THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Student Handouts, Inc. THE FIRST INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Historical Significance of the Industrial Revolution An ancient Greek or Roman would have been just as comfortable in Europe in 1700 because daily life was not much different agriculture and

technology were not much changed in 2000+ years The Industrial Revolution changed human life drastically More was created in the last 250+ years than in the previous 2500+ years of known human history What was the Industrial Revolution? The Industrial Revolution was a fundamental change in the way goods were produced, from human labor to machines

The more efficient means of production and subsequent higher levels of production triggered farreaching changes to industrialized societies The Industrial Revolution Machines were invented which replaced human labor New energy sources were developed to power the new machinery water, steam, electricity, oil (gas, kerosene) Some historians place advances in atomic, solar, and wind energy at the later stages of the Industrial Revolution

Increased use of metals and minerals Aluminum, coal, copper, iron, etc. The Industrial Revolution Transportation improved Ships Wooden ships Iron ships Steel ships Wind-powered sails Steam-powered boilers Trains Automobiles Communication improved

Telegraph Telephone Radio Developments Mass production of goods Increased numbers of goods Increased diversity of goods produced Development of factory system of production Rural-to-urban migration People left farms to work in cities

Development of capitalism Financial capital for continued industrial growth Development and growth of new socio-economic classes Working class, bourgeoisie, and wealthy industrial class Commitment to research and development Investments in new technologies Industrial and governmental interest in promoting invention, the sciences, and overall industrial growth Background of the Industrial Revolution

Commercial Revolution 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries Europeans expanded their power worldwide Increased geographic knowledge Colonies in the Americas and Asia Increased trade and commerce Guild system could not meet the demands of increasing numbers goods Background of the Industrial Revolution Scientific Revolution 17th and 18th centuries Discoveries of Boyle, Lavoisier, Newton, etc.

Intellectual Revolution 17th and 18th centuries Writings of Locke, Voltaire, etc. Atmosphere of discovery and free intellectual inquiry Greater knowledge of the world Weakened superstition and tradition Encouraged learning and the search for better and newer ways of doing things Factory System

Developed to replace the domestic system of production Faster method of production Workers concentrated in a set location Production anticipated demand For example: Under the domestic system, a woman might select fabric and have a businessperson give it to a home-based worker to make into a dress. Under the factory system, the factory owner bought large lots of popular fabrics and had workers create multiple dresses in common sizes, anticipating that women would buy them. England: Birthplace of the

Industrial Revolution No concrete start date for the Industrial Revolution Marked by gradual, slow changes After 1750 these changes were noticeable first in England Why the Industrial Revolution Started in England Capital for investing in

the means of production Colonies and Markets for manufactured goods Raw materials for production Workers Merchant marine Geography Englands Resources: Capital

The Commercial Revolution made many English merchants very wealthy These merchants had the capital to invest in the factory system money to buy buildings, machinery, and raw materials Englands Resources: Colonies and Markets Wealth from the Commercial Revolution spread beyond the merchant class

England had more colonies than any other nation Its colonies gave England access to enormous markets and vast amounts of raw materials Colonies had rich textile industries for centuries Many of the natural cloths popular today, such as calico and gingham, were originally created in India China had a silk industry Englands Resources: Raw

Materials England itself possessed the necessary raw materials to create the means of production Coal vast coal reserves powered steam engines Iron basic building block of large machines, railroad tracks, trains, and ships Englands Resources: Workers

Serfdom and guilds ended earlier in England than other countries English people could freely travel from the countryside to the cities Enclosure Acts caused many small farmers to lose their lands, and these former farmers increased the labor supply Englands Resources: Merchant Marine

Worlds largest merchant fleet Merchant marine built up from the Commercial Revolution Vast numbers of ships could bring raw materials and finished goods to and from Englands colonies and possessions, as well as to and from other countries Englands Resources: Geography

England is the political center of Great Britain, an island Great Britain (as the entire island was called beginning in 1707) did not suffer fighting on its land during the wars of the 18th century Island has excellent harbors and ports Damp climate benefited the textile industry (thread did not dry out) Government stable No internal trade barriers Necessity Is the Mother of

Invention Spinning machine Need to speed up weaving Power loom created Necessity Is the Mother of Invention Power loom Increased demand for raw cotton Invention of the cotton gin Necessity Is the Mother of Invention Cotton gin

Demands for stronger iron Improvements in iron smelting and the development of steel (Bessemer process) Necessity Is the Mother of Invention As more steampowered machines were built, factories needed more coal to create this steam Mining methods improved to meet the demand for more coal

The process of inventing never ends One invention inevitably leads to improvements upon it and to more inventions The Textile Industry Textiles cloths or fabrics First industry to be industrialized Great Britain learned a lot about textiles from India and China

The Birth and Growth of the Textile Industry Flying shuttle, 1733 Spinning jenny, 1765 John Kay (English) Hand-operated machine which increased the speed of weaving James Hargreaves (English) Home-based machine that spun thread 8 times faster than when spun by hand Richard Arkwright (English)

