Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public ...

Chapter 16 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIO NS, ADVERTISING, AND PUBLIC RELATIONS 1

Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Objectives 1. Define integrated marketing communications and explain how it relates to the development of an optimal promotional mix. 2. Describe the communication process and how it relates to the AIDA concept. 3. Identify the elements of the promotional mix.

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Objectives 4. Name the three major advertising objectives and the two basic categories of advertising. 5. Identify the major advertising strategies and the process of creating an advertisement.

6. Describe the major types of advertising appeals, and discuss their uses. 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 3 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Objectives 7. List and compare the major advertising media. 8. Explain the roles of public relations,

publicity, cross-promotion, and ethics in an organizations promotional strategy. 9. Discuss the factors that influence the effectiveness of a promotional mix, and how marketers measure effectiveness. 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 4 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Introduction Promotion - Function of informing, persuading, and influencing the consumers

purchase decision Marketing communications - Messages that deal with buyer-seller relationships Integrated marketing communications (IMC) - Coordination of all promotional activities to produce a unified, customerfocused promotional message 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 5 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Figure 16.1 - Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC)

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 6 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Importance of Teamwork Teamwork involves both in-house resources and outside vendors IMC challenges the traditional role of the outside advertising agency 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 7

Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Role of Databases in Effective IMC Programs The Internet allows companies to gather information faster and organize it easily Direct sampling is a frequently used method to obtain customer opinions 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 8

Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations The Communication Process Sender - Source of the message communicated to the receiver Message - Communication of information, advice, or a request by the sender to the receiver 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 9 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations

The Communication Process An effective message does three things Gains the receivers attention Achieves understanding by both sender and receiver Stimulates receivers needs and suggests appropriate methods of satisfying them 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 10 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations The Communication Process

AIDA - Steps through which an individual reaches a purchase decision: attention, interest, desire, and action Encoding - Translating a message into understandable terms Decoding - Receivers interpretation of a message 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 11 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Table 16.1 - Relating Promotion to the

Communication Process 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations The Communication Process Feedback - Receivers response to a message Noise - Interference at some stage in the communication process Channel - Medium through which a message is delivered

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 13 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Elements of the Promotional Mix Promotional mix - Subset of the marketing mix in which marketers attempt to: Achieve the optimal blending of the elements of personal and nonpersonal selling to achieve promotional objectives 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

14 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Personal Selling Interpersonal influence process involving a sellers promotional presentation conducted on a person-to-person basis with the buyer Oldest form of promotion Currently, nearly 15 million people in the U.S. have careers in personal sales and related occupations 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

15 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Nonpersonal Selling Advertising - Any paid, nonpersonal communication about a business good Product placement - Marketer pays a motion picture owner a fee to display his or her product prominently in the film or show 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 16

Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Nonpersonal Selling Sales promotion - Marketing activities that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness Does not include personal selling, advertising, guerrilla marketing, and public relations Trade promotion - Sales promotion geared to marketing intermediaries 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 17

Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Nonpersonal Selling Direct marketing - Use of direct communication to a consumer or business recipient designed to generate a response in the form of: An order Lead generation Traffic generation 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 18

Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Nonpersonal Selling Public relations - Firms communications and relationships with its various publics Publicity - Nonpersonal stimulation of demand for a good by unpaid placement of significant news Guerrilla marketing - Unconventional, innovative, and low-cost techniques to get consumers attention 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 19

Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Table 16.2 - Promotional Mix Elements: A Comparison 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 20 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Sponsorships Relationship in which an organization provides funds to an event in exchange for a

direct association with that event Sponsor purchases: Access to the events audience The image associated with the activity 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 21 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations How Sponsorship Differs from Advertising Cost-effectiveness

Sponsors degree of control versus that of advertising Nature of the message 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 22 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Types of Advertising Product advertising - Nonpersonal selling of a particular good or service Institutional advertising - Promotion of a concept, an idea, a philosophy, or the

goodwill of an industry, company, organization, person, geographic location, or government agency 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 23 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Objectives of Advertising Informative advertising - Seeks to develop initial demand for a good, service, organization, person, place, idea, or cause Persuasive advertising - Attempts to

increase demand for an existing good, service, organization, person, place, idea, or cause 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 24 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Objectives of Advertising Reminder advertising - Reinforces previous promotional activity by keeping the name of a good, service, organization, person, place, idea, or cause before the

public 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 25 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Figure 16.2 - Advertising Objectives in Relation to Stage in the Product Lifecycle 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 26

Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Advertising Strategies Comparative advertising - Emphasizes messages with direct or indirect promotional comparisons between competing brands Used by firms whose products are not market leaders Advertising by market leaders seldom acknowledge existence of competing products 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 27

Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Advertising Strategies Celebrity testimonials Can improve product recognition A celebrity who endorses too many products may create marketplace confusion 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 28 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations

Advertising Strategies Retail advertising - Advertising by stores that sell goods or services directly to the consuming public Cooperative advertising - Retailer shares advertising costs with a manufacturer or wholesaler 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 29 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Interactive Advertising

Two-way promotional messages transmitted through communication channels Induce message recipients to participate actively in the promotional effort Provides information throughout the purchase and consumption processes 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 30 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations

Creating an Advertisement Must create effective ads that increase sales and enhance the organizations image An ad needs to accomplish: Educating consumers about product features Enhancing brand loyalty Improving consumer perception of the brand 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 31 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Figure 16.3 - Elements of the

Advertising Planning Process 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 32 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Advertising Messages Advertising campaign - Series of different but related ads that use a single theme and appear in different media within a specified time period Example: Retail chain Targets Hello. . . . Good Buy ads featuring the Beatles music

