Life processes in plant and animals

LIFE SCIENCES GRADE 10 CAPS: STRUCTURED, CLEAR, PRACTICAL HELPING TEACHERS UNLOCK THE POWER OF NCS KNOWLEDGE AREA: Life processes in plants and animals Topic 7: Support and transport systems in plants Anatomy of dicotyledonous plants CAPS SPECIFIC AIMS 1. Knowing Life Sciences 2. Investigating Phenomena in Life Sciences 3. Appreciating and Understanding the History, Importance and Applications

of Life Sciences in Society SPECIFIC SKILLS Access information Select key ideas Recall information Apply knowledge in new

contexts Use knowledge in a new way Analyse information/data

Describe knowledge of NS Build a conceptual framework Organise or reorganise knowledge Write summaries Develop flow charts and mind maps Recognise patterns and trends Critically evaluate scientific

information Recognise relationships between existing knowledge and new ideas Identify assumptions Categorise information

SUMMARY OF PRESENTATION Need for support and transport in plants Anatomy of Dicot Plants The Root The Stem Tissues Responsible for Transport and Support THE NEED FOR TRANSPORT AND SUPPORT

We shall look at two reasons for the need of a transport system in plants. In order for photosynthesis to occur the plant requires water, sunlight and carbon dioxide. Sunlight and gases enters the plant directly at the leaf where photosynthesis occurs. But water is absorbed by the roots, a transport system must be present to carry the water

from the roots to all parts of the plant. Once the food is manufactured it must be transported to all parts of the plant from the leaves, a transport system is needed for this. THE NEED FOR TRANSPORT AND SUPPORT Most plants need to grow tall in order for the to reach the sunlight.

If these plants do not have any supporting tissue they cannot be held upright. Therefore they need supporting tissue to hold the plant upright so that they can reach great heights in order to reach sunlight. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT The root is an example of a plant organ. The are two types of root systems. These are the: 1. tap root system and the

2. adventitious root system. We shall look at the main differences between these two root systems ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT THE TAP ROOT:

The tap root has one main root and other smaller roots arising from it. The main root is called the tap root. The smaller roots that arise from it are called lateral or side roots. The tap root arises from the radicle of the embryo found in a seed. The radicle is the first root. The diagram of the next slide shows us an embryo with the radicle. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS

PLANTS THE ROOT ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT ADVENTITIOUS ROOT: The adventitious root has no distinguishable main root all the roots are more or less the same size.

These roots do not arise from the radicle. They arise from any other part of the plant. SOMETHING FOR YOU TO DO Name the two types of roots systems you have studied and tabulate two differences between them. SOLUTION

Tap root system and adventitious root system. The differences between tap root system and adventitious root system Tap root system Adventitious root system Arises from the radicle of Does not arise from the embryo. radicle of embryo, it arises from any other part of the plant.

Has one main from which The main root cannot be the lateral roots arise. distinguished. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT FUNCTIONS OF ROOTS: Roots have two main functions. These are: 1. They absorb water and mineral salts. 2. They anchor the plant firmly to the ground. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS

PLANTS THE ROOT EXTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE ROOT TIP: The root tip has 5 main regions has shown in the diagram alongside. These are: 1. Root cap 2. Growing point 3. Region of elongation 4. Region of root hairs 5. Mature region ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT THE ROOT CAP:

The root cap covers the root tip. It is made up of parenchyma cells. Some of these cells are rubbed off and damaged as the root tip pushes its way through the soil. FUNCTION: The root tip protects the inner layers of the root tip. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT GROWING POINT: This region is found within the root cap. It is made up of meristematic cells. Do you remember what are

meristematic cells? This region produces new cells. FUNCTION: These cells are used to 1. Replace the cells that are damaged or lost by the root cap. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT 2. Some cells are pushed to the region of elongation.

REGION OF ELONGATION: This region occurs above the growing point. These cells come from the growing point. FUNCTION: 1. Cells in this region elongate. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT ROOT HAIR REGION: Found above the region of elongation. It has the root hairs externally.

Internally the cells in this region start to differentiate. They start to become mature tissue. Sometimes it is also called the region of elongation. Do you remember what differentiate means? FUNCTION: 1. The root hairs absorb water and mineral salts. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT THE MATURE REGION: This is the last region of the root tip.

Externally it has lateral or side roots. Internally it has fully differentiated tissue. Name some examples of these fully differentiated tissue? SOLUTION:

Meristematic cells are cells that divide continuously and can become differentiated into any type of tissue. Differentiated is when the structure of the cell changes so that it can perform a different function. Some examples of differentiated tissues are parenchyma, sclerenchyma, collenchyma, xylem and phloem. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF YOUNG DICOT ROOT: We will study the cross section of the

young dicot root. Cross section is also called a transverse section. Transverse section can be also represented by the letters t/s. The next slide shows a plan diagram of the t/s of young dicot root. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT From the plan diagram we can see that the root is made up of 3 main regions.

