wire insulation printing inks Cosmetics rubber tires fiberglass and nylon auto and truck body components production of medicines ceramics catalysts for petroleum refining extenders for fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides

Kaolin Clayssubstitutions Limited substitutions possible calcium carbonate talc Claysproduction ball clay

common clay: various fire clay fullers earth: U.S., Germany kaolin: U.S., Uzbekistan, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Brazil Claysgeology soil horizons continental and marine sediments geothermal fields volcanic deposits

weathering rock formations coal beds Bricksprocessing Common clay used to make bricks formed or shaped either by extrusion involves forming a column of clay by pushing the material through a die at high pressure. then cut into bricks (known as 'wirecut')

drainage pipes and clay roof tiles made similar process Bricksprocessing or the 'soft-mud' process individual bricks are formed in a sand-lined mould from a clay with a relatively high moisture content (known as 'stock' bricks) dried prior to firing fired using natural gas in a linear kiln

known as a 'tunnel kiln 10501100C Environmental considerationsclay Open pits organic emissions (EPA developing standards, MACT) impoundment of slimes dust control

Colin C. Harvey, 1999 Diamonds Diamonds Greek adamas meaning invincible Used in

India 2,500 yrs ago Diamondsintroduction clarity, color, shape, size is used as industrial-grade diamond (nongem) Diamondsproperties

Hardest substance known highest thermal conductivity chemical stability optical properties refract light atomic connectivity of the carbon atoms gives the gem its hardness Diamondsproduction


Middle Ages--healing powers Grinding drilling cutting polishing abrasive wear- and corrosion-resistant coatings,

special lenses heat sinks in electrical circuits wire drawing Diamondssubstitutions

cubic boron nitride silicon nitride but diamond is more than twice as hard synthetic diamonds (US) Diamondsgeology

Kimberlites lamprorites alluvial (placer) deposits for these rocks molten rock from 75 to 120 miles below the earth's surface 40 kbar and 900 C The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit Schematic diagram of a volcanic pipe Indicator minerals

ilmenite titanium and magnesium rich chromite chrome diopside magnesium rich olivine pyrope garnets eclogitic garnets Carat

carat weight measures the mass of a diamond One carat is defined as a fifth of a gram 200 milligrams approximately 0.007 ounce point unitequal to one one-hundredth of a carat (0.01 carat, or 2 mg) Price

Mining Alluvial mining by traditional methods continues, as seen here in Sierra Leone. Mining

Diamondsprocessing Crush scrubbers and degritting and sanding sections remove fine waste material for disposal Heavy-medium separation or grease belts X-ray fluorescence sorters are used to extract the diamonds Diatomite

Diatomiteintroduction made of plant fossils shaped like soda straws silica looks like chalk (CaCO3) diatomaceous earth Diatomite Diatomite Chemical composition

86% silica 5% sodium 3% magnesium 2% iron Diatomiteproperties Light weight (hollow fossil shells) does not conduct heat


Once used in dynamite insulate steam pipes filtration aid (swimming pools) mild abrasive mechanical insecticide (physico-sorptive properties) absorbent for liquids

Cat litter activator in blood clotting studies thermal insulator plants Diatomitesubstitutions

Expanded perlite silica sand talc ground silica sand, ground mica clay

exfoliated vermiculite

Perlite vermiculite ground limestone various clays special brick mineral wool expanded perlite Diatomiteproduction

Diatomitegeology Saltwater contains a high crystalline silica content Fresh water lake dry lakebeds and is characteristically low in crystalline silica content Diatomaceous earth Dredging is one mining method Safety drying of the hands, if handled without gloves highly crystalline form of silica, resulting in

sharp edges dangerous to breathe and a dust mask is recommended when working with it silicosis Fluorite Fluorite Latin fluo, meaning flow


CaF2, Calcium Fluoride halide variable color Luster is vitreous. transparent to translucent. Cleavage is perfect in 4 directions forming octahedrons. Hardness is 4 Fracture is irregular and brittle. Specific Gravity is 3.1+ (heavy)

Fluoriteproperties fluorospar ability as a flux ore of F Fluoriteuses

flux in steel and aluminum processing in the preparation of glasses and enamels manufacture of hydrofluoric acid for carved ornamental objects fluorinated water gemstone

Fluorite Fluoritesubstitutions Olivine dolomitic limestone Byproduct fluorosilicic acid

Fluoriteproduction Fluoritegeology Rio Grande Rift (RGR) deposits

Mississippi Valley type (MVT) deposits Sedimentary stratiform deposits volcanic massive sulfide deposits gangue in epithermal and mesothermal veins Garnet Garnet Latin granatus (grain")

possibly a reference to the Punica granatum ("pomegranate"), a plant with red seeds similar in shape, size, and color to some garnet crystals Garnetintroduction group of complex silicate minerals with similar crystalline structures A3B2(SiO4)3, where A can be Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn; B can be Al, Cr, Fe, Ti

Garnetintroduction aluminum garnets almandine or almandite pyrope grossularite

spessartite iron garnets andradite chromium uvarovite Garnetproperties

Various colors isometric specific gravity 3-4 Luster is vitreous Hardness is 6.5 - 7.5

Almandine Andradite Garnetuses

waterjet cutting, 35% abrasive blasting media, 30% water filtration, 15% abrasive powders, 10% other end uses, 10%

Garnetsubstitutions natural and manufactured abrasives Ilmenite magnetite plastics

Garnetproduction Garnetgeology Gneisses and schists contact-metamorphic deposits in crystalline limestones pegmatites igneous rocks serpentinites

vein deposits alluvial garnet Graphite Graphite Greek (graphein): to draw/write for its use in pencils Graphiteintroduction

C confused with molybdenite, which is denser and has a silver blue streak gray streak Luster is metallic to dull Cleavage is perfect in one direction History First use of graphite: primitive man to make drawings, and by Egyptians to decorate pottery.

