IVACS

Intonation and Metadiscourse Marking as Structuring Devices in the Academic Monologues of Non-native Speakers of English as an International Language Michael Cribb Coventry University Abstract Non-native speakers of English in tertiary education are often required to deliver academic monologues in the form of presentations and speeches as part of their learning and assessment. Such monologues require the effective use of intonation and metadiscourse markers to structure and segment the talk into manageable units that the audience can meaningfully process and interpret. One such unit is the paratone (Thompson, 2003) which is a group of tone-units dealing with a single

body of information. Superordinate to this, a sequence chain (Barr, 1990) is a series of paratones in which the first paratone begins in high key or lecturing frame; this unit closely parallels topic development. For non-native speakers, the management of these two organisational units through intonation and metadiscourse markers is problematic. The present study looks at a corpus of non-native monologic discourse to see how speakers use (or misuse) these units in their attempts to structure and segment their talk. The study will consider two learner varieties, Chinese and French EILs, although other European languages will be mentioned. Chinese is a tonal language and brings with it particular problems for students trying to use English intonational patterns. French students often exhibit idiosyncratic styles, for example the use of upspeak. Contents

1. Background 2. Research Questions 3. Consistency and Contrast 4. Pedagogical Implications 1. BACKGROUND Oral presentations Value & significance for students Less support from interlocutor Elicits monologic discourse NNSs often stigmatized

Text-structuring Metadiscourse Devices and Intonation Cues Thompson (2003) has suggested that lengthy monologues require control over the use of textstructuring metadiscourse devices and intonation cues in order for the listener to understand the larger-scale hierarchical organisation of the discourse. For international students who are not native speakers of English, the lack of control over the use of these organisational devices means that their monologues are often perceived as flat and undifferentiated (Tyler & Bro, 1992) by the audience. 2. RESEARCH QUESTIONS Research Questions 1. Do students of English exhibit a narrower

pitch range when making oral presentations compared to experienced presenters (i.e. native lecturers)? 2. Do Chinese students exhibit a narrower pitch range compared to European students? H1: Chinese students will exhibit a narrow pitch range compared to European students Participants & task 22 students of English. 20 Chinese; 22 European Module: Advanced English for Business and management. UG 3rd year. 15-20 min. oral presentation in group Target students recorded with clip-on microphone & voice recorder Discourse transcribed; analysed using SIL Speech

Analyser software 1. Do students of English exhibit a narrower pitch range when making oral presentations compared to expert presenters (i.e. native lecturers)? Students Lecturers3 SD1 33.7 47.1 PDQ2 0.146* 0.230*

*P<0.001 Reduced pitch range for signaling the organization of their discourse 1: standard deviation 2:pitch dynamism quotient (Hincks 2004) 3. Engineering Lecture Corpus (Nesi) Student vs Lecturer (10.WU vs ELC1) 10.WU ELC1

2. Do Chinese students exhibit a narrower pitch range compared to European students? H1: Chinese students will exhibit a narrow pitch range compared to European students Long-term Distributional (LTD) measures (see Mennen et al, 2012) Mean f0 European 12 181

35.7 26.53 378 0.158 101.7 64.0 1.66 17.8 Chinese 10 207 31.3 27.31 315.9

0.132 97.9 66.9 0.24 4.59 ALL 22 192.9 33.7 26.90 349.8 0.146 100.0 65.3 1.01 11.7 SD

SD3 Range PDQ 90% 80% Skew (maxspan span min f0) Kurtosis N Mennen, I., Schaeffler, F. & Docherty, G. (2012). Cross-language difference in f0 range: a comparative study of English and German. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 131 (3), 2249-2260. Mann-Whitney U-tests for LTD measures

Measure Mean f0 SD SD3 Range (max- U 52.0 49.5 50.0 30.5 Z -0.528 -0.693 -0.659 -1.946

sig. (2-tailed) 0.598 0.488 0.510 0.052 Effect size (r) 0.112 0.148 0.140 0.415 PDQ1 90% span 80% span Skew

Kurtosis 41.0 60.0 52.0 34.0 19.0 -1.253 0.000 -0.528 -1.714 -2.703 0.210 1.000 0.598

0.086 0.007* 0.267 0.0 0.113 0.365 0.576 min f0) Pitch dynamism quotient (Hincks) 2. Do Chinese students exhibit a narrower pitch range compared to European students? H1: Chinese students will exhibit a narrow pitch range compared to European students

No, there are no observed differences between Chinese and European students (except for Kurtosis) 3. CONSISTENCY AND CONTRAST Consistency & Contrast Can a student use a reduced pitch range but still be an effective communicator? 7.SIM: Lowest PDQ (0.73) but idiosyncratic style may help Use of upspeak (7.SIM)

| in CONtrary | | (0.4 er) addiDAS | | addidas is a GERman COMPany | | (0.5) FOUnded in NINEteen forty EIGHT| | (0.6) and er NAME come from the NAME of the FOUnder of this company | | (0.6) and er the NAME is CREATE from (.) ADI | | and LAST three letters from his SURname create all the name | Paratones spoken paragraph At end of paratone: fall in pitch lengthening of speech and insertion of pauses laryngealisation (creaky voice) and /or loss of amplitude

