LOUIS XIV The Sun King (5 September 1638 1 September 1715) L tat, cest moi ~ I am the state Lecture Outline Centralization of Absolute Power Introduction
Brief Timeline Le Fronde Law & Order Control Nobles Economic Reform Patronage of the Arts Versailles The Church Army Foreign Policy Thesis Through his ambitious political,
economic, cultural and religious pursuits, Louis XIV brought built on the legacy of his Capetian predecessors to achieve the centralization of France, French influence in the world, and a perfect absolute monarchy. Brief Timeline 1638: Louis born, son of Louis XIII and Anne of Austria
1643: Louis XIII dies, Anne and Mazarin took the regency for the four year old Louis 1648-1653 Wars of the Fronde 1654: At 18, Louis crowned, becomes Louis XIV 1661: Cardinal Mazarin dies => at 23 Louis has personal control over France 16611715: Develops Perfect Absolute Monarchy Louis XIII and Anne of Austria The Fronde Causes: Dissatisfaction with taxes- In 1648 Mazarin attempted to tax members of the Parlement de Paris Protest against their political demotion from vassals to courtiers
Feudal Nobility was threatened by Mazarin and wanted more of a voice in the government. Mazarin fled to Germany Fear of centralized gov Disrespect for bureaucracy (the Noblesse de Robe) The Fronde Effects: Fronde was defeated Disorder from the Fronde: Years of fighting, riots and disorder leaves the peasants weary of troubled times. In this way, they are perfectly ready to accept the iron rule of an absolute monarch Left Louis XIV with distrust of nobles Law & Order: Intendants
Intendants administered France country was divided into 32 districts Job of an Intendant recruit men for army supervise collection of taxes preside over administration law check on local nobility regulate economic activities
Enforce corve: forced labor that required peasants to work a month per year on public projects Law & Order: Advisors 3 main advisors Jean Baptiste Colbert - Finance & Navy Michel de Telier Military Hughes de Lionne Foreign Affairs
Grande Ordonnance de Procdure Civile of 1667, the Code Louis - comprehensive legal code attempting a uniform regulation Law of State / Law of Church Basis for Code Napoleon Control the Nobility Nobles tried to gain favor at Versailles Created Secret Police: - spied on nobles - went through mail Compromise with the Nobility
He doesnt tax them They cant complain about how money is spent More and more power to the King Economic Reform 1661, treasury verged on bankruptcy Colbert - Contrleur gnral des Finances. Louis first had to eliminate Nicolas Fouquet, the
Surintendant des Finances. Fouquet charged with embezzlement. Mercantilism as means to self sufficiency Colonies in North America Customs & Taxes Inventions Manufacturing (esp. glass, shipbuilding, and iron) Infrastructure Army & Navy Mercantilism 7.Increase tariffs,
taxes, and duties to pay for the military and royal estate. 8. Maintain traditional farming 1 9 7 2 8 6.Develop strong infrastructure roads and canals 6 5
1.Intervene in the economy, to protect home products, by taxes and tariffs 2.Export of finished products to achieve a positive balance of trade (Revenue for military, arts, infrastructure, etc.) 4 3 5.Reduction of tolls for national traffic
3.Entrepreneurs est. manufacturing base. 4.Est. colonies and trading partners Patronage of the arts Changes Art o o o
No Longer to Glorify God Middle Ages No Longer to Glorify Human Potential Renaissance Glorify King and Absolute Rule The Louvre Painters (mostly Italian Baroque): Charles Le Brun, Pierre Mignard, Antoine Coysevox, and Hyacinthe Rigaud Composers: Lully, Chambonnires and Franois Couperin Writers: Molire (comedies), Racine (tragedies), and La Fontaine (fables) Academies
Acadmie Franaise Academy of inscriptions and belles-lettres 1663 Academy of Science 1666 Academy of moral and political Sciences 1795 Academy of architecture 1695 Academy of Royale de Musique 1680 Funds from Finance Ministry Palace at Versailles Fronde allegedly caused Louis to hate Paris, which he abandoned for a country retreat. But he beautifies Paris also. So why?
Patronage: Entire French nobility was expected to be present in ceremonies, festivals and dinners nobles danced and tried to gain favor of the King Watch for potential Rivals To leave something glamorous for next generations Ultimate show of Divine Right, power, and elegance Palace at Versailles
2,000 acres of grounds 12 miles of roads 27 miles of trellises 200,000 trees 210,000 flowers planted every year 80 miles of rows of trees 55 acres surface area of the Grand Canal 12 miles of enclosing walls
50 fountains and 620 fountain nozzles 21 miles of water conduits 3,600 cubic meters per hour: water consumed
26 acres of roof 51,210 square meters of floors 2,153 windows 700 rooms 67 staircases 6,000 paintings 1,500 drawings and 15,000 engravings 2,100 sculptures 5,000 items of furniture and objects d'art 150 varieties of apple and peach trees in the Vegetable Garden Palace at Versailles Palace at Versailles
Gallery of Battles Hall of Mirrors Palace at Versailles The Gardens Bedroom of the Queen Religion: One Faith Devout Catholic Head of the Gallican Church (French Catholic Church) Anti Huguenot Campaign Closing of schools and churches Excluded from public office
Job Discrimination Religion: One Faith Edict of Fountainbleau (1685) Repealed Edict of Nantes rel. toleration to Huguenots 200,000+ (of 2 million) Huguenots fled to England, Holland, and New England Many Huguenots belonged to the merchant and artisan classes, they took their knowledge and skills with them Huge error - weakened France's economic position (and immoral) The Army
Size 1635: 25,000 1659: 250,000 Loyal to King, not nobles Modernize Organize Professionalize Discipline Morale Expansion of French Empire
Wanted control of modern Belgium and Holland Rhine River as eastern border of France Louis longest war was the War of the Spanish Succession- lasted from 1701- 1714 almost led to Frances defeat bankrupted the country Wars made him unpopular Expansion of French Empire
Discussion Questions What methods did Louis XIV use to consolidate his rule? Identify and describe the Sun Kings successes. Identify and describe the Sun Kings excesses. "One King, one law, one faith. Mission accomplished? To what extent did Louis XIV achieve the perfect Absolute Monarchy?
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