Life sciences Grade 11 CAPS structured, clear, practical ...

LIFE SCIENCES GRADE 11 CAPS STRUCTURED, CLEAR, PRACTICAL - HELPING TEACHERS UNLOCK THE POWER OF NCS KNOWLEDGE AREA: Life Process in Plants and Animals. TOPIC 3: Animal Nutrition Homeostasis and a Balanced Diet

SUMMARY OF PRESENTATION: Nutrition and Homeostasis A Balanced Diet Under-nutrition Over-nutrition Dietary Supplements Different Diets for Different People NUTRITION AND HOMEOSTASIS:

Homeostasis is the natural tendency of the body to maintain a constant internal environment irrespective of changes in the external environment. Some factors that need to be controlled to maintain homeostasis are glucose concentration, oxygen and carbon dioxide content, pressure and pH of the blood. We shall look at the maintenance of the blood sugar level. NUTRITION AND HOMEOSTASIS: Maintenance of Blood-Glucose Level:

If the blood glucose levels are too high The blood glucose level is returned to normal in the following way: 1. The hormone insulin is secreted. 2. It lowers the blood sugar level in the following way:

it increases the rate at which glucose is absorbed by the cells. it stimulates the liver and muscles to convert the glucose into glycogen and fat. NUTRITION AND HOMEOSTASIS: If the blood glucose level is too low Then it is returned to normal in the following way: 1. The hormone glucagon is secreted.

2. The hormone increases the blood sugar level by stimulating the conversion of glycogen back into glucose. this glucose is then returned back into the bloodstream. NUTRITION AND HOMEOSTASIS: Diabetes: When the levels of the glucose in the blood is too high then you suffer from a disease called

Diabetes mellitus. There are 2 types of Diabetes mellitus. They are: 1. Type 1 and 2. Type 2 NUTRITION AND HOMEOSTASIS: Type 1 diabetes: Also known as juvenile onset diabetes. It mainly occurs in young people, that is people under 30 and even very young children and infants. It affects the victim suddenly. This type of diabetes is caused by the pancreas being unable to make insulin.

Treatment for this type of diabetes is injection of insulin. Insulin needs to be taken everyday. The doses must be balanced with food intake and an exercise programme. NUTRITION AND HOMEOSTASIS: Type 2 diabetes: This is also known as adult onset diabetes. People who are affected with this type of diabetes are usually over 40 years old. It is the more common diabetes. The sufferers of this type of diabetes are overweight and do not exercise. In this case the pancreas produces the insulin but the

insulin does not work properly or there is not enough. NUTRITION AND HOMEOSTASIS: Type 2 diabetes can be easily and successfully treated with medication. Just weight loss can reduce glucose levels.

In order to manage the disease, sufferers need to follow a strict eating plan and exercise programme. Tablets are sometimes also prescribed to help manage the disease. But many type 2 patients go on to use insulin. NUTRITION AND HOMEOSTASIS: Symptoms: The symptoms are as follows:

1. Weight loss 2. Thirst 3. Frequent urination 4. Night sweats 5. Glucose in urine 6. Blurred vision 7. Fatigue 8. Non-healing of wounds NUTRITION AND HOMEOSTASIS: Treatment: 1. Diet

2. Exercise 3. Prescribed medication A BALANCED DIET:

This is a diet that contains all the essential nutrients in sufficient amounts and the correct proportions. A balanced diet differs from person to person. This is so because it is dependent on the age, sex and type of work done. However in general the daily food intake of an average person should be about 55% carbohydrates, 30% fats and 15% proteins A BALANCED DIET:

The table on the next slide describes some of the food types consumed as a part of a balanced diet, their sources and functions. FOOD TYPES AND THEIR USES Food Type Uses of Food Type Carbohydrates: Pasta, rice and bread Protein: Eggs, fish, poultry and red meat Fats: Oils, nuts, milk and butter

Vitamins: Spinach, liver and oranges Minerals: Milk, vegetable, salt and eggs Roughage: Cereal, fresh fruit and vegetables Source of energy Used to make cell components Serves as insulation. Source of reserve energy Control the chemical reactions For the formation of strong bones and teeth, red blood cells etc. Necessary for regular bowel

movements. MALNUTRITION: Malnutrition occurs when a person does not follow a balanced diet. They may eat too much or too little. Therefore there are 2 types of malnutrition. They are: 1. Under nutrition 2. Over nutrition MALNUTRITION: Under-nutrition: This occurs when the person consumes too little

food. We shall look at some of the nutritional disorders that occur when under-nutrition occurs. MALNUTRITION: Kwashiorkor: This disease affects children. They have a diet high in carbohydrates but lacks protein. Symptoms: 1. Swollen belly 2. Stick like arms and legs 3. Swollen and puffy face.

