Warm-Up 10/5/2016 Place the following in increasing atomic size 1. N, Sr, I, Be 2. Li, Hg, Cs, F 3. Fr, Ga, K, Br
Write down the electronic configuration of the following elements in long hand form V Zr S Cr I
Ionization Energy Ionization Energy is the energy needed to remove an electron 1st Ionization Energy: energy required to remove the outermost electron
Ionization Energy Ionization Energy depends on: a. Distance an electron is from nucleus The further the electron is away, the easier it is to remove Ionization Energy Continued
Nuclear charge: refers to the attraction between the nucleus and electrons A.K.A the Shielding Effect The further away the electrons are, the less the attraction is between the nucleus and electrons
Trends with Ionization Energy The first Ionization energy decreases as you move down a group The first Ionization energy
increases as you move across the periodic table Ionization Energy Problems Arrange the following in terms of increasing ionization energy: A. Li, K, Cs, Na
B. Ca, Zn, Ge, Br C. In, B, Al, Ga D. Mg, P, Na, Cl Practice Place the following in increasing Ionization Energy Rb, Mo, Br, Fr
Cs, O, C, Be, F Au, Hf, Ba, Po, At Electronegativity Electronegativity is the tendency of elements to attract electrons Nonmetals attract electrons more than
metals Electronegativity Electronegativity is really the strength of an element to steal and keep electrons Electronegativity
Electronegativity is measured on a scale from 0 to 4 The most electronegative element is given a value of 4.0 Electronegativity Continued
Fluorine is the most electronegative and given a value of 4.0 O = 3.5 Cl = 3.0 S = 2.5 H = 2.1 Li = 1.0 Na = 0.9 Effects of Electronegativity
The more electronegative an element is, the more non-metallic it is Electronegativity The strength of other elements to steal electrons is compared to the most electronegative element
Trends in Electronegativity Electronegativity increases as you move across the table Electronegativity decreases as you move down the table Electronegativity can be used to predict which type of bond that atoms will form
Problems Arrange the following in terms of increasing electronegativity: a. K, As, Cr, Zn b. Sr, Y, Ag, I c. F, O, N, Li
d. Ga, Ca, Fe, K e. F, At, Cl, Br Electron Affinity Electron affinity is defined as the neutral atom's likelihood of gaining an electron. Electron Affinity of Metals
Metals have a lower EA than nonmetals because they give up electrons to have a stable octet. Electron Affinity of Nonmetals Nonmetals like to gain electrons to
form anions to have a fully stable octet. Electron Affinity Trend As the you go down the periodic table it decreases As you go across the periodic table it increases
Review Questions Place the following in increasing Electron Affinity Na, Rb, Al, P, Cl Fr, K, Na, Cs K, Mg, Si, S Cl, At, I, F
Trends with Ionic Size What are Ions? Ions form when electrons are gained or lost Metals lose electrons (called Cations) ; non-metals gain electrons( called Anions)
Trends with Ionic Size The metal ions are usually smaller than the metal atoms The non-metal ions are larger than the non-metal
atoms Ionic Size Trend The size of the ions increase going down the periodic table The size of cations decreases as you move across the table
The size of anions decreases as you move across the table Ionic Size Continued Cations are smaller than their corresponding atoms +
Na atom is larger than Na Anions are larger than their corresponding atoms F atom is smaller than F- Ionic Size Problems State which particle would have the largest radius in each pair:
a. Ca, Ca+2 b. Br, Br c. Cl -, Br -, d. Na+, K+ Practice Place the following in increasing electronegativity:
Fr, S, Na, Cl Place the following in increasing ionization energy: Cl , As, Ca, Ni Place the following in increasing atomic radius: I, Rb, Cs, Ru
For the following pairs of atoms, tell which one of each pair has the largest ionic radius a. Al, B b. S, O c. Br, Cl d. Na, Al e. O, F
For the following pairs of atoms, tell which one of each pair has the largest ionic radius a. Al b. S c. Br d. Na
e. O Indicate which element of the following pairs is the most electronegative. a. calcium, gallium b. lithium, oxygen c. chlorine, sulfur
d. bromine, arsenic Indicate which element of the following pairs is the most electronegative. a. gallium b. oxygen c. chlorine
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