IENG 451 Lecture 02: Ideation

IENG 451 - Lecture 03 Ideation: Brain Storming, Fishbone Diagrams, Affinity Diagrams & Multi-Voting 02/26/20 IENG 451 Operational Strategies 1 Ideation Overview This is the process of generating and selecting ideas. We need this for: 1. Identifying potential quality and lean process projects 2. Identifying potential Assignable Causes 3. Identifying potential solutions to 1 & 2 (above) 4. ANYTIME we need to find a starting direction for the team Among the MANY ways, four will be discussed:

Brainstorming Fishbone Diagrams (review) Affinity Diagrams Multi-Voting 02/26/20 IENG 451 Operational Strategies 2 Brainstorming Purpose is to collect a wide range of ideas: Quickly produces many ideas Allows ALL team members to contribute ideas for consideration Identifying disparate ideas helps increase the

quantity of ideas: STIMULATION of others ideas SYNTHESIS of new ideas 02/26/20 IENG 451 Operational Strategies 3 Brainstorming Process for Brainstorming: 1. Review the problem statement 2. Clarify the goal(s) and review information: relevant data hard constraints 3.

4. 5. 6. Silent INDIVIDUAL idea time Gather & display ideas Add STIMULATION / SYNTHESIS ideas vocally Consolidate ideas 02/26/20 IENG 451 Operational Strategies 4 Brainstorming There 1. 2. 3. 4. are NO Rules for Brainstorming: NO criticism of ideas

NO judgements as ideas are offered NO domination of vocal idea collection NO paraphrasing of anyones ideas when documenting 02/26/20 IENG 451 Operational Strategies 5 Brainstorming Goals for Brainstorming: 1. Go for QUANTITY of ideas 2. Allow individuals to completely state their ideas (no interruptions) 3. Be brief when stating ideas (dont overdo it) 4. Building on ideas is good (SYNTHESIS) Organize only afterward Keep notes/cards for affinity diagrams after documenting

02/26/20 IENG 451 Operational Strategies 6 Fishbone Diagram Fishbone (Cause & Effect) diagram constructed by brainstorming Identified problem at the head Connects potential causes along the spine Sub-causes are listed along the major bones Man Material Method Machine Environment 02/26/20 ENGM 720: Statistical Process Control 7

Fishbone Diagram, Cont. The purpose of the fishbone diagram is to obtain as many potential influencers of a process, so that the breadth and potential interactions in a problem can be identified. Man Skill Level Attention Level Method Low RPM Travel Limits Dusty Bad Paint Environment Temperature Humidity Poor Conductor Poor Mixing

Orifice Clogs Worn Parts Machine 02/26/20 Poor Vendor Material ENGM 720: Statistical Process Control 8 Affinity Diagrams Purpose Ideas Facts Opinions is to organize items: Organizing helps to focus thinking:

Similarities among items Central themes among the team members 02/26/20 IENG 451 Operational Strategies 9 Affinity Diagrams Process for Diagraming: 1. Gather ideas from brainstorming / fishbones Write on notes / cards if starting fresh 2. Post idea notes / cards randomly on surface of board or table: 3. Silently begin INDIVIDUAL grouping time Create copies if disagreeing about placement

4. Create Headers for each grouping after clustering For each group, have participants interpret and label Can do a second round for further consolidation 5. Complete diagram and discuss results 02/26/20 IENG 451 Operational Strategies 10 Multi-Voting Purpose is to narrow efforts to the few, or consolidate on the key items:

Best Ideas Most Relevant Facts Best Solutions Consolidation helps to move team forward: Sometimes the team is already at consensus, but just doesnt realize it Sometimes the team needs to move toward consensus 02/26/20 IENG 451 Operational Strategies 11 Multi-Voting Process for Multi-Voting:

1. Enumerate / Identify every idea / option Write on notes / cards if starting fresh 2. Display all options for all participants to see 3. Decide how many votes each individual will have Rule of Thumb: 1/3 of the total number of items 4. Cast votes 5. Count votes Identify top vote getters, Eliminate no / low vote getters Can do a second round for further consolidation 02/26/20

IENG 451 Operational Strategies 12 Questions & Issues There 02/26/20 WILL be a lab tomorrow! IENG 451 Operational Strategies 13

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