High-K Dielectrics The Future of Silicon Transistors

High-K Dielectrics The Future of Silicon Transistors Matthew Yang EECS 277A Professor Nelson Outline

Introduction Problem with SiO2 Solution: High-K Dielectric High-K Dielectric Performance

Manufacturing Process Summary Introduction Continual size reduction of transistors. Decrease in channel length. Decrease in gate dielectric thickness. Introduction

Currently, gate dielectric approaching thickness of a few atoms. Problem: Quantum Mechanics Electron tunneling gate current leakage With the number of transistors on a single chip growing exponentially, power dissipation becomes a big problem.

Problem with SiO2 SiO2 layer is too thin. 90nm node has a dielectric thickness of 1.2nm. Low relative dielectric constant. If there is to be any

increase in performance, an alternative must be found. Image courtesy of Intel. Solution: High-K Dielectric Options: Increase dielectric thickness.

Increase relative dielectric constant. High-k dielectrics are a logical solution. Solution: High-K Dielectric Problems with high-k/poly-si: Increased threshold voltage Image courtesy of Intel.

Solution: High-K Dielectric Problems with high-k/poly-si: Increased threshold voltage Decreased channel mobility Image courtesy of Intel. Solution: High-K Dielectric

Replace poly-si gates with doped, metal gates. Improved mobility. Image courtesy of Intel. Image courtesy of Intel. High-K Dielectric Performance Performance with high-k dielectric and metal

gate: Image courtesy of Intel. Manufacturing Process Several types of high-k dielectric: HfO2, ZrO2, TiO2. Chemical vapor deposition:

Image courtesy of Intel. Summary As transistors shrink in size, an alternative to SiO2 must be found. HfO2, in conjunction with metal gates, improves leakage current, gate capacitance, and speed. By replacing SiO2 with HfO2, transistors will be able to continue to shrink without sacrificing

performance. Sources Chau, Robert, et. al. "Application of High-K Dielectrics and Metal Gate Electrodes to Enable Silicon and Non-Silicon Logic Nanotechnology." Microelectronic Engineering. Vol.80 (2005): 1-6. Chau, Robert. "Role of High-k Gate Dielectrics and Metal Gate Electrodes in Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices." 14th Biennial Conference on Insulating Films on Semiconductors 2005. Leuven, Belgium. 22-24 June 2005. Chau, Robert. "Gate Dielectric Scaling for High-Performance CMOS: from

SiO2/PolySi to High-k/Metal-Gate." International Workshop on Gate Insulator 2003. Tokyo, Japan. 6-7 November 2003. Chau, Robert, et. al. "High-k/Metal-Gate Stack and Its MOSFET Characteristics" _IEEE Electron Device Letters_. 25:6 (June 2004): 408410. Intel (4 November 2003). "Intel's High-K/Metal Gate Announcement." Press Release. Retrieved on 2008-11-03.

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