How to supercharge therapy with values - Joseph Ciarrochi

Supercharging therapy with values Dr. Joseph Ciarrochi, School of Psychology, University of Wollongong Structure of talk Part 1 Theory Part II. Behavioral Activation Evidence behavioral Activation is effective. Part III: Values clarification Evidence values clarification is effective How to work with values Part I: A Unified Theory

What happens to peoples dreams? The very great majority kill themselves long long before their time. Live as children; grow pale as adolescents; show a flash of life in love; die in their twenties and join the poor things that creep angry and restless about the earth (OBrian, 1991, p. 526). ACT as a Unified framework An extremely brief and pictorial description of Relational Frame Theory Fusion and Avoidance, two key

processes that play a role in interfering with value-congruent living How do we lose touch with what we value? Fusion is the dominance of particular verbal functions over other potentially available nonverbal and verbal functions (Hayes et al., 1999). Fusion and avoidance. Fusion makes it possible for our private experiences (the bees above) to seem like physical threats. It allows us to spend time avoiding our experiences, just as we would avoid an outside threat Avoidance takes a great deal of energy and is often inconsistent with other activities, e.g., distress provoking valued-activities

Desire (or values) and fear are two sides of the same coin. If cant have distress, then you often must give up what you desire or value Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Behavioural Activation (BA) Shared philosophy of science: Functional Contextualism Behaviourist Emphasis on functional analysis Emphasis on context rather than content Shared therapeutic processes Activation of behaviour

Undermining of harmful avoidance behavior Mindfulness Exposure Distinctions between ACT and BA ACT is based on a behavioral theory of language. Like traditional CBT, ACT views cognition as playing a key controlling role in suffering. However , ACT and traditional CBT differ in how they conceptualize and treat client problems (Ciarrochi & Bailey, 2008). Cognitive Defusion. ACT attempts to change the way one interacts with or

relates to thoughts by creating contexts in which their unhelpful functions are diminished. Self-as-Context- ACT helps people to contact with the sense of self as a locus or perspective (e.g., the observer self). This self gives clients a place to observe their experience and learn to let go of unhelpful selfevaluations. They learn that they are not the same as their evaluations; they are not the same as their pain, their depression. Distinctions between ACT and BA Activities versus values ACT tends to emphasize values more than traditional BA, which focuses a bit more on activity scheduling Part II: Behavioral Activation

Study 1 supporting BA aswell-established treatment for depression (Chambless et al., 1996) McLean and Hakstian (1979) JCCP. Behavior therapy superior to other therapies at immediate follow-up (9 of 10 indices), and marginally superior on follow-up (7 of 10 indices) Behaviour therapy had lowest dropout (5% compared to 26% to 36% for other treatments) Study 2 supporting BA aswell-established treatment for depression (Chambless et al., 1996) Jacobson et al. , 1996, (JCCP) compared three conditions. Conditions

Behavioural Activation (BA) BA + automatic thought challenging (ATC) BA+ATC+ downward arrow/core belief Results Behavioral activation alone was as effective in treating depression as BA combined with cognitive interventions. Gortner et al. 1999 showed effects held at 2 year follow-up More research supporting behavioural activation Dimidjian et al., 2006, JCCP. Study of Major Depression

Compared behavioural activation to Cognitive Therapy and Antidepressent medication (ADM) BA found to be comparable in efficacy to ADM, and more efficacious than CT. Differential treatment effects obtained only for most severely depressed For more severly depressed participants, BA and ADM comparable Cuijpers et al., 2007 CPR. Meta-analysis BA effective (effect size =.87) and effects fairly consistent across studies Is behavioral activation effective for other disorders, such as anxiety?