Puffy with fluid. Children suffering from kwashiorkor MALNUTRITION: The internal symptoms are as follows: 1. Swollen liver 2.

Poor blood quality 3. Slow brain development. Some internal symptoms of kwashiorkor MALNUTRITION: Nutritional Marasmus: This disease is caused by a general shortage of food. Symptoms: 1. Monkey like face with

deep set eyes and tight skin. 2. Thin muscles. 3. Very little or no fatty tissue. Child suffering from Nutritional Marasmus MALNUTRITION: Anorexia: This occurs when a person refuses to eat even though food is available. This occurs because of psychological reasons. Mass is lost very quickly.

It can result in death if no treatment occurs. Bulimia: This is also a psychological condition. Here binge eating occurs. That is a person eats a lot of high energy foods, for example cakes, biscuits, sweets every now and then. MALNUTRITION: Then he/she feels guilty. Therefore they try to reverse the situation by

vomiting or taking laxatives. MALNUTRITION: Over-nutrition: This occurs when a person consumes too much food. Obesity can occur as a result of over-nutrition. Obesity: Occurs when a person consumes too much high energy foods. Carbohydrates and fats are examples of such food. This results in the fat content of body tissues reaching an abnormally high level. MALNUTRITION:

People suffering from obesity are overweight. They also are more prone to diseases like diabetes, hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular disease. Exercise and a balanced diet can be used to control weight. High fibre and low fat foods should be eaten. This type of change in diet can help with weight

loss. DIFFERENT DIETS FOR DIFFERENT PEOPLE: Sports Diets: The recommended optimum nutrient intake of calories for most sports is 60-70% of the calories from carbohydrates, 12% from proteins and the reminder from fats. These figures were put forward in Lausanne in 1991 at the International Conference on Food, Nutrition and Sports. The body is unable to provide for the energy requirements for competitions or sport activities that are more than an hour long.

DIFFERENT DIETS FOR DIFFERENT PEOPLE: There is a risk of glycogen depletion. Glycogen remember is the excess glucose that is stored in the liver and muscles.

However only small amounts of glycogen can be stored. This amount is not enough to meet the requirements of sports men or women. This problem can be overcome by carbohydrate loading. Carbohydrate loading is when a diet high in carbohydrates is consumed during training for a competition or sport activity. DIFFERENT DIETS FOR DIFFERENT PEOPLE: This helps to cut down on glycogen loss and keep level of performance high.

Here are some tips for boosting carbohydrate intake: 1. Meals should be planned around carbohydrates. 2. Eat smaller portions of food rich in fats. 3. Fill up with extra carbohydrates. 4. Make porridge with water, because it has a higher carbohydrate content this way. 5. Drink fruit juice with meals and have a milky drink at night. DIFFERENT DIETS FOR DIFFERENT PEOPLE: 6. 7.

8. Try low fat carbohydrate rich snacks e.g. fresh or dried fruit or biscuits spread with jam. Pasta sauces that are tomato or vegetable based rather than meat or cheese. Cut slices of bread extra thick for sandwiches. DIFFERENT DIETS FOR DIFFERENT PEOPLE: Diet and Culture: Different cultures have different diets.

Asian cultures consume dog meat. Hindus do not consume cows. People also follow strict diets for reasons other than culture or religion.

Some people have strict diets for health reasons. We shall look at some of these diets. DIFFERENT DIETS FOR DIFFERENT PEOPLE: Vegetarianism: This is a diet that is free of meat, and meat products. The diet may also include or exclude animal derivatives such as eggs or dairy products.