At start of new paratone marked pause first tone unit raised in key high key evident in subsequent tone units creating declination Thompson (2003); (McAlear, 2008) ROM1 Globalization nowadays: Cultural: Americanization Technology: global telecommunication infrastructure Information Wars: UNO, NATO, Terrorism. Language: English, in the future Chinese? Economic Im going to talk about the the different er

effect of the globalisations the first is er cultural the most famous example is Americanisations we can xx for example like music the American music er dominate the world market the movies of which fifty percent of the of all movies now showing in Europe er are American and the (proportions) rise to er eighty percent in Germany or England and finally the export of major global brands for example in clothes industry like er Nike or xx and in food industry like McDonalds or Coca Cola

er technology the global telecommunication infrastructure which permits greater xx xx exchange Actual structure is Globalisation Cultural Example: Americanisation Music Movies Export of brands Technology (but the prosody does not signal this well >> flat, undifferentiated discourse)

PIE1 so first of all I gonna speak about the place of birth the ethnicity and the religion so you have to know that the interviewer can ask you if you have a correct work place to legally work in u-k but interviewer are not entitled to to ask you about your place of birth your ethnicity your religion about your personal history they can't do that (5.5) erm okay so now I'm gonna speak about about marital status the children and the sexual preference so about the marital status the interviewer are a bit er not not really fair because they shouldn't take any preference but they often do 16.CHEN_A

| and the third point is the (pro- provide) the battery rail CAR | | in the tourist er PLACE | | because er it can (protect) animal | 4. PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS Consistency & Contrast Consistency Use of pitch, pausing and discourse marking needs to be consistently applied over the whole of the presentation Contrast Use of pitch, pausing and discourse marking needs to be contrastive to segment the talk into hierarchical units

A narrow pitch range may not necessarily be a burden on the audience if the student can deploy consistent and contrastive intonation patterns that are explicitly marked Suggestions for teachers Pro-active intervention strategies Students need targeted assistance with presentations Particularly Chinese students are going through university under the radar Remedial classes 5. MISCELLANEOUS Informational Units

SU (Slide Unit): a section of talk that is demarcated from the previous unit by the introduction of a new slide or visual aid ASU: (Analysis of Speech Unit) a single speakers utterance consisting of an independent clause or sub-clausal unit, together with any subordinate clause(s) associated with either (Foster, Tonkyn and Wigglesworth, 2000, p.365 Italics in original). N N (SU) N

(ASU) ASU/ SU Len of talk N (words) Len of SU (secs)

Words/ sec (secs) Euro pean Chine se ALL Len of ASU Len of SU

(words) (words) 12 6.33 54.2 8.96 327 689.8 54.2

2.14 13.10 114.9 10 6.20 60.4 10.30 347

653.4 61.6 1.91 11.19 113.4 22 6.27 57 9.59

336 673.2 57.5 2.04 12.22 114.2 t-test for informational units t df

Sig. (2-tailed) Effect (eta squared) N(SU) Equal variances assumed .148 20 .884 0.001

N(ASU) Equal variances assumed -.809 20 .428 0.032 ASU/SU Equal variances assumed

-1.058 20 .303 0.053 Len of talk (secs) Equal variances assumed -.525 20 .605

0.014 N(words) Equal variances assumed .588 20 .563 0.017 Len of SU (secs)

Equal variances assumed -.861 20 .399 0.036 Words/sec Equal variances assumed 1.931 20

.068 0.157 Len of ASU (words) Equal variances assumed 2.225 20 .038* 0.198

References Barr, P. (1990). The role of discourse intonation in lecture comprehension. In M. Hewings (Ed.), Papers in Discourse Intonation (pp. 521). Birmingham, UK: University of Birmingham, English Language Research. Foster, P., Tonkyn, A. & Wigglesworth, G. (2000) Measuring Spoken Language: A unit for all reasons. Applied Linguistics, 21(3), 354-375. Hincks, R (2004) Processing the prosody of oral presentations. Proceedings of InSTIL/ICALL2004 NLP and Speech Technologies in Advanced Language Learning Systems Venice 17-19 June, 2004 Nesi, H. The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the Engineering Lecture Corpus (ELC), which was developed at Coventry University under the directorship of Hilary Nesi with contributions from ELC partner institutions. Corpus development was assisted by funding from the British Council (RC 90) April 2008August 2010. McAlear, S (2008) Unpublished MA Dissertation. Univ of Nottingham Mennen, I., Schaeffler, F. & Docherty, G. (2012). Cross-language difference in f0 range: a comparative study of English and German. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 131 (3), 2249-2260. Pickering, L. (2004) The structure and function of intonational paragraphs in native and nonnative speaker instructional discourse. English for Specific Purposes; Jan2004, Vol. 23 Issue 1, p19, 25p Thompson, S.E. (2003) Text-structuring metadiscourse, intonation and the signalling of organisation in academic lectures. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 2, pp. 5-20.

Tyler, A. & Bro, J. (1992) Discourse Structure in Nonnative English Discourse: The effect of ordering and interpretive cues on perceptions of comprehensibility. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14(1), 71-86.

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