How to Analyze a Poem

How to Analyze a Poem Poets construct poems on purpose Every word and space has meaning All aspects (parts) of a poem contribute to the meaning Most poems have many layers to uncover Elements to Analyze

Visual Elements Lyric Devices Literal Meaning Figurative Meaning Imagery Historical context Theme We look at these parts to determine the meaning of the poemsome poets do not make use of all devices. As we investigate each part of the poem, we must ask, why did the poem make use of this device? How does it contribute to the poems meaning?

Visual elements Before we even read, do we notice anything visually about the poem? Is the shape unique? Do we notice any different uses of punctuation or of another convention? The Negro Speaks of Rivers

Langston Hughes I've known rivers: I've known rivers ancient as the world and older than the flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young. I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep. I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it. I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln went down to New Orleans, and I've seen its muddy bosom turn all golden in the sunset. I've known rivers: Ancient, dusky rivers.

Many people look at this poem and feel that Langston Hughes shaped it like the flow of a river Night Practice I What does will this shape

remember make you with my breath think of? to make a mountain, with my sucked-in breath a valley, with my pushed-out breath a mountain. I will make SWENSON a MAY valley wider than the whisper, I will make a higher mountain than the cry, will with my will breathe a mountain. I will with my will breathe a valley. I will push out a mountain, suck in a valley, deeper than the shout YOU MUST DIE harder, heavier, sharper a mountain than the truth YOU MUST DIE. I will remember. My breath will make a mountain. My will will remember to will. I, sucking, pushing, I will breathe a valley, I will breathe a mountain.

MAY SWENSON May Swenson Emily Dickinson I Never Saw a Moor e e cummings in Just- In Just-- I NEVER saw a moor-- spring when the world is mud- I never saw the sea--

luscious the little lame baloonman whistles far and wee Yet know I how the heather looks-- And what a wave must be. I never spoke with God-- and eddyandbill come running from marbles and piracies and it's Nor visited in heaven-Yet certain am I of the spot-As if the chart were given spring Both of these poems make unique use of

conventionswe call this poetic license the queer 5 when the world is puddlewonderful old baloonman whistles far and wee and bettyandisbel Visual elements Do we notice that the poem has a specific number of lines or stanzas? Does the number of lines or stanzas make us think that it might be a specific

kind of poem [like haiku or a sonnet?] Visual elements We give stanzas of specific line length names Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? couplet Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, quatrain And summer's lease hath all too short a date: Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; sestet And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd; octave But thy eternal summer shall not fade Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest; Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade,

When in eternal lines to time thou growest: So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this and this gives life to thee. Lyric devices Lyric devices are elements that a writer makes use of to give his/her poem a pleasing sound Think about the songs you like, or childhood stories, many of them had fun rhymes or repetitive sounds Poetry is meant to be read out loud, therefore;it should sound pleasing to the ear Lyric devices Rhyme is the most obvious lyric device end rhyme Do You like green eggs rhyme scheme (pattern) and ham? internal rhyme

I do not like them sight rhyme Sam-I-Am I do not like Green Eggs And ham. Lyric devices Rhyme Scheme A B A B Internal Rhyme Internal Rhyme is rhyming within a line.

I awoke to black flak. We designate the end sound with a letter of the alphabet. Then we use the letters to graph a pattern Sight Rhyme Words that are spelled alike but that are pronounced differentlysaid and paid or again and rain. Lyric devices Another important lyric device is alliteration This is the repetition of same sounds

The words in a poem can start or end with the same sound Assonance Consonance Six sleek swans swam swiftly southwards Lyric devices Repetition of words or phrases creates certain patterns or cadences of sound The Tide Rises, the Tide Falls Henry Wadsworth Longfellow The tide rises, the tide falls, The twilight darkens, the curlew calls;

Along the sea-sands damp and brown The traveler hastens toward the town, And the tide rises, the tide falls. Darkness settles on roofs and walls, But the sea, the sea in darkness calls; The little waves, with their soft, white hands Efface the footprints in the sands, And the tide rises, the tide falls. The morning breaks; the steeds in their stalls Stamp and neigh, as the hostler calls; The day returns, but nevermore Returns the traveler to the shore. And the tide rises, the tide falls. Literal Poems Meaning have many layers of meaning.

The literal meaning is the first layer what is happening in the poem? What is the poem about? To understand the literal meaning a reader needs to paraphrase [summarize in his/her own words] Long poems must be paraphrased line by line or stanza by stanza in order to be understood Figurative meaning Figurative devices contribute to a deeper or secondary layer of meaning Metaphor/simile Allusion symbolism

Metaphors and Similes Both of these devices compare objects that are not alike Simile Metaphor She runs like the wind He is a fox Clouds like cotton candy The car is a cell The rain is falling like cats and dogs.

I am hot for her A metaphor is a direct comparison whereas a simile is an indirect comparison. In other wordsthe two objects in a metaphor are equal and the objects in a simile are comparable Allusion An allusion is a reference to something outside the poem. Usually the reference is mythological, biblical, historical, literary, or from current events. Pollyannasimplistically looks at the bright side (novel by Eleanor H. Porter) What bird is associated with new births?--stork The concept of "tilting at windmills" is a literary

allusion to what? The story of Don Quixote (by Miguel Cervantes) An act that might let loose many unforeseen and unmanageable problems might be described asopening Pandoras box [Greek Mythology] Symbolism When an object stands for another object or an idea Universal Symbols When a symbol has basically the same meaning to people of various geographies, time periods and cultures

Particular Symbols When a symbol has a unique meaning to a specific group of people and various meanings depending on the group interpreting it. Symbolism Colors are often symbolic Royalt y Nature/ ecology Death/ sorrow Danger Purity/

innocence Other common symbols IMAGERY Details which use the five senses to describe a vivid mental picture "Holes in my confidence, holes in the knees of my jeans. --Paul Simon "I was as empty of life as a scarecrow's pockets." --Raymond Chandler She may be the face I can't forget The trace of pleasure or regret May be my treasure or the price I have to pay She may be the song that summer sings May be the chill that autumn brings --Elvis

May be a hundred different things Costello Within the measure of a day IMAGERY Often the imagery helps to create the tone, or mood of a poem. We describe tone with words like: lighthearted, somber, suspenseful, introspective, etc. The Raven --Edgar Allan Poe Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary, Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore, While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping, As of someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.

" 'Tis some visitor," I muttered, "tapping at my chamber door; Only this, and nothing more." What images can you pick out of this poem? What tone do they evoke? Historical Context Sometimes, in order to understand a poem, the reader needs to understand the history of the time period during which it was written. Or, sometimes it

is important to know something about the poet, in order to get the full impact of the poems meaning. When lilacs last in the dooryard bloom'd, And the great star early droop'd iun the western sky in the night, I mourn'd, and yet shall mourn with ever-returning spring. Ever-returning spring trinity sure to me you bring, Lilac blooming perennial and drooping star in the west, And thought of him I love. --Walt Whitman If the reader didnt know this poem was written about Lincolns assassination, it wouldnt make as much sense. So,

Whats the Point? You ask. We analyze a poem to find the meaning. We look at all of the parts to determine the whole. We pick it apart to see what the poet has hidden for us. We are trying to figure out the THEME My trick: Theme = The me(ssage) What lesson, truth or message is the poet trying to impart to us? Usually it can be stated in one sentence. Theme is not the subject.

If you can point back to the poem and show where you got the theme, you cannot be wrong. However, some interpretations can be more right based on correct interpretation of symbolism, allusion or other parts of the poem.

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