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Book 4 Table of Contents Lesson Compare Text to Personal 1 Experience.. Lesson Rewrite a Familiar 2 Story... Lesson Recognise the Attributes of Historical Media (no 3 student copy)... Lesson Explain Characterisation. .. 4 Lesson Explain How Authors Create Plot 5 Tension... Lesson Preview of Year 5: Identify and Interpret Similes. 6 Lesson Preview of Year 5: Identify and Interpret Personification.. 7 Lesson Preview of Year 5: Identify and Interpret Metaphors 8 Lesson Preview of Year 5: Use Figurative Language. 9 Lesson Preview of Year 5: Explain How Idioms Convey Ideas and Opinions... 10 1 5 11 15 19 23 27 31 37 EDI Lesson Icon Key Checking for Understanding: Standard box for all CFU questions. Definitions: This box is used for footnote definitions. Word