ACT theory posits similar processes: fusion and avoidance. Approximately 50% of individuals with depression have a coexistant anxiety disorder ( Kessler et al., 1996; Mineka, Watson, and Clark, 1998) Anxiety and depression share many symptoms (e.g., difficulties concentrating, restlessness, fatigue, and sleep problems. Decrease in control and predictability may be common in both disorders Anxiety and mood disorders may be variable manifestations of similar neurobiological processes (See Hopko, et al., 2006, for review of similarities between anxiety and depression) Exposure in the service of activating valued behaviour Is behavioral activation useful in

treating anxiety Small study of pure B.A. with PTSD shows B.A. was effective Social anxiety: Exposure is as effective as CT and full CBT package in treating social anxiety ACT, with big BA component, is effective in treating anxiety (Jakupac, et al., 2006) (Powers, et al., 2008) (Block, & Wulfert, 2000; Dalrymple & herbert, 2007; Forman et al,2007; Zettle, 2003)

Part III: Values What are values? Wilson, Sandoz, Kitchens, and Roberts, 2008, under review 1) Values are ongoing patterns of activity Not achievable, cant be completed Goals are achievable and serve values What are values? 2) values are a special class of reinforcer Can me distant in time, and occur in tiny increments Can refer to benefits that , in principle , could never contact

(e.g., afterlife) What are values? 3) values are verbal Language makes present psychological functions without direct operant or classical conditioning processes What are values? Values are a special class of reinforcers that are verbally constructed, dynamic, ongoing patterns of activity, for which the predominant reinforcer is intrinsic in the correspondence between the individual behaviour and valued behavoural pattern (Wilson, et al., 2008)

Values, what are they good for? Values have tremendous transformational power Theoretically, values set up the possibility for behaviours to become more reinforcing or punishing because of their relation to value statements Empirical evidence: Values work is likely to be good for the client Values affirmation buffers the stress response All participants rank order values in terms of

personal importance Trier social stress taskinvolves telling subjects they will have to do stressful speech task and mental arithmetic. Cresswall et al., 2005, Psychological Science Values affirmation buffers the stress response Affirmation manipulation Answer question like: Assuming that you have sufficient ability, would you prefer to be (a) a banker (b) a politician Experimental condition. Answered questions relating to top-ranked value Control. Answers questions relating to fifth

ranked value Salivary cortisol response to stress in the value-affirmation and control groups Pretest and postest self-report stress measure, as function of self-resources (self-esteem and optimism) Value affirmation improves objective performance Cohen et al., 2006, Science Theory 1. People are motivated to maintain self-integrity 2. Negative group characterizations (e.g., black stereotypes in U.S.) pose chronic threat to selfintegrity

3. This threat, if too severe, can undermine performance Value affirmation improves objective performance Main study and replication Treatment and control condition presented a list of values Treatment condition: indicate most important values. Write about why value important to you Control condition. Indicate least important value and why this value might be important to someone else Values clarification and tolerance for pain

Is their benefit to connecting pain-related thoughts to actions in a valued direction? Paez-Blarrina, M. et al., 2007, Behavior Modification; Paez-Blarrina et al. ,2008, Behaviour Research and Therapy Values clarification and tolerance for pain Pain task 1.Perform cognitive task. If do well, get points, which can be exchanged for a reward at the end of the task. 2.Red asterisk appears on screen. 1. If choose finish, then task ends and no shock. 2. If continue, more chance for points but also a shock. (this is behavioural measure of pain tolerance)

Values clarification and tolerance for pain Key Conditions ACT-values protocoldepicted pain as a part of valued action Control-values protocolpain is opposed to valued living No values protocol Values clarification and tolerance for pain Findings 7/10 ACT-values intervention tolerated maximum number of shocks; Only 1/10 and 2/10 tolerated in the control and untrained

condition, respectively. Pain believability. Do you keep going even when you think the task is causing you very much pain. 9/10 kept going in ACT-values; Only 5/10 and 3/10 kept going in the control and untrained conditions respectively These differences were significant Measuring and using values in therapy ACT intervention Survey of Life Principles Past research in values Values work (Schwartz, et al., Rokeach et al.).