These 3 regions are the 1. Epidermis 2. Cortex 3. Stele The next shows a detailed diagram. This shows the detail of each region which we shall now discuss. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS

THE ROOT EPIDERMIS: The epidermis forms the outermost layer of the root. The epidermis is a single layer of cells. These cells are brick shaped, thin walled and transparent. Amongst the epidermal cells are specialized epidermal cells called root hairs. FUNCTION: 1. The epidermis allows sunlight to pass through to the deeper lying tissues.

ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT 2. 3. Since the epidermis is the outermost layer it provides the inner tissues of the root with protection. The root hair is used to absorb water and mineral salts. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT THE ROOT HAIR:

The root is made up of elongated cells. The cell wall is extremely thin. In fact it is so thin that in places there are pores so it makes direct contact with the soil. Within the cell wall there is a cell membrane. The cell membrane surrounds the cytoplasm. Embedded in the cytoplasm is a very large vacuole and a nucleus. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT

Look at the diagram of the root hair below. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT CORTEX: The cortex lies within the epidermis. It is made up of many layers of parenchyma cells. The cortex ends in a single layer of cells called the endodermis. The endodermis is thickened by a substance called suberin. This suberin is laid down on the inner and

radial walls. Since the endodermis is thickened by suberin we say that the endodermis is suberised. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT

The strip of suberin is called the Casparian strip. The Casparian strip is waterproof. Between the thickened endodermal cells there are unthickened cells. These unthickened cells are called passage cells. These passage cells are found opposite the xylem arms of the stele. These cells will allow water to pass through. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS

PLANTS THE ROOT FUNCTION: 1. With the passage cells the endodermis directs the movement of water through the root into the xylem. STELE: The stele is also known as the vascular cylinder. It is made up of 4 different types of tissue. These are the pericycle, xylem, cambium and phloem.

ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT The pericycle is found immediately

below the endodermis. It is made up of thin walled cells. The xylem is found at the center of the stele. The xylem has a number of arms radiating outwards. This gives the xylem its star shaped or cross appearance. The phloem is found in the arms of the xylem. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT

The vascular cambium is found between the xylem and phloem. FUNCTIONS: 1. The pericycle gives rise to lateral roots. 2. The xylem transports water and mineral salts from the roots to all parts of the plant. 3. The phloem transports manufactured food from the leaves to all parts of the plant. 4. The vascular cambium gives rise to more xylem and phloem as the root increases in thickness.

ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE ROOT DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF A ROOT: These features will help you tell the difference between the root and stem and will also help you to identify the root. 1. The presence of root hairs. 2. A clearly defined endodermis. 3. The presence of a central stele. 4. The star shaped xylem. 5. Xylem alternates with the phloem. SOMETHING FOR YOU TO

DO Study the diagram and answer the B questions that follow: 1. Identify the organ shown. A 2. Give 3 visible reasons for your answer above. 3. Provide labels for B and C. 4. Identify cell A. Explain how it is adapted for its function. 5. Label D is the xylem. Give 1 visible reason for your answer. c D

SOLUTION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Root. Presence of a well defined endodermis. Star shaped xylem. Xylem alternates with the phloem. Presence of a central stele.

B- cambium C-phloem A- passage cell. It is unthickened and occurs in line with arms of the xylem to allow for easy entry of water into xylem. It is round in cross section. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE STEM EXTERNAL STRUCTURE: Stems are found above the ground. They are cylindrical and erect. Stem are green in colour when young due to the presence of chloroplasts. Leaves and buds arise from the

stem. The part of the stem from which the leaf arises is called the node. The part between 2 nodes is called the internode. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE STEM

The stem has two types of buds. These are the terminal bud and the axillary bud. The terminal bud is also called the apical bud. The terminal bud is found at the tips of stems. The axillary bud is found in the axil. The axil is the area between the leaf and the stem.

ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE STEM INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF YOUNG DICOT STEM: We shall look at the cross section of a young dicot stem. Look at the next 2 slides that show plan and detailed diagram of the young dicot stem. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE STEM The plan diagram of the dicot stem. The diagram shows us

that the stem is made up of 4 regions. These are the: 1. Epidermis 2. Cortex 3. Vascular bundles 4. Pith We shall now look at each of these 4 regions in detail. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE STEM

ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE STEM EPIDERMIS: The epidermis is covered by a transparent cuticle. It is made up of single layer of cells. These cells are transparent, thin walled cells. Specialized epidermal cells called guard cells maybe found amongst the epidermal cells. These guard cells have the same structure discussed earlier in the leaf. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS

