Kybernalita - unob.cz

Virtual communities and cyber terrorism Vclav Jirovsk Faculty of Mathematics and Physics Charles University, Prague Czech Republic Robert Mal Corpus Solutions, a.s. Prague, Czech Republic Security and Protection of Information, Brno 2007 Cyberterrorism - definition Barry Collins International Symposium on Criminal Justice Issues, Chicago 1996 Dorothy E. Denning Cyberterrorism is the convergence of terrorism and cyberspace. VJJ 2007 unlawful attacks and threats of attack against computers, networks, and the information stored an attack should result in violence against persons or property, or at least cause enough harm to generate fear Security and Protection of Information 2

Virtual community definition virtual personality projections of the real personality of the human being into cyberspace virtual community global, not boundary-limited society of virtual persons , bound by the same ideas, religion, political opinion, experiences, interest etc. often politically or religionically motivated groups belonging to some movement in the real world virtual business community virtual organization in the cyberspace targeting some kind of market segment VJJ 2007 Security and Protection of Information 3 Who are attackers? the hacker group hired for the attack H4H groups based on regular business realtionship special units of terrorist cell, specialized regular military units of hostile state attack is difficult to distinguish from the H4H attacks high quality attack, specific strategy do not lasts for long time persons sympathizing with the ideology of some political, religious, nationalistic or other movement

expression of the sympathy for the ideological movement is presented working separately, latent threat in the possibility of coalition thrill seekers the individuals attracted by either real conflict or conflict in the cyberspace, not led by ideology, religion or some other kind of the philosophical background, the major driver of thrill seekers is exhibitionism VJJ 2007 Security and Protection of Information 4 Terrorist utilization of IT direct attack targeted at local technology depends on the displacement of target and its significance semantic attacks, e.g. defacement attacks targeted at critical infrastructure concurrent attack IT or telecommunication network hit while physical attack against of another target is carried out not necessarily accompanied by fatal consequences results usually only degradation of operational parameters loss of data caused by physical damage of media misuse of the technology

VJJ 2007 for administration of terrorist organization global nature of IT and telecommunication makes possible to coordinate terrorist actions around the world Security and Protection of Information 5 Misuse of cyberspace political terrorism cyberspace used as battlefield as well as for coordination and communication separatism revolutionary (seditious) religious terrorism esp. fundamentalism and denominational terrorism (cults) psychotic terrorism personal (individual) kind of terrorism feeling of satisfaction of the mentally ill person criminal terrorism not a criminal behavior in the cyberspace activities of organized crime, e.g. cyber blackmail individual activities, e.g. cyberstalking, cyberbullying VJJ 2007 Security and Protection of Information 6 Political motivation of cyber attacks 100,00% 11% of attacks are politically motivated 90,00% 50% of hacker groups confess political motivation of their attacks !!!

80,00% 70,00% Total number of attack (normalized to Red Eye) Politically motivated 60,00% 50,00% 40,00% 30,00% 20,00% 10,00% 0,00% e Ey d Re VJJ 2007 P oiz b0 on x r s tz ls ro ate rd am ec 0u o H

Er p Te S L l h s h _ r a c u t c 1c ve Fa Te -Te eS Sil t4n Hi m 4 i S Pr Security and Protection of Information Ir 4 x de p K AC H

ow 7 Impact of cyber attack and its tools vainglory of the attack causes reasonable damage has a significant publicity factor of vulnerability typical psychological weapon of cyberterrorism demonstration of vulnerability of IT of adversary typical cyberterrorist attacks DOS, usually distributed and coordinated malicious code (virus, worm, trojan horse) defacement VJJ 2007 used to compromise computer for future use system degradation (computing power, speed etc.) login page defacement, link change etc. massive defacement - pages replaced by attackers ideology content Security and Protection of Information 8 Estimated Outage Cost per Minute 10 000,00

9 000,00 8 000,00 7 000,00 6 000,00 5 000,00 4 000,00 3 000,00 2 000,00 1 000,00 0,00 Supply Chain Management VJJ 2007 E-commerce Security and Protection of Information Customer Services ATM /POS/EFT Financial Human Capital Management M anagement Messaging Infrastructure 9 Damage by Malware Class Milions 9 000,00 8 000,00 7 000,00 6 000,00 5 000,00 4 000,00

3 000,00 2 000,00 1 000,00 0,00 Love Bug Melisa Virus VJJ 2007 Security and Protection of Information Nimda Code Red Klez Slammer Worm 10 Spreading speed of Code Red Infection just started ... 19 hours later Source: caida.com VJJ 2007 Security and Protection of Information 11 WTC terrorist attack vs. Spanish April Foll Virus