What is most important to you? Are there Universal values? Personal strivings (Sheldon, Emmons, Deci). What do you strive for Why do you strive? Is it for authentic or controlled reasons? We will call both of these guiding principles for ease of reference Towards a behavioural approach to values and goals: Recasting Needs Both value and striving literature seek to identify universal needs that underpin all guiding principles Need is identified by observing that positive psychological consequences result from conditions

that allow its satisfaction and negative consequences accrue in situations that thrwart it (deci and ryan, 2001, pg 229) Instead of speaking in terms of needs, I will speak in terms of categories of reinforcer. Towards a behavioural approach to values and goals: type of rule following Pliance- rule governed behavior under control of apparent speakermediated consequences for a correspondence between the rule and the relevant behavior. (Zettle and Hayes, 1982; Hayes, Wilson, and Stroshal, 2001)

Factors that impact pliance ability of speaker to monitor compliance, and deliver consequences importance of consequences to listener others (history, credibility; Hayes and zettle) Problem with pliance. Excessive pliance, e.g., wanting to be good and please others, can dominate over ones direct, personal expeirence of what works Reinforcers are arbitrary Towards a behavioural approach to values and goals: type of rule following

Tracking- rule governed behavior under control of apparent correspondence between the rule and the way the world is arranged. (Zettle and Hayes, 1982) Factors that impact tracking Listeners history with the rule giver Correspondence between the rule and other rules or events in the listeners history Importance of the consequence implied by the rule Extent rule successfully leads to reinforcement, avoid

punishment Speaker does not mediate compliance (e.g., the rule could be conveyed by a book and have the same effect); (Hayes and Zettle, 1982) Recasting Self-Determination Theory in behavioural terms. Pliance Deci and Ryban, 2000, psychological science Tracking The ImPActS intervention model Importance

Important principles are expected to involve tracking ACT can be used to help people discover what principles are or are not important to them. Pressure ACT can be used to undermine the power of unhelpful, pliance-based principles Activity ACT can be used to increase the amount of principle-congruent activity and the likelihood of contacting reinforcers

Success ACT can be used to increase peoples success at living principles (e.g., via overcoming barriers and reinforcing commitment) Research on values The area emphasizes the Importance component of the ImPActS model. The structure of values (Schwarz)

Values and behaviour ImPActS Values importance has predicted more than 15 different behaviours e.g., voting for political party, choosing a university course Other predicted behaviours: delinquency, cooperation, competition, consumer purchasing, environmental behaviours, religious behaviours (See Bardi and Schwartz, 2003) Values and well-being ImPActS The following were positively related to subjective well-being Achievement: Personal success through demonstrating competence

according to social standards. (Successful, capable, ambitious, influential) Stimulation: Excitement, novelty, and challenge in life. (Daring, a varied life, an exciting life) Self-direction: Independent thought and action-choosing, creating, exploring. (Creativity, freedom, independent, curious, choosing own goals) Sagiv and Schwarz, 2000, Eur. Jn., of Soc. Psyc Values and well-being ImPActS The following were negatively related to well-being Conformity: Restraint of actions, inclinations, and impulses

likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms. (Politeness, obedient, self-discipline, honouring parents and elders) Security: Safety, harmony and stability of society, of relationships, and of self. (Family security, national security, social order, clean, reciprocation of favors) Sagiv and Schwarz, 2000, Eur. Jn., of Soc. Psyc Values and well-being ImPActS The researchers failed to find a positive association of subjective well-being and Universalism: Understanding, appreciation, tolerance and protection for the

welfare of all people and for nature. (Broadminded, wisdom, social justice, equality, a world at peace, a world of beauty, unity with nature, protecting the environment) Benevolence: Preservation and enhancement of the welfare of people with whom one is in frequent personal contact. (Helpful, honest, forgiving, loyal, responsible) Seemed inconsistent with the notion that concern for others rather than self promotes subjective well-being A false dichotomy? Sagiv and Schwarz, 2000, Eur. Jn., of Soc. Psyc Succeeding at what is important to

you ImPActS Congruity between people's values and their environment promotes well-being, regardless of the particular values to which people ascribe importance. Power values were negatively associated with well-being amongst psychology students, and higher satisfaction amongst business administration students. The business folks were also happier the more they were into achievement values. Sagiv and Schwarz, 2000, Eur. Jn., of Soc. Psyc Succeeding at what is important to you ImPActS