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 33 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Advertising Appeals Fear appeals Humor in advertising messages Ads based on sex 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 34

Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Developing and Preparing Ads Goals Gain attention and interest Inform or persuade Lead to purchase or other desired action After conceiving an idea, ads must be refined from rough sketch to finished layout 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 35

Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Figure 16.4 - Elements of a Typical Ad 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 36 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Creating Interactive Ads Advergames Missiles

Keyword ads Adware Social network advertising Narrowcasting 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 37 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Media Selection and Scheduling Television Mass coverage Powerful impact on viewers, repetition of

messages Flexibility, and prestige 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 38 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Media Selection and Scheduling Radio Advantages Ability to reach people while they drive because they are a captive audience Benefits include low cost, flexibility, and mobility

Disadvantages Highly segmented audiences, The temporary nature of messages A minimum of research information compared with television 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 39 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Media Selection and Scheduling Newspapers

Advantages Flexible Intensive coverage for ads Can refer back to newspaper ads Disadvantages Hasty reading Relatively poor reproduction quality 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 40 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations

Media Selection and Scheduling Magazines Consumer magazines and business magazines Advantages The ability to reach precise target markets Quality reproduction Long life Prestige associated with some magazines Disadvantage

Lack flexibility 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 41 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Media Selection and Scheduling Direct mail Advantages Ability to segment large numbers of prospective customers Flexible Detailed information

Personalization Disadvantages High cost per reader Reliance on the quality of mailing lists Consumers resistance 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 42 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Media Selection and Scheduling Outdoor advertising

Traditional - Billboards and painted displays Transit advertising - Ads placed inside and outside buses, subway trains, commuter trains, and stations 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 43 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Media Selection and Scheduling Interactive Media Internet and social media sites Augmented reality - Virtual imaging can be

incorporated into real-time video on a mobile phone Other Advertising Media Total Immersions DFusion system Ads appear on T-shirts, on store flooring, in printed programs of live theater productions, and as previews on movie DVDs 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 44 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Media Scheduling

Setting the timing and sequence for a series of advertisements Influenced by a variety of factors Seasonal sales patterns Repurchase cycles Competitors activities 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 45 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Marketing and Nonmarketing Public Relations

Nonmarketing public relations - A companys messages about general management issues Marketing public relations (MPR) Focused public relations activities that directly support marketing goals 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 46 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Publicity Nonpersonal stimulation of demand for a

good by unpaid placement of significant news Many consumers consider news stories more credible than advertisements 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 47 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Cross-Promotion Marketing partners share the cost of a promotional campaign that meets their mutual needs

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 48 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Ethics and Promotional Strategies Advertising to children Insertion of product messages in media programs without full disclosure Use of cookies in online advertising

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 49 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Puffery and Deception Puffery Exaggerated claims of a products superiority Use of subjective or vague statements that may not be literally true The Uniform Commercial Code standardizes sales and business practices throughout the United States

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 50 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Ethics in Public Relations Issues include performing services for companies that produce unsafe products The Public Relations Society of Americas Code of Professional Standards prohibits: Promoting products or causes widely known to be harmful

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 51 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Promotional Mix Effectiveness Marketers create a promotional mix by: Blending advertising Personal selling

Sales promotion Public relations Several factors can influence the effectiveness of promotional mix 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 52 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Nature of the Market Markets target audience Personal selling can be highly effective if the

market has a limited number of buyers Type of customer 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 53 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Nature of the Product Consumer products rely more on advertising than business products Personal selling is important for shopping products Personal and nonpersonal selling are

important in the promotion of specialty items 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 54 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Stage in the Product Lifecycle Introduction - Nonpersonal and personal selling Growth and maturity - Advertising and personal selling Maturity and early - Reduction in

advertising and sales promotion 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 55 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Price Advertising dominates for low-unit-value products Personal selling involves high per-contact costs A real barrier in implementing any promotional strategy is the size of the

promotional budget 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 56 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Funds Available for Promotion Percentage-of-sales method Fixed-sum-per-unit method Meeting competition method Task-objective method 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

57 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Evaluating Promotional Effectiveness Direct sales results test Indirect evaluation 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 58 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations

Measuring Advertising Effectiveness Cost per thousand impressions (CPM) By measuring promotional effectiveness: Organizations can evaluate different strategies Prevent mistakes before spending money on specific programs Improve their promotional programs 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 59

Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Media and Message Research Media research - Assesses how well a particular medium delivers a message Message research - Tests consumer reactions to an advertisements creative message 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 60 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations

Media and Message Research Pretesting Posttesting Readership tests Unaided recall tests Inquiry tests Split runs - Allow advertisers to test two or more ads at the same time 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

61 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Measuring Public Relations Effectiveness The simplest and least costly method Whether the target audience received messages directed to them Count the number of media placements and gauge the extent of media coverage Conduct focus groups, interview opinion

leaders 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 62 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Evaluating Interactive Media Hits - User requests for a file Impressions - Number of times a viewer sees an ad Click-throughs - User clicks ad for more information View-through - Measures response over

time 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 63 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Evaluating Interactive Media Cost per impression - Relates the cost of an ad to every thousand people who view it Cost per response (click-through) Relates the cost of an ad to the number of people who click it Conversion rate - Percentage of visitors to a Web site who make a purchase

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 64 Chapter 16 Integrated Marketing Communications, Advertising, and Public Relations Pepes Pizzeria Video http:// www.cengage.com/marketing/book_content/boone_9781133628460/videos /ch16.html 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

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