Harvard Referencing or how to avoid plagiarism Harvard Referencing What is referencing? An academic skill A demonstration of depth and breadth of reading The ability to critically evaluate existing knowledge Why reference? To acknowledge the ideas of others
To allow the references to be easily found by the reader To meet the academic standards of your course To avoid accusations of plagiarism or other offences Harvard Referencing Definitions Citation a quotation from another work Direct Indirect
Reference the source of the citation Bibliography a list of all the references Harvard Referencing Academic Offences - Definitions Plagiarism failure to acknowledge the work as that of others Collusion deliberate and intentional collaboration
Duplication replication of an element(s) of ones own material without referencing the original work Harvard Referencing Academic Offences contd.
Aiding and abetting Cheating in an examination Commissioning Fabrication of information Impersonation Syndication
Harvard Referencing Harvard Referencing Top tips for references Make a list as you go along Note the author, title, date and publisher For articles, note the title and the journal title For chapters, note the title and the book title For websites, note the URL and which part of the site you are viewing, the date and
preferably, take a screenshot Harvard Referencing Book with single author Citation: Schmuller (2005, p.320) says that statisticians might create non-normally distributed populations of numbers Bibliography: Schmuller, J. (2005) Statistical analysis with
Excel for Dummies Hoboken: Wiley Publ. Inc. Harvard Referencing Book with multiple authors Citation: Wragg et al (1996, p.57) states that Local education authorities were given responsibility Bibliography:
Wragg, E. et al. (1996) Teacher appraisal observed London: Routledge. Harvard Referencing A journal article Citation: As Gonsalves (2009, p.210) says Conceptual learning statements often indicate a degree of reflection by the participant Bibliography:
Gonsalves, A.J., Harris, D. & McAlpine, L. (2009) The zones framework for both teaching and learning:application to graduate student teaching assistants Journal of Further and Higher Education Vol.33(3), pp.205-218. Harvard Referencing A website Citation: Half of children spend more time in front of a TV or
computer screen than they do reading, a survey suggests. BBC (2009)[Online] Bibliography: British Broadcasting Corporation (2009) Children's books 'ousted by DVDs BBC NewsOnline [Online] Available from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/8314867.stm [Accessed 20 Oct 2009] Harvard Referencing
An eBook Citation: Trevithick (2005) [online] says that ...the argument that has been centred around competences links to differences of opinion in relation to social work education and training. Bibliography: Trevithick, P. (2005) Social work skills: a practice handbook [e-book] 2nd ed. Maidenhead: Open University Press Available from: http://www.dawsonera.com/depp/reader/protected/extern
al/AbstractView/S9780335228140 [accessed 11/06/2009] Harvard Referencing An online newspaper Citation: Woodman (2009) [online] suggests that ...faster trains may come on stream, but costs may be prohibitive... Bibliography: Woodman, P. (2009) 140mph trains previewed, but they'll
cost more, The Independent Online [Online] Available from: http://www.independent.co.uk/travel/news-andadvice/140mph-trains-previewed-but-theyll-cost-more1694068.html [Accessed 8 July 2009] Harvard Referencing Secondary Referencing Citation: McNamara (1973) as cited by Easterly (2006, p.159) states that ...we propose to
double the Banks operations in the fiscal period... Bibliography: Easterly, W. (2006) The white mans burden Oxford: OUP Harvard Referencing Indirect citations or Paraphrasing Direct citation: Ashworth (2012, p25) tells us that the Privy Council has
identified four factors to consider the assessing whether economic duress is present. Indirect citation or paraphrasing: The Privy Council has outlined a number of circumstances in which it can be evidenced that a person has been financially persuaded to take action against their better judgement or interests (Ashworth, 2012). Bibliography: Ashworth, A. (2012) Contractual procedures in the construction industry 6th ed. Harlow: Pearson
Exercise Harvard Referencing Where to find help Guide to the Harvard System of Referencing via iPAC, LRC Homepage or Moodle: Student Intranet. Harvard Referencing
More exercise Harvard Referencing Question 1 The author of a book is Graham P. Cornish. How should his name appear in a bibliography? A B
C D Graham P. Cornish G. P. Cornish Cornish, G.P. Cornish, Graham P. Harvard Referencing Question 2
You have a direct citation in your essay. How should it appear? A Secker defines born digital resources as content that is first created in digital format. B Secker (2010, p. 91) defines born digital resources as content that is first created in digital format. C Born digital resources is content that is first created in digital format according to Secker (p.91). D Born digital resources is content that is first created in digital format says Secker 2010.
Harvard Referencing Question 3 In a bibliography, how should the title Copyright and e-learning be displayed? A Secker, J. (2010) Copyright and e-learning London, Facet Publishing B Secker, J. (2010) Copyright and e-learning London, Facet Publishing C Secker, J. (2010) Copyright and e-learning London, Facet
Publishing D Secker, J. (2010) Copyright and e-learning London, Facet Publishing
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Métropole du Grand Paris. Le rôle du Ceser dans la gouvernance régionale. Le rôle du Ceser dans la gouvernance régionale. ... (SGP/STIF), décembre 2016. Orientations budgétaires de la Région Ile-de-France pour 2017, décembre 2016.
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