Life satisfaction influenced when satisfied in value-congruent domain. More specifically, global life satisfaction was strongly influenced by social life for individuals high in Benevolence values, whereas it was strongly influenced by family life for individuals high in Conformity values. Satisfaction with grades was a stronger predictor of global life satisfaction for individuals who stress achievement than for those who do not. Within-individual variation of day-to-day satisfaction is strongly influenced by daily success with the most valued domain. Oishi, et al., j of personality, 1999

Personal strivings Key Researchers: Sheldon, Emmons, Elliot, and Others Idiographic. People describe their own personal strivings and do not select from a set items, as in values work Emphasis on Self-concordance. To what extent do people pursue their goals because the goals fit with their underlying interests and values rather than because others pressure them to pursue the goal. Universal needs, or categories of reinforcer Competence or effectancepropensity to have an effect on the environment as well as

to attain valued outcomes within it. Relatedness -- desire to feel connected to others, to love and care, and to be loved and care Autonomy refers to volitionthe organisimic desire to self-organize experience and behavior and to have activity be concordant with ones integrated sense of self Personal strivings: key findings Self concordance relates to subjective well-being across many cultures (Sheldon, 2002; Sheldon et al., 2004) Longitudinal study. Making progress towards goals predicted well-being. However, this depended on the organismic congruence of the goal. That is, goal achievement led to

increased well-being for those people who pursued goals for more autonomous reasons, and those goals that are oriented towards more intrinsic outcomes (Sheldon and Kasser, 1998) This relates to Importance and Pressure in the ImPActS model Personal strivings: Avoidance goals Elliot and sheldon (1998) coded goals in terms of approach and avoidance Approach goals: get in good shape, be more gentle and humble Avoidance goals: avoid procrastination, dont be lazy People with avoidance goals tend to feel less competent and in control and experience greater reporting of physical symptoms (Elliot and Sheldon, 1998) Elliot, Sheldon, and Church (1997) had students classify goals

as approach oriented or avoidance oriented. Avoidance striving was deleterious to both retrospective and longitudinal well-being The survey of life principles (SLP) Ciarrochi and Bailey, in press; Stefanic and Ciarrochi, 2008; Frearson and Ciarrochi, 2008 The SLP attempts to combine the best parts of the values literature and the personal strivings literature, and attempts to do so in a way that is useful to clinic SLP provides people with wide variety of principles to choose from. This has the advantage of prompting people to think about principles they might have not considered for awhile, or might have forgotten SLP measures extent principle is due to self versus other pressure

The survey of life principles (SLP) 53 items, sampled to cover every major domain identified in values literature, goals literature, and job interests literature. Somewhat heavy emphasis on social principles, given their clinical relevance. Three items related to experiential control (e.g., having a stress free life) Principles written in a verb form, in keeping with the ACT definition of values as being ongoing patterns of activity. Principles were written to have maximal personal relevance (e.g., A world of beauty changed to creating beauty) The survey of life principles (SLP) Items are call principles, because they could refer to either values or abstract goals (e.g., being honest

might be either value or goal) Two open end items for people to write down own principles Four dimensions of the SLP 1) Importance. The extent a person finds princple to be personally imporant 2) Pressure. The extent person feels pressured to hold principle. Pressure can come from other people, groups, media, society, etc. 3) Activity. Each principle is rated in terms of whether the person wanted to put it into play 4) Success. If person wanted to put a principle into play, then they rated that principle in terms of their level of success.

SLP: Early findings First study conducted with 300 University Students We focused on variables of interest to clinicians: e.g., measures of emotional well-being, psychological wellbeing, social support, and relationship satisfaction The next study will be conducted later this year with 600 year 12 adolescents. We have been conducting a longitudinal study with these students for 7 years.

