HRM 601 Organizational Behavior Session 2 Perception & Behavior What Is Perception? A cognitive process that involves
detecting selecting organizing interpreting sensory inputs to make sense of our environment The Perceptual Process E n v ir o n m e n ta l S tim u li F e e lin g H e a r in g
S e e in g D e te c t & S e le c tin g O r g a n iz in g & In te r p r e tin g R e s p o n d in g & D e c id in g S m e llin g T a s tin g The Role of Perception In
Organizations How we perceive people affects our appraisal of them How we perceive people affects our behavior towards them How we perceive problems affects our analysis, interpretations, and solutions Perception Is Dynamic We are constantly interpreting sensory inputs Our judgments change depending on variation in ourselves, others and the
situation Gestalt Principles of Organization Proximity Similarity Closure Figure-ground
Set & Contrast Set: the effect of past experiences affects what we perceive Contrast: We make judgments based on objects in relation to background conditions Object And Person Perception People are more complex People are capable of intentional actions Our judgments about people are more often colored by third hand reports
It is more difficult to determine accuracy of perception regarding people Organizing Social Perception Primacy effects Halo effects Contrast effects Negative Vs positive information
Elements of Social Perception The situation and saliency The person being perceived The perceiver The Situation Saliency Cues
Novelty: Only person in group of gender, etc. Brightness: Wearing bright clothes Contrast: Unusually big, small, loud, friendly Extremely positive (celebrity) or negative (victim) Dominant: Sitting at the head of the table, commanding room The Person Perceived
Major visual cues Face cues Voice cues Movement cues The Perceiver Motivation
Experience Emotion Personality Field Dependence - Independence Tolerance for Ambiguity Levelers & Sharpeners Perceptual vigilance & defense
Causal Attribution The process by which we describe how people explain the causes of behavior Personal Attribution -- Attributing behavior to internal characteristics of an individual Situation Attribution -- Attributing behavior to external factors Kelleys Covariation Theory In d iv id u a l B e h a v io r C onsensus S o c ia l C o m p a r is o n
D is tin c tiv e n e s s S itu a tio n s C o n s is te n c y T im e Low C onsensus N o o n e a g re e s Low P e rs o n a c ts
th e s a m e in o th e r s itu a tio n s H ig h P e r s o n a c t th is w ay m ost of th e tim e H ig h C onsensus M a n y a g re e H ig h
P e rs o n d o e s n o t a c t th e s a m e in o th e r s itu a tio n s L P e rso n a c t th is o t th ow does not w ay m ost e tim e
Attribution Errors Fundamental Attribution Error -- The tendency to underestimate the impact of the situation on other peoples behavior and to overestimate the role of personal causes Actor-observer error -- The tendency to attribute our own behavior to situational causes and others to personal factors Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Defined -- The process by which a persons expectations about someone can lead to that
someone behaving in ways which confirm the expectations Pygmalion in the Classroom -- Research by Rosenthal and Jacobson Attractiveness in the beholders eye -Research by Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid How Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Works Perceiver forms impressions Target adjust s behavior to
match perceivers actions Perceiver treats target differently than others Confirmatory Bias Defined -- The tendency to seek, interpret, and create information that verifies existing beliefs Seeking information -- Snyder and Swann research on interviewing intro- and extroverts
Interpreting information -- the case of Hannah The Function of Expectations Add stability to perceptual world Permit economy of effort Give us good enough accuracy Allow attention to focus on new
information Forming Stereotypes Learning to stereotype putting people in to pigeon holes if you see one pigeon, youve seen them all The belief - congruence theory assume that those who appear different have different values When and Why We Stereotype
Superficial contact Ego-defensive purpose Instrumental to goals Dysfunctionality of stereotypes Applications in the Organization Performance appraisals attribution bias confirmatory bias
recency effects Impression management self promotion conforming to norms flattery
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