Water frame, 1769 Water-powered spinning machine that was too large for use in a home led to the creation of factories The Birth and Growth of the Textile Industry Samuel Crompton (English) Spinning mule, 1779 Combined the spinning jenny and the water frame into a single device, increasing the production of fine thread Edward Cartwright (English) Power loom, 1785 Water-powered device that automatically and quickly wove

thread into cloth Eli Whitney (American) Cotton gin, 1793 Device separated raw cotton from cotton seeds, increasing the cotton supply while lowering the cost of raw cotton Elias Howe (American) Sewing machine, 1846 Speed of sewing greatly increased Development of Steam Engines Early water power involved mills built over fast-moving streams and rivers

Early water power had problems Not enough rivers to provide the power needed to meet growing demand Rivers and streams might be far removed from raw materials, workers, and markets Rivers are prone to flooding and drying Steam Power Humans tried harnessing steam power for millennia Hero of Alexandria, Egypt created a steam-driven device in the 1st century

B.C.E. Thomas Newcomen, England (1704) Created a steam engine to pump water from mines James Watt, Scotland (1769) Improved Newcomens engine to power machinery Steam Engines

By 1800, steam engines were replacing water wheels as sources of power for factories Factories relocated near raw materials, workers, and ports Cities grew around the factories built near central Englands coal and iron mines Manchester, Liverpool Coal and Iron Vast amounts of fuel were required to smelt iron ore to burn out impurities Abraham Darby (1709) Discovered that heating coal turned it into

more efficient coke John Smeaton (1760) Smelted iron by using water-powered air pumps to create steam blasts Henry Cort (1783) Developed the puddling process which purified and strengthened molten iron Increases in Coal and Iron Production, 1770-1800

Coal production doubled 6 million to 12 million tons Pig iron production increased 250% 1800 130,000 tons Great Britain produced as much coal and iron as every other country combined Bessemer Process and Steel

Prior to the Industrial Revolution, steel was difficult to produce and expensive Henry Bessemer, 1856 Developed the Bessemer process Brought on the Age of Steel Steel is the most important metal used over the past 150+ years Other improvements in steel production Open-hearth furnace Electric furnace Use of other metals to produce various types of steel Transportation Increased

production Search for more markets and raw materials Before the Industrial Revolution Canal barges pulled by mules Ships powered by sails Horse-drawn wagons, carts, and carriages After the Industrial Revolution

Trains Steamships Trolleys Automobiles Better and faster means of transportati on Transportation Revolution Thomas Telford Robert Fulton (American) Steamboat (1807)

Sped water transportation and John McAdam (British) Macadamized roads (18101830) Improved roads Gottlieb Daimler (German) Gasoline engine (1885) Led to the invention of the automobile

George Stephenson (English) Locomotive (1825) Fast land transport of people and goods Rudolf Diesel (German) Diesel engine (1892) Cheaper fuel Orville and Wilbur Wright

(American) Airplane (1903) Air transport Steamboats Robert Fulton invented the steamboat in 1807 The Clermont operated the first regular steamboat route, running between Albany and New York City 1819 the Savannah used a steam engine as auxiliary power for the first time when it sailed across the Atlantic Ocean

1836 John Ericsson invented a screw propeller to replace paddle wheels 1838 the Great Western first ship to sail across the Atlantic on steam power alone, completing the trip in 15 days Macadamized Roads Strong, hard roads invented by Thomas Telford and John McAdam Improvement over dirt and gravel roads Macadamized roads have a smooth, hard surface that

supports heavy loads without requiring a thick roadbed Modern roads are macadamized roads, with tar added to limit the creation of dust Railroads 1830 Stephensons Rocket train traveled the 40 miles between Liverpool and Manchester in 1 hours

1830-1870 railroad tracks went from 49 miles to over 15,000 miles Steel rails replaced iron rails 1869 Westinghouses air brake made train travel safer Greater train traveling comfort heavier train cars, improved road beds, and sleeping cars Communications Revolution Samuel F.B. Morse (American) Telegraph (1844) Rapid communicatio n across

continents Guglielmo Marconi (Italian) Wireless telegraph, an early form of the radio (1895) No wires needed for sending Alexander Graham Bell (American) Cyrus W. Field (American)

Telephone (1876) Human speech heard across continents Atlantic cable (1866) United States and Europe connected by cable Vladimir Lee de Forest Zworykin (American) (American)

Radio tube (1907) Radio broadcasts could be sent around the world Television (1925) Simultaneous audio and visual broadcast Printing Revolution Printing 1800-1830

Iron printing press Steam-driven press Rotary press 1870 Invented by Richard Hoe Printed both sides of a page at once Linotype machine 1884 Invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler A machine operator could create a line of type all at one go, rather than having to individually set each letter

Newspapers became much cheaper to produce Cost of a newspaper plummeted Number of newspapers increased Review Questions 1. What was the Industrial Revolution? 2. Describe at least three developments of the Industrial Revolution. 3. Compare and contrast the domestic and factory methods of production.

4. Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in England? 5. Explain why one invention or development leads to another. Review Questions 6. Explain how developments in the textile industry sparked the Industrial Revolution. 7. Describe at least three developments in the area of transportation.

8. Describe at least three developments in the field of communications. 9. Considering the conditions necessary for industrialization to occur, how well equipped is the undeveloped world for becoming industrialized? Are modern undeveloped nations in a better or worse position than 18th- and 19th-century England?

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