Includes broad range of measures related to social and emotional well-being Involves ratings by peers and teachers Each SLP global score makes a distinctive contribution to well-being Importance Female Male Pressure Activity

Success Description Low scores indicate the person finds few principles to be important High scores indicate the person feels pressure from others to hold principles Low scores indicate that the person is putting reduced number of principles into play

Low scores indicate that the person is not succeeding at principles Low Score 5.81 Mean 6.51 High Score 7.19 5.90 5.57

3.14 6.57 6.3 4.54 7.24 7.03 5.98 23.63 31.18 38.73

3.05 3.48 3.91 SLP Global scores and emotional well being Global score Positive Affect Sadness

Hostility Importance .10 .08 .11 Pressure -.10 .11*

.12* Activity .22** .01 -.09 Success .36**

-.34** -.31** Variance explained 23% 14% 12% *p < .05; ** p< .01 Note: These are the Betas from regression analysis. All variables were

entered simultaneously, so Beta represents the unique variance explained by each global score, after controlling for the other scores SLP Global scores and Psychological well-being Global score Autonomy Relations with others Purpose Importance

-.12* .08 .27** Pressure -.25** -.15** -.12*

Activity .11 .04 .14** Success .30** .36** .39**

Variance explained 18% 18% 29% *p < .05; ** p< .01 Note: These are the Betas from regression analysis. All variables were entered simultaneously, so Beta represents the unique variance explained by each global score, after controlling for the other scores

Predicting social wellbeing Global score Romantic relationship satisfaction Social support numbers Social support satisfact.

Global Success .12 .09 .18* Prosocial Import. .24** .07 .12*

Having genuine and close friends-success .00 .20** .14* Having relationships involving love and affection-success .41**

-.04 .21** Variance explained 32% 7% 20% *p < .05; ** p< .01 Note: The global score success was the only one to uniquely predict each of the social well-beings. However, prediction was much improved by using the

more specific social principles Resisting pressure? One needs to look at local as well as global indices Importance of power not related to wellbeing. Indeed , it is related to higher hostility Importance of wealth was not related to well-being Top 10 most important values 1 Having genuine and close friends

2 Being loyal to friends, family, and/or my group 3 Maintaining the safety and security of my loved ones 4 Having relationships involving love and affection 5

Feeling good about myself (experiential control item) 6 Striving to be a better person 7 Experiencing positive mood states (experiential control item) 8 Being Honest 9

Having an enjoyable, leisurely life 10 Being safe from danger Top 10 most pressured values 1 Meeting my obligations 2 Being ambitious and hardworking

3 Being physically fit 4 Showing respect to parents and elders 5 Eating healthy food 6

Being honest 7 Being self-sufficient 8 Striving to be a better person 9 Being competent and effective 10

Being safe from danger Top 10 most successful values 1 Being loyal to friends, family, and/or my group 2 Enjoying food and drink 3 Being safe from danger

4 Having genuine and close friends 5 Being honest 6 Maintaining the safety and security of my loved ones 7

Making sure to repay favors and not be indebted to people 8 Showing respect to parents and elders 9 Having relationships involving love and affection 10 Enjoying music, art, and/or drama Top 10 failures

1 Leading a stress free life (experiential control) 2 Having a sense of accomplishment and making a lasting contribution 3 Promoting justice and caring for the weak 4 Gaining wisdom and a mature understanding of life

5 Being wealthy 6 Being at one with god or the universe 7 Feeling good about myself (experiential control) 8

Striving to be a better person 9 Being physically fit 10 Having an enjoyable, leisurely life 13 Experiencing positive mood states (experiential control) Note: Failure index= Importance success.

Principle compatibilities and incompatibilities Principle Having genuine and close friends

Perceived compatibilities Being loyal to friends, family, and/or my group Having relationships involving love and affection Emotion control principles (e.g., Leading a stress-free life, feeling good about myself) Perceived incompatibilities Gaining wisdom and a mature understanding of life Artistic principles Comment Surprising disconnect between many pro-social principles (e.g., honesty) and friendship

Principle Having relationships involving love and affection Perceived Compatibilities Having genuine and close friends Maintaining the safety and security of my loved ones Being sexually active Being safe from danger Perceived incompatibilities Sensation seeking principles (Having a life filled with adventure) Nonsocial activities (Building and repairing things; working outdoors)

Comment Where are the prosocial virtues? Honesty, loyalty, helping others Principle Prosocial : Being loyal, honest, maintaining security and safety of loved ones, respecting parents and elders, helping others

Perceived Compatibilities Being safe from danger Resolving disputes Showing respect for tradition Perceived incompatibilities Power (e.g., having influence; having authority, being in charge) Sensation seeking Artistic Principle Being wealthy Perceived Compatibilities