Graphite processing: 1400 AD in the Haffnerzell District of Bavaria. Through the Middle Ages graphite was confused with galena and Molybdenite. First names: Plumbago (lead -silver) & black lead Discovered: 1565 by Gessner (recognized as a mineral), but its composition was determined in 1779 by Scheele. Graphiteproperties

Milled, drilled and turned in a lathe to a desired shape Making Brushes conductive chemically stable high strength hardness 1-2 specific gravity 2.2 good conductor of electricity lubricant Physical Characteristics

Color is dark gray, black, or black silver. Luster is metallic to dull. Transparency crystals are opaque Crystal System is hexagonal Hardness is 1 - 2 Specific Gravity 2.2 Cleavage is perfect in one direction.

Fracture is flaky. Streak is black gray to brownish gray. Melting Point of 3,500C. Graphite is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. Other Characteristics: thin flakes are flexible but inelastic, mineral can leave black marks on hands and paper. Best Field Indicators are softness, luster, density and streak. Mineralogy Graphite is a native element composed only of carbon. It has the same composition as

diamond, however it has very different structures. Diamond crystallizes in the Isometric system X graphite crystallizes in the hexagonal system. Source- Graphite

Graphiteuses Refractory applications 45% (brick and linings) brake linings 20% lubricants, 5% dressings and molds in foundry operations, 5% other uses 25% END-USES

Main uses are in refractors, lubricants, brake linings, foundry moulds, and electrodes. Non-traditional applications include expanded graphite and graphite foils (a thin graphite cloth). Uses of natural graphite in 2004 refractory applications

24% Graphite Foils brake linings 46% foundry operations

13% 8% 9% lubricants steelmaking and other uses (pencils, battery...) Graphite Packing Expanded Graphite

Graphitesubstitutions graphite powder scrap from discarded machined shapes

calcined petroleum coke Molybdenum disulfide Finely ground coke with olivine Graphiteproduction Graphitegeology Types of Natural Graphite : Disseminated flake Crystalline vein (lump or high crystalline graphite)

Amorphous Graphite occurs in many types of igneous, sedimentary & metamorphic rocks. The more important are those found in metasomatic hydrothermal deposits, & in sedimentary rocks that have been subjected to regional or thermal metamorphism. Associated Minerals include quartz, calcite, micas, iron meteorites, and tourmalines. Geology Flake graphite:

is found in metamorphic rocks uniformly distributed through the ore body or in concentrated lens shaped pockets. Graphite flake occurs as a scaly or lamella form in certain metamorphic rocks such as limestone, gneisses and schists. Carbon concentrations vary between 5% and 40%.

Flake graphite occurs in most parts of the world. Notable deposits are Canada, Brazil, Madagascar, Australia, USA(Texas-1980, Alabama &Pennsylvania-1960s), Germany Flake: marble, gneiss, and schist (most common rock types) Source - Geology Crystalline vein graphite:

is believed to originate from crude oil deposits that through time, temperature and pressure have converted to graphite. Vein graphite is found along the intrusive contacts of pegmatites with limestone. The vein fissures are typically between 1cm and 1 m thick, and are normally > 90% pure. Although this form of graphite is found all over the world, it is only commercially mined in Sri Lanka.

Source - Geology Amorphous graphite: Amorphous graphite is found as minute particles in beds of mesomorphic rocks such as coal, slate or shale deposits. The graphite content ranges from 25% to 85% dependent on the geological conditions. Most of the amorphous deposits with economic importance are formed by metamorphism of coal or carbon rich sediments.

Notable occurrences are in Mexico, North Korea, South Korea and Austria. Source - Artificial Graphite Synthetic graphite can be produced from coke and pitch.

Synthetic Graphite consists mainly of graphitic carbon that has been obtained by graphitisation, heat treatment of nongraphitic carbon, or by chemical vapour deposition from hydrocarbons at temperatures above 2100K .

Synthetic Graphite tends to be of higher purity though not as crystalline as natural graphite. On the whole, synthetic graphite tends to be of a lower density, higher porosity and higher electrical resistance.

Its increased porosity makes it unsuitable for refractory applications. Source - Mining Method Graphite is commonly extracted through open-pit methods. In some cases, it has been extracted through underground mining (vein deposits

in Sri Lanka). Mining - Graphite ore is extracted with the use of shovels & bulldozers that load dump trucks with the crude ore. Primary Crusher Mill Flotation Cells

Dryers Mechanical concentration - The ore is crushed by a primary crusher and then submitted to a series of roll crushers and classifiers to remove the oversizes and gangue. Flotation is used for the mechanical separation of the graphite from impurities present in the ore. The cycle mill-flotation is repeated until a grade between 87 -96% of carbon is reached. Chemical concentration - Concentration with the use of chemical agents is used to remove impurities that remain in the graphite after

the mechanical concentration process. Some firms make high purity graphite (98% - 99%carbon) by leaching concentrate with strong acids or alkalis.

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