VJJ 2007 Security and Protection of Information Source: Matrix Inc. 12 Indirect cyberterrorism IT related terrorism, not in direct relationship with existing IT infrastructure significantly bound to the evolution of information age, informatics and telecommunication the sense of liberty supported by perception of freedom in Internet based on common low skill of judgment on the quality of information using the IT network as tool media terrorism hacktivism misusing processes and IT power processing terrorism IT governance VJJ 2007 Security and Protection of Information 13 Media terrorism & hactivism media terorism introduced with methods of psychological war and media

manipulation internet media are most sensitive for misuse specific examples of media terrorism misuse of internet newspaper, which most of its content is taken from the regular internet sources and important part is slightly modified with objective to influence common view of some specific problem, cybertronic or misuse of subliminal perception of mankind hacktivism VJJ 2007 term coined by the Cult of the Dead Cow seek to use information technology as a weapon for freedom and change hacktivist manifesto based on Declaration of Human Rights etc. Security and Protection of Information 14 Processing terrorism & IT governance processing terrorism not an exposure of cyberterrorism by its nature but uses similar tooling misuse of mechanisms of democracy, information processing and dissemination of information targets to overload democratic institutions to reach some level of common popularity IT governance

VJJ 2007 bounded to the increasing role of the information technology on the society and governing mechanisms company or corporation becomes technologicalized, governed by IT executives Security and Protection of Information 15 Case studies - examples Case study I Cyber war USA - China cyber attacks caused by increased political tension in the zone internet domains delimited up to some extend enough servers in both domains Case study II Israel/Palestina conflict cyber attacks surrounded by political conflicts and terrorist physical activities internet domains clearly delimited enough servers at least in one domain Case study III War in Iraq cyber attacks linked with military war actions internet domains of conflict not clearly delimited VJJ 2007 Security and Protection of Information 16 Groups and attack on .CN domain 1 45 40 Poet napaden

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 VJJ 2007 Security and Protection of Information 30.7.01 PoizonB0x 16.7.01 2.7.01 pr0phet 18.6.01 4.6.01 Hackweiser 21.5.01 7.5.01 Hi-Tech Hate 23.4.01 9.4.01 Den 26.3.01 12.3.01 26.2.01

12.2.01 29.1.01 15.1.01 1.1.01 0 17 VJJ 2007 Den Security and Protection of Information Subex TonikGin Data Cha0s S6 Hi-Tech Hate Silver Lords WoH Demonios Azrael666 1.11.01 1.9.01 1.7.01

1.5.01 1.3.01 1.1.01 6 5 4 3 Poet tok Groups and attack on .US domain 1 10 9 8 7 2 1 0 tonk 18 Attack on domain .IL, 2000 2001 Number of incidents 2

Barak/Arafat Barak/Arafat summit summit interrupted interrupted (03/02/2000) (03/02/2000) Increased Increased number number of of bomb bomb attack attack in in Israel Israel 12 Sharm Sharm el el Sheikh Sheikh summit summit (17/10/2000) (17/10/2000) 10 8 Part Part of of Israel Israel land land hand hand over over to to

Palestine Palestine (21/03/2000) (21/03/2000) 6 4 V-01 IV-01 III-01 II-01 XII-00 XI-00 X-00 IX-00 VIII-00 VII-00 VI-00 V-00 IV-00 III-00 II-00 0 I-01 2

Date VJJ 2007 Security and Protection of Information 19 Attack on domain .IL, 2002 Poet incident 2 Israeli Israeli helicopter helicopter shoot shoot into into the the crowd crowd of of the the people people in in Gaza Gaza Residency Residency of of J.J. Arafata Arafata had had been been destroyed destroyed No No massacre massacre in in Djanin, Djanin, UN UN resolution resolution said

said 30 25 20 15 10 Lay Lay siege siege to to Basilica Basilica in in Bethlehem Bethlehem Marvn Marvn Barght, Barght, popular popular Palestinian Palestinian politician politician had had been been arrested arrested VJJ 2007 Security and Protection of Information XI-02 X-02 IX-02 VIII-02 VII-02 VI-02

V-02 IV-02 III-02 I-02 0 II-02 5 Datum 20 Attackers vs. domains during Iraq war 3 BloodBR 3500 Number of incidents 3000 BugTravel TechTeam 2500 NHC BloodBR 2000 S4t4n1c_S0uls

S4t4n1c_S0uls BugTravel TechTeam 1500 1000 .uk .org 500 .net 0 Domain .com Attacker VJJ 2007 Security and Protection of Information 21 Taking over of Baghdad 3 1000 900 800 Number of incidents 700 600 Baghdad Baghdad taken taken over

over 500 400 300 200 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

19 Week BloodBR VJJ 2007 Security and Protection of Information NHC S4t4n1c S0uls TechTeam 22 Contacts: [email protected] [email protected] VJJ 2007 Security and Protection of Information 23

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