PLANTS THE STEM FUNCTION: 1. The transparent cuticle allows for sunlight to pass through 2. The cuticle also reduces water loss by transpiration. 2. As the outermost layer the epidermis protects the inner lying tissue. 3. The guard cells allow for gaseous exchange. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE STEM CORTEX: The cortex is found within the

epidermis. Sometimes immediately below the epidermis there are layers of collenchyma or sclerenchyma. These layers make up the hypodermis. The micrographs below show the 3 types of tissue found in the cortex. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE STEM Form the diagram you can see the

sclerencyhma cells are evenly thickened, while the collenchyma is thickened only in the corners. Sclerenchyma tissue is made up of sclerenchyma fibers and stone cells. The fibers have tapered ends. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE STEM

The sclerenchyma of the hypodermis is made up of sclerenchyma fibers only. Below the hypodermis is the parenchyma. The parenchyma is made up of thinwalled irregularly shaped cells, with large intercellular spaces. The final layer of the cortex is the endodermis.

The endodermis forms a single layer. The endodermis of the stem is not clearly visible. ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE STEM FUNCTION: 1. The hypodermis strengthens the stem and helps to keep it upright. 2. The parenchyma stores food. 3. The intercellular airspaces of the parenchyma are used for the transport of water and gases. 4. The endodermal cells store starch.

ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE STEM VASCULAR BUNDLES: The vascular bundles have a circular arrangement around the pith. Each vascular bundle has the following structure. It has a sclerenchyma cap made up of sclerenchyma fibers right on the outside. The phloem tissue is found below the sclerenchyma cap. This is followed by the vascular cambium. Then immediately below the cambium is the xylem.

ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS THE STEM FUNCTION: 1. The sclerenchyma fibers provides the plant with strength and helps to keep it upright. 2. The xylem transports water and mineral salts from roots to all parts of the plant. 3. The phloem transports manufactured food from the leaves to all parts of the plants. THE TISSUE RESPONSIBLE FOR TRANSPORT AND SUPPORT

The tissues that are responsible for transport and support are xylem, phloem, sclerenchyma and collenchyma. All these tissues have been discussed earlier, but there a little new information to consider. The tissues responsible for transport are xylem and phloem.

THE TISSUE RESPONSIBLE FOR TRANSPORT AND SUPPORT XYLEM: This tissue is found in the stele of roots, in the vascular bundle of stems and in the veins of leaves. The structure of xylem tissue has been discussed already. However we want to discuss the thickening in a little more detail. Remember xylem vessels are thickened with lignin. The lignin may be laid down in four patterns or arrangements. These are as follows:

THE TISSUE RESPONSIBLE FOR TRANSPORT AND SUPPORT 1. 2. 3. 4. The lignin maybe laid down in circles or have a circular arrangement. This pattern is called annular thickening. The lignin may have a spiral

arrangement. This is known as spiral thickening. The thickening may have a ladder like arrangement. This is called sclariform thickening. Sometimes the whole wall is thickened. There are some unthickened areas. These unthickened areas are called pits. This type of thickening is called whole wall or pitted thickening. THE TISSUE RESPONSIBLE FOR TRANSPORT AND SUPPORT B- annular thickening

C- spiral thickening D- sclariform thickenin E- reticular thickening F- pitted thickening G- pitted thickening THE TISSUE RESPONSIBLE FOR TRANSPORT AND SUPPORT With the continuous movement of water up the xylem tissue it is possible for the xylem to become distorted. This means to lose their shape. However this does not happen because the xylem vessels and tracheids are adapted to make them strong so that they are able to

maintain their shape. They are adapted in the following way: 1. The vessels and tracheids are thick walled. 2. They are round in cross section. Structures that are round have additional strength. THE TISSUE RESPONSIBLE FOR TRANSPORT AND SUPPORT PHLOEM: Phloem is found in the stele of the root, in the vascular bundle of stems and in the vein of leaves. There only a few additions to add to what we have already learnt.

Phloem is made up of two types of cells; the sieve tube and the companion cell. The sieve tube has cross walls called sieve plates. Remember the companion cells also have cross walls. THE TISSUE RESPONSIBLE FOR TRANSPORT AND SUPPORT Collenchyma and sclerenchyma provide the plant with strength and support.

COLLENCHYMA: The collenchyma occurs as the hypodermis in some young stems. Remember that these are brick shaped cells in surface and side view, and they are thick walled. But only the corners of the cells are thickened. THE TISSUE RESPONSIBLE FOR TRANSPORT AND SUPPORT FUNCTION: 1. The collenchyma tissue gives strength and support to the aerial parts of the plant. SCLERENCHYMA:

Sclerenchyma is made up of the fibers and stone cells. The sclerenchyma fibers occurs as a cap on the vascular bundle of the dicot stem. It may also occur as the hypodermis in some stems. The fibers as mentioned earlier, have tapered ends, thick cell walls and very small lumens. THE TISSUE RESPONSIBLE FOR

TRANSPORT AND SUPPORT Lumens are the inner cavities of cells. The stone cells are small cells. They may be round to oval, irregularly shaped cells. They have very thick cell walls. The cell walls are so thick that their lumens are almost completely blocked.