Power principles Sensation seeking principles Achievement principles Being sexually active; being sexually desirable (both M and F) Emotion control Perceived incompatibilities

Helping others Being at one with nature Being at one with god Being artistic Promoting justice and caring for the weak Principle Power: having influence of people, having authority, being in charge Perceived Compatibilities Achievement principles (e.g., being ambitious and hard working) Being sexually desirable Perceived incompatibilities

Being honest Respecting parents and elders Helping people Being at one with nature Being at one with god, practicing religion Promoting justice and caring for the weak Utilizing the SLP

Importance ratings 1. What do clients value most? What is likely to be the subject of therapy 2. Values themes. Social. Power. Art? Achievment 3. Look out for low global values ratings. Might suggest a client has no idea what they value, or refuses to acknowledge values Likely intervention:Values clarification (see card sorting task) Utilizing the SLP Restricted range of principles

Clients may endorse very few principles as important. They may endorse several as important, but state that they have not tried to put them into play. Finally, they may rate a number of value clusters as unimportant What are the barriers to putting the values into play? Likely interventions: acceptance, defusion, or overcoming practical barriers? Utilizing the SLP Dominance of experiential control items High importance on experiential control dimension

Nothing inherently wrong with experiential control, unless in conflicts with other important principles Likely interventions: Creative hopelessness, acceptance Utilizing the SLP Presence of strong pressure Research suggests that pressured principles tend not to lead to vital living or well-being (Sheldon & Kasser, 1995) and tend to be associated with hostility and sadness (Stefanic & Ciarrochi, 2008). Danger of contercompliance: In reaction to pressure, the client refuses to act according to the principle, or acts contrary to the principle

Utilizing the SLP Presence of strong pressure: Interventions Therapist behaviours: acting with humility in session, undermining your own authority, encouraging clients to not believe anything you say Remove source of pressure. E.g., imagine nobody knew you were living the principle. Would you still live it? Seek to identify past experience that was vital. E.g., sweet spot exercise. Connect their valued statements to this vital past References Bardi, A., & Schwarz, S. Values and Behavior: Strength and Structure of Relations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulleting, 29, 1207-1220. Block, J. A., & Wulfert, E. . (2000). Acceptance or change: Treating socially anxious college students with ACT or CBGT. The

Behavior Analyst Today, 1, 1-55. Braithwaite, V. A., & Law, H. G. (1985). Structure of human values: Testing the adequacy of the Rokeach value survey. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 49, 250-263. Chambless, D. L., Sanderson, W. C., Shoham, V., Bennett Johnson, S., Pope, K. S., Crits-Christoph, P., Baker, M., Johnson, B., Woody, S. R., Sue, S., Beutler, L., Williams, D. A., & McCurry, S. (1996). An update on empirically validated therapies. Clinical Psychologist, 49, 5-18. UOW Library Clinical Psychologist, 49, 5-18. Ciarrochi, J., & Bailey, A. (In press). A CBT-Practicioner's Guide to ACT: How to Bridge the Gap Between Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc. Cohen, G. L. G., Julio; Apfel, Nancy; Master, Allison. (2006). Reducing the Racial Achievement Gap: A Social-Psychological Intervention. Science, 313, 1307-1310. Creswell, J. D. W., William T; Taylor, Shelley E; Sherman, David K; Gruenewald, Tara L; Mann, Traci. (2005). Affirmation of Personal Values Buffers Neuroendocrine and Psychological Stress Responses. Psychological Science(16), 846-851. Dalrymple, K. L., & Herbert, J. D. . (2007). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder: A pilot study. Behavior Modification, 31, 543-568. Dimidjian, S., Dobson, K., Kohlenberg, R., Gallop, R., Markley, D., Atkins, D., et al. (2006). Randomized Trial of Behavioural

