Kinetic Theory

States of Matter and Phase Changes Kinetic Theory 1 Kinetic Theory Forces of Attraction States of Matter Phase Change

Solid, Liquid, Gas Temperature Evaporation Condensation Boiling Melting Sublimation Deposition

2 Theory The 3 pillars of KE 1. All matter is composed of small particles

(atoms, molecules, or ions). 2. They are in constant, random motion. 3. These molecules constantly collide with each other and their surroundings. 3 Forces of Attraction

Attraction Kinetic Forces Energy According to the kinetic theory of matter, the state (phase) of a substance is determined by the interplay of two opposing forces within a substance. Kinetic energy pulls particles apart while

forces of attraction hold them together. 4 Phases of Matter The phases or states of matter can exist in four phases; solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. Whether a substance is a solid, liquid or gas

depends on the kinetic energy and the atomic forces of attraction holding the particles together. 5 Temperat ure Definition: is a measure of the

average kinetic energy of the particles of a substances. The specific form of KE concerning Kinetic Theory of Matter is thermal energy. Thermal energy is particle motion at the molecular scale. Temperature is only the measure of this. 6 Temperature cont.

During a phase change, temperature of the matter remains constant. It does not change. However when matter is a particular state say gas the temperature can range dramatically. 7

Phase Change Definition: this is the transformation of one state of matter into another. Relative thermal energy is what causes matter to change phases. Temperature is the effect that we measure

not what drives the change. 8 Evaporati on Definition: the change from a liquid to a gas at the surface of a liquid. 9

Condensa tion Definition: the phase change of a substance from a gas or vapor to a liquid. Ex: cloud formation / What has to happen ? Relative humidity rises to 100% Saturation of the air occurs Condensing nuclei must be present

10 Boiling Definition: the action of bringing a liquid to the temperature at which it bubbles and turns to vapor. Liquid to gas. Ex: (for fresh water at sea level) at 212F (100C).

12 Melting Definition: the process of becoming liquid or to be liquefied by heat. Solid to liquid. 13

Sublimati on https://youtu.be/7_p9LOTUIDQ Defined: is the process by which a solid changes phase and turns directly into a gas without passing through the liquid phase. Ex: dry ice, snow high up in the mtns

https://youtu.be/6JzQ08AGuhI <= dry ice video 14 n (precipita tion) Defined: is the process by which a gas changes phase and turns directly into a solid without passing through the liquid phase.

Ex: hail, frost, snow https://youtu.be/rM04U5BO3Ug <= nitrogen gas to nitrogen solid 15 16 17

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