Language Development

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT How do you pronounce: ghoti? Pronounce gh as in enough Pronounce o as in women Pronounce ti as in emotion

Language: Language Acquisition B.F. Skinner 1904-1990 vs Noam Chomsky 1928-

Skinner vs. Chomsky (1957) Skinners position (behavorist/nurture) -imitation -reinforcement Chomskys position (nativist) -language acquisition device & universal grammar -critical period

-overgeneralization Noam Chomsky (1928- ) Argues that children have a predisposition to learn language A persons brain is hard wired to learn vocabulary and

the rules of grammar universal grammara basic understanding of the common principles of language organization At birth, infants can distinguish among the speech sounds of all the worlds languages. By 10 months, they distinguish only the speech sounds that are present in the language to which they have been exposed.

B.F. Skinner and Language Skinner believed language was the result of learning through: Association : linking certain sounds with certain people Imitation Rewards or punishments

Language: Language Stages Encouraging language development: Motherese People in every culture use a style of speech called motherese, or infant-directed speech, with babies. Motherese is characterized by

distinct pronunciation, a simplified vocabulary, short sentences, a high pitch, and exaggerated intonation and expression. Language Acquisition Stages In virtually every culture, infants follow the same sequence of language development, and at

roughly similar ages. Three-step process: video Babbling One-Word Stage Two-Word Stage Cooing and Babbling stage At about 3 months of age, the infant begins to coo.

At about 5 months of age, the infant begins to babble. Infants all over the world use the same sounds (phonemes) when they babble. At around nine months of age, babies begin to babble more in the sounds specific to their language. Will begin to babble only the phonemes of the childs native tongue at about 1 year of age

Babbling seems to be a biologically programmed stage of language development. One-Word Stage Long before babies become accomplished talkers, they understand much of what is said to them. Comprehension vocabulary (the words they understand) is much larger than their production vocabulary (the words they can say).

Around their first birthday, infants produce their first real words usually referring to concrete objects or people that are important to them Child uses one word to convey a complete thought or idea During the one-word stage, babies use a single word and vocal intonation to stand for an entire sentence. Two-Word Stage

Around their second birthday, infants begin putting words together to construct simple sentences. Two word sentences showing an appreciation of the rules of grammar Children move beyond the two-word stage at around 2-1/2 years of age. Language production and comprehension increase dramatically thereafterchildren

may have a production vocabulary of over 10,000 words by school age. Overgeneralization Child will generalize grammar rules so they apply the rules too broadly. Example: I dugged in the sandbox rather than I dug in the sandbox

Overgeneralization

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