Activation, Cognitive Therapy, and Antidepressant Medication in the Acute Treatement of Adults with Major Depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 658-670. References Elliot, A. J., & Sheldon, K. M. (1998). Avoidance personal goals and the personality-illness relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(5), 1282-1299. Elliot, A. J., Sheldon, K. M., & Church, M. A. (1997). Avoidance personal goals and subjective well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 23(9) Sep 1997, 915-927. Forman, E. M., Herbert, J. D., Moitra, E., Yeomans, P. D., & Geller, P. A. . (2007). A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive Therapy for anxiety and depression. Behavior Modification, 31, 772-799. Frearson, J., & Ciarrochi, J. (2008). Linking Life Principles to Romantic Relationships and Social Support.Unpublished manuscript, University of Wollongong. Hopko, D., Robertson, S., & Lejuez, C. (2006). Behavioural Activation for Anxiety Disorders. The Behaviorist Analyst Today, 7, 212231. Jacobson, N. S., Dobson, K. S., Truax, P., Addis, M. E., Koerner, K., Gollen, J., et al. (1996). A component analysis of cognitivebehavioral treatment for depression. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 64(2), 293-304. Jacobson, N. S., Martell, C. R., & Dimidjian, S. (2001). Behavioral activation treatment for depression: Returning to contextual roots.

Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 8, 255-270. Jakupak, M., Roberts, L., Martell, L., Mulick, P., Michael, S., Reed, R., et al. (2006). A Pilot Study of Behavioural Activation for Veterans with Postraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19, 387-391. Martell, C. R., Addis, M., & Jacobson, N. (2001). Depression in Context: Strategies for Guided Action. New York: WW Norton & Co. McLean, P. D., & Hakstian, A. R. (1979). Clinical depression: Comparative efficacy of outpatient treatements. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 818-836. O'Brian, P. (1991). H.M.S. Surprise. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. Oishi, S., Diener, E., Suh, E., & Lucas, R. (1999). Value as a moderator in Subjective Well-Being. Journal of Personality 67, 157-184. References Paez-Blarrina, M. L., Carmen; Gutierrez-Martinez, Olga; Valdivia, Sonsoles; Ortega, Jose; Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel. (2008). The role of values with personal examples in altering the functions of pain: Comparison between acceptance-based and cognitive-control-based. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 84-97. Paez-Blarrina, M. L., Carmen; Gutierrez-Martinez, Olga; Valdivia, Sonsoles; Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel; Ortega, Jose. (2008). Coping with pain in the motivational context of values: Comparison between an acceptance-based and a cognitive control--based protocol. Behavior Modification, 32, 403-422.

Power, M., Sigmarsson, S., & Emelkamp, P. (2008). A Meta-Analytic Review of Psychological Treatments for Social Anxiety Disorder. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 1, 94-113. Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: Free Press. Sagiv, L., & Schwartz, S. H. (2000). Value priorities and subjective well-being: direct relations and congruity effects. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 177-198. Schwartz, S. H., & Bilsky, W. (1987). Toward a Universal Psychological Structure of Human Values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 550562. Schwartz, S. H., & Bilsky, W. (1990). Toward a theory of the universal content and structure of values:extensions and cross-cultural replications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 878-893. Schwartz, S. H., & Boehnke, K. (2004). Evaluating the structure of human values with confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 230-255. Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1999). Goal striving, need satisfaction, and longitudinal well-being: The self-concordance model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(3), 482-497. Sheldon, K. M., Elliot, A. J., Ryan, R. M., Chirkov, V., Kim, Y., Wu, C., et al. (2004). Self-concordance and subjective well-being in four cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35(2), 209-223. Sheldon, K. M., & Kasser, T. (1998). Pursuing personal goals: Skills enable progress, but not all progress is beneficial. Personality and Social Psychology

Bulletin, 24(12), 1319-1331. Stefanic, N., & Ciarrochi, J. (2008). Linking Life Principles to Emotional and Psychological Well-Being.Unpublished manuscript, University of Wollongong. Wilson, K., Sandoz, E., Kitchens, J., & Roberts, M. (2008). The Valued Living Questionnaire: Defining and Measuring Valued Action within a Behavioral Framework.Unpublished manuscript, University of Mississippi. Zettle, R. D. (2003). Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) vs. systematic desensitization in treatment of mathematics anxiety. Psychological Record, 53(2), 197-215.

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