Vegetarians may also reject clothing made from animal skins, such as leather shoes or items made from fur. There are many different types of vegetarianism. They are as follows: DIFFERENT DIETS FOR DIFFERENT PEOPLE:

They are as follows: 1. Lacto-ovo vegetarianism: diet includes eggs, dairy and honey but no fish. 2. Lacto vegetarianism: this diet includes dairy and honey but no eggs or fish. 3. Ovo vegetarianism: diet includes eggs

and honey but no dairy or fish. 4. Veganism: this diet does not include eggs, fish, honey or dairy. DIFFERENT DIETS FOR DIFFERENT PEOPLE: Halaal: This diet is common to people following the Islamic religion and culture. The word Halaal means permissible. Therefore it refers to the food that is allowed by the Islamic law.

In order for food to be Halaal it must not be any forbidden substance or food like pork or alcohol. The meat that is eaten must also be slaughtered according traditional guidelines. DIFFERENT DIETS FOR DIFFERENT PEOPLE: Some forbidden or haraam substances are: 1. Blood 2.

Fanged beasts of prey, this is all carnivores animals besides fish and sea animals. DIFFERENT DIETS FOR DIFFERENT PEOPLE: Kosher: Kosher is the term given to food that is acceptable according to the Jewish law. The Jewish law is called halakha. Kosher comes from the Jewish word kashr, meaning fit. Jews do not eat non-kosher foods. There are no restrictions on non-dietary use, for example Jews can use insulin made from the pig. Kosher foods are similar to halaal foods. Foods that are not in accordance with the Jewish law is

called treif. DIFFERENT DIETS FOR DIFFERENT PEOPLE: Treif refers to kosher animals that have not been correctly slaughtered or may have been killed by wild beasts. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS: Anti-ageing supplements: The plant Uncaria tomentosa, contains a substance that can protect the cells against DNA damage. This substance can also repair DNA damage.

Therefore it is able to protect the cell against aging. The roots of this plant was used by Ashninka Indians in Peru as teas. The bark or roots of the plant was used as contraceptives. Was also used to treat cancer, arthritis etc. Exercise and vitamin E supplements can slow down the aging process. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS: DNA stability could be improved by folic acid supplements.

Folic acid supplements can also reduce the risk of certain cancers. These are cancers that are caused by faults in the genetic code. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS: Sports Supplements: These are taken to improve the performance of sport men and women. However the following must be taking into consideration:

1. Some supplements contain banned substances. Sometimes not all ingredients may be listed on the list of ingredients. 2. Sports supplements should only be taken after consultation with a dietician. It must be proved that the diet cannot provide the quantities of the nutrients the supplement provides. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS: 3. Dosages must be calculated carefully to prevent overdose. 4.

The diets and supplements need to be tested before a major competitions, because different people react differently to the supplements. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS: Vegetarian Supplements: The vegetarian as well as the vegan diets need to be well managed. Poor management can lead to low levels of certain nutrients. Nutrients that can be lacking in a poorly managed vegan or vegetarian diets are vitamin B12, iron, calcium and vitamin D. Therefore people that follow these diets are

encouraged to take the above supplements. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS: Pregnancy supplements: Pregnant women are encouraged to take iron and calcium supplements. During pregnancy higher levels of these nutrients are required for the development of the foetus. These nutrients are required for the development of the bones and healthy blood. The diet is unable to provide the higher levels that are required. Therefore the women are encouraged to take supplements.

EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE: The alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream from the stomach. The effects of alcohol may last for many hours, this of course is dependent on the amount consumed. Some effects of alcohol are as follows: 1. Loss of social inhibition 2. Slurred speech 3. Movements are uncoordinated 4. Impaired vision 5. Nausea EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG

ABUSE: 6. 7. 8. 9. Loss of balance Vomiting Unconsciousness Memory loss. Long term use of alcohol can lead to 10. Increased risk of cancer, anxiety and insomnia 11. Foetal damage during pregnancy. 12. Danger on the roads due increased risk of car accidents

13. Coma and death EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE: The effects of drug abuse on a person is as follows: 1. Changes in appetite or sleep pattern 2. Sudden weight loss or gain 3.

Slurred speech 4. Changes in personality and attitude 5. Sudden mood swings 6. Feelings of fear and anxiety TERMINOLOGY:

Homeostasis: is the natural tendency of the body to maintain a constant internal environment irrespective of changes in the external environment.