FUNCTION: 1. Sclerenchyma provides mechanical support to the plant. TERMINOLOGY

Tap root: has one main root and other smaller roots arising from it. Radicle: is the first root. Adventitious root: has no distinguishable main root all the roots are more or less the same size. Suberin: is the thickening that is laid down on the inner and radial walls of the endodermis. Casparian strip: is a strip of thickening of the endodermal cells Passage cells: are the unthickened cells of the endodermis.

TERMINOLOGY Axil: is the area between the leaf and the stem. Apical or terminal buds: are found at the tips of stems.

Axillary buds: are found in the axil between the stem and the leaf. Hypodermis: is the layers of collenchyma or sclerenchyma tissue found immediately below the epidermis of the stem. Whole wall thickening: is when lignin is laid down on the entire xylem wall, with some unthickened portions. TERMINOLOGY

Pits: are the unthickened portion of the xylem walls that are not thickened by lignin during pitted thickening. Spiral thickening: refers to the spiral arrangement of the lignin on the xylem wall. Sclariform thickening: refers to the ladder like arrangement of the lignin on the xylem wall. Annular thickening: refers to circular or ring like arrangement of the lignin on the xylem wall.

TERMINOLOGY Distorted: this means to lose their shape. Sieve plates: are the cross walls of the sieve tubes. Lumens: are the inner cavities of cells. QUESTION 1

This made up of fibers and stone cells. A. Xylem B. Phloem C. Sclerenchyma D. Collenchyma QUESTION 2 The tissue that is made up brick shape cell that are thickened in the corners only. A. Xylem B. Phloem C. Sclerenchyma D. Collenchyma QUESTION 3

The tissue who has transport function, with thin walled living cells. A. Xylem B. Phloem C. Sclerenchyma D. Collenchyma QUESTION 4 The tissue that is made up of sieve tubes and companion cells. A. Xylem B. Phloem C. Sclerenchyma D. Collenchyma

QUESTION 5 The tissue that is made up of dead cells and no cross walls. A. Xylem B. Phloem C. Sclerenchyma D. Collenchyma QUESTION 6 The thickening that is laid down on the xylem vessel is A. Lignin B. Suberin C. Casparian strip D. None of the above

QUESTION 7 Xylem cells that are round in cross-section A. Are the vessels. B. Provides extra strength to prevent distortion C. A only D. Both A and B. QUESTION 8 Choose the correct answer. LETTER TISSUE

STRUCTURE A. B. C. xylem phloem collenchym a xylem lignin suberin Thick cell

walls Cross wall present D. FUNCTIO N support strength Transport transport QUESTION 9 B on this diagram shows

A. Annular thickening B. Spiral thickening C. Pitted thickening D. Scalariform thickening QUESTION 10 The micrograph is of a A. Root B. Stem C. Stele D. Vascular bundle QUESTION 11 Write down the letter of the tissue that is involved in transport only.

A. B B. C C. D D. A QUESTION 12 The tissues that may form the hypodermis is A. A and B B. C and D C. A and C D. B and D A B

C D QUESTION 13 The tissue found between the xylen and phloem in the vascular bundle is the A. Cambium B. Sclerenchyma C. Collenchyma D. Endodermis QUESTION 14 The layer that contains the Casparian Strip is the

A. Hypodermis B. Epidermis C. Endodermis D. Pericycle QUESTION 15 The passages cells are found amongst the cells of the A. Hypodermis B. Epidermis C. Endodermis D. Pericycle QUESTION 16 The layer that gives rise to the lateral roots is the

A. Hypodermis B. Epidermis C. Endodermis D. Pericycle QUESTION 17 The layer that is able to provide protection and is transparent to transmission of sunlight is A. Hypodermis B. Epidermis C. Endodermis D. Pericycle QUESTION 18 In the vascular bundle the

A. Phloem is found on the outside and xylem is found on the inside. B. Xylem is found on the outside and phloem is found on the inside. C. Xylem alternates with the phloem. D. Xylem alternates with the sclerenchyma fibers. QUESTION 19 The apical bud is A. Found at the tip of the stem B. Found in the axil C. Between the leaf and stem. D. A and C

QUESTION 20 The specialized epidermal cells that absorbs water and mineral salts is the A. Guard cell B. Root hair C. Sieve tube D. Sieve plate SOLUTIONS TO FINAL ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10. C D B B A A D A A C

SOLUTIONS TO FINAL ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. A C

A C C D B A A B

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