Introduction to Cell Division

Introduction to Cell Division Animated Mitosis Actual Cells Going Through Cell Division Animated Mitosis

How Meiosis Works: Mitosis/Meiosis Comparison Animation: Remember All Living Things are Made of Cells

Why Are Cells Small? As cells get bigger, more of its cytoplasm is located farther from the cell membrane. If a cell gets too big, it would take too long to get materials into the cell and too long to get waste out of the cell. Smaller cells are more efficient!

Cell Division All cells come from other living cells. You (and other living things) grow because your cells get bigger and your number of cells gets larger. A single cell divides into two cells. Two cells divide into four, etc.

Cells must also divide because old cells die and need new cells to replace them! The Cell Cycle Cell cycle regular sequence of growth and division that eukaryotic cells undergo.

Prokaryotic cells undergo binary fission Divided into three main stages: Interphase cell grows into its mature size, makes a copy of its DNA, and prepares for division. Mitosis one copy of the DNA is distributed into each of its daughter cells

Cytokinesis the cytoplasm divides and organelles are distributed into the two new cells Interphase Interphase is made up of 3 separate parts. G1

S G2 Interphase is the stage that the cell is in for most of its life! Sister Chromatids &

Chromosomes Human somatic cells (any cell other than a gamete) have 23 pairs of chromosomes. one from mom and one from dad. These are called homologous chromosomes. Copy of chromosome from mom

or dad Chromosome made in S phase of Interphase The cells chromatin condenses into chromosomes

The chromosomes look like an X Each chromosome is made up of two identical sister chromatids attached by a centromere This is created in S phase of interphase Chromosome Structure

G1 Growth Phase Cell doubles in size Cell produces all of the structures it needs to carry out its functions Think of this phase as the cell just living its normal life.

S DNA Copying Cell makes a copy of its DNA (replication) This happens because the new cell needs all of the directions for its function and survival. Think of this phase as placing the DNA on a copy machine.

G2 Preparation Cell prepares to divide Cell produces structures needed for cell division Think of this phase as the cell double checking everything it needs to divide.

Learning Checkpoint 1. T/F: Interphase is usually divided into 3 phases: G1, S, G2. 2. The ________ is the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo. 3. ________ is the stage of the cell cycle where the cell grows to its mature size, copies it DNA, and prepare to divide. 4. Cells can not get too big because: A. there is not enough DNA to support large cells

B. diffusion is too slow to provide for large cells C. the surface area of a cell increases too fast for the cell membrane to meet its needs. D. all of the above 5. DNA is replicated during: A. interphase B. prophase C. metaphase

D. cytokinesis Mitosis and Cytokinesis Mitosis During mitosis, the cells copied genetic material separates and the cell prepares to

split into two cells This allows the cells genetic material to pass into the new cells The resulting daughter cells are genetically identical!! Where Do I Find DNA?

Chromosomes are in the nucleus of every cell. Chromosomes are made up of DNA. Genes are pieces of DNA that contain the instructions for building a protein.

The Four Stages of Mitosis Remember PMAT!

Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase

Prophase Nucleus disappears Spindle fibers form in the cytoplasm Spindle fibers attach to sister chromatids Metaphase The sister chromatids are pulled to the center

of the cell They line up in the middle of the cell Anaphase Spindle fibers begin to shorten The sister chromatids are pulled to the opposite ends of the cell

Telophase The sister chromatids arrive at the opposite poles of the cell and begin to unravel New nucleus begins to form Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm Results in two separate daughter cells with identical nuclei Cytokinesis In animal cells, it is accomplished by using microfilaments to pinch the cytoplasm.

In plants, a cell plate forms between the two daughter nuclei. Real-Life Cells Dividing! Animated Mitosis Mitosis Learning Checkpoint

1. Which phase do cells spend the most time? 2. What are the 3 stages of interphase? 3. What kinds of cells go through mitosis? 4. What are the 4 stages of mitosis? 5. What is the result of mitosis? Meiosis

Meiosis - the process of cell division that produces haploid gametes (half the number of chromosomes: humans: 23) Discovery of Meiosis In 1882, British cytologist Pierre-Joseph van Beneden found different numbers of

chromosomes in different cells Specifically, he observed that gametes (sperm & egg) contain half the number of chromosomes compared to somatic cells (nonreproductive cells). Fertilization

Van Beneden then proposed that an egg and a sperm fuse to produce a zygote . The zygote contains two copies of each chromosome (one copy from the sperm and one copy from the egg). These are called homologous chromosomes. Fertilization is the name for the fusion of gametes.

Reduction Division Since the sperm and the egg contain only half the number of chromosomes, they cannot be formed from mitosis. Meiosis - the process of cell division that produces gametes with half the number of chromosomes as

somatic cells Cell undergoes 2 rounds of cell division: Meiosis 1 Meiosis 2 Humans have 46 chromosomes in their somatic cells.

The Sexual Life Cycle Unique Features of Meiosis Feature #1 Synapsis Following chromosome replication, the homologous chromosomes pair all along their length. This process is called synapsis.

Unique Features of Meiosis Feature #2 Crossing Over While the homologous chromosomes are joined, crossing over occurs. Crossing over is the exchange of genetic material from homologous chromosomes.

This causes genetic variations. Synapsis and Crossing Over Unique Features of Meiosis Feature #3 Reduction Division The chromosomes are not copied in between

the two divisions. At the end of meiosis, each cell contains one half the genetic material. (haploid or n) Reduction Division Meiosis I

Preceded by Interphase- chromosomes are replicated to form sister chromatids Sister chromatids are genetically identical and joined at centromere Single centrosome replicates, forming 2 centrosomes

Prophase I Individual chromosomes first become visible homologous chromosomes become closely associated in synapsis crossing over occurs

Crossing over is a complex series of events in which DNA segments are exchanged between nonsister or sister chromatids. Metaphase I The homologous chromosomes line up in the center of the cell and are still held together

Anaphase I Spindle fibers shorten The homologous chromosomes are separated (the sister chromatids are still paired)

Independent assortment random chromosomes move to each pole; some may be maternal and some may be paternal Telophase I The nuclear membrane reforms around each daughter nucleus

Each new cell now contains two sister chromatids that are NOT identical due to crossing over At the end of Meiosis I You have made 2 cells Each cell contains a haploid number of chromosomes 1 copy of

each chromosome (for humans, each haploid cell has 23 chromosomes) No DNA replication occurs between Meiosis I and Meiosis I Meiosis II resembles normal, mitotic division

Prophase II Nuclear membrane breaks down again Metaphase II The chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.

Anaphase II The spindle fibers shorten and the sister chromatids move to opposite poles. Telophase II Nuclear envelope re-forms around the four sets of daughter chromosomes.

At the end of Meiosis II At the end of Meiosis II, there are 4 haploid cells. (only 1 copy of each chromosome) (for humans, each haploid cell has 23 chromosomes)

No two of these haploid cells are alike due to crossing over. This is why you and your siblings are genetically unique! Meiosis Quick Check Questions: 1. What kinds of cells does mitosis produce?

2. How many chromosomes do human haploid cells have? 3. What kinds of cells does meiosis produce? 4. How many cells are produced when one cell goes through meiosis? 5. How many times are chromosomes replicated during meiosis?

6. How do cells in meiosis get to be different? 7. If an organisms somatic cells have 36 chromosomes, how many chromosomes do their gametes have?

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