Diabetes mellitus: is a disease in which the levels of the glucose in the blood is too high. Balanced diet: is one that contains all the essential nutrients in sufficient amounts and the correct proportions. Malnutrition: occurs when a person does not follow a balanced diet. Under-nutrition: occurs when the person consumes too little food. Kwashiorkor: is a disease that affects children whose diets are high in carbohydrates but lacks protein. TERMINOLOGY:

Nutritional Marasmus: is a disease that is caused by a general shortage of food. Anorexia: occurs when a person refuses to eat even though food is available. Over-nutrition: occurs when a person consumes too much food.

Obesity: occurs when a person consumes too much high energy foods. Carbohydrate loading: is when a diet high in carbohydrates is consumed during training for a competition or sport activity. Vegetarianism: is a diet that is free of meat, and meat products. TERMINOLOGY:

Lacto-ovo vegetarianism: diet includes eggs, dairy and honey but no fish. Lacto vegetarianism: this diet includes dairy and honey but no eggs or fish. Ovo vegetarianism: diet includes eggs and honey but no dairy or fish. Veganism: this diet does not include eggs, fish, honey or dairy. Kosher: is the term given to food that is acceptable according to the Jewish law. QUESTION 1

1. A balanced diet is made up of A. A very large portion of carbohydrates. B. A very small portion of carbohydrates. C. 55% carbohydrates D. 15% carbohydrates QUESTION 2 2. Proteins make up _____% of the balanced diet. A. 55 B. 15

C. 30 D. 5 QUESTION 3 3. ____________ is a source of both proteins and minerals. A. Eggs B. Liver C. Vegetables D. Oranges QUESTION 4

4. This food type is important for the development of healthy bones and teeth. A. Carbohydrates B. Proteins C. Fats D. Minerals QUESTION 5 5. This food type provides building material A. Carbohydrates

B. Proteins C. Fats D. Minerals QUESTION 6 6. This food type is a source of energy. A. Carbohydrates B. Proteins C. Fats D. Minerals QUESTION 7 7.

This nutrient is important for the formation of red blood cells. A. Carbohydrates B. Proteins C. Fats D. Minerals QUESTION 8 8. This nutrient acts as an insulator A. Vitamins B. Proteins C. Fats

D. Roughage QUESTION 9 9. This nutrient is involved in chemical control. A. Vitamins B. Proteins C. Fats D. Roughage QUESTION 10 10. This substance is responsible for regular bowel

movements. A. Vitamins B. Proteins C. Fats D. Roughage QUESTION 11 11. Both these nutrients can be a source of energy. A. Vitamins and minerals B. Carbohydrates and vitamins C. Proteins and minerals D. Carbohydrates and fats

QUESTION 12 12. This food is a source of both roughage and minerals A. Rice B. Vegetables C. Eggs D. Fish QUESTION 13 13. If good strong bones are to develop then the diet should include

A. Cakes, honey and bread B. Beans, meat and fish C. Milk, cream and cooking oil D. Spinach, liver and oranges QUESTION 14 14. Lack of a balanced diet is known as A. Under-nutrition B. Over-nutrition C. Malnutrition D. None of the above

QUESTION 15 15. When too much food is eaten, it is known as A. Under-nutrition B. Over-nutrition C. Malnutrition D. None of the above QUESTION 16 16. When too little food is eaten, this is known as A. Under-nutrition B. Over-nutrition

C. Malnutrition D. None of the above QUESTION 17 17. The disease that occurs in children whose diet is high in carbohydrates but lacking in proteins. A. Kwashiorkor B. Maramus C. Obesity D. Bulimia QUESTION 18 18.

A psychological condition that includes binge eating. A. Kwashiorkor B. Anorexia C. Obesity D. Bulimia QUESTION 19 19. A disease that occurs as a result of a general shortage of food. A. Kwashiorkor B. Maramus

C. Obesity D. Bulimia QUESTION 20 20. A refusal to eat even though food is available A. Kwashiorkor B. Anorexia C. Obesity D. Bulimia SOLUTION FINAL ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. C B A D B A

D C A D 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

D B B C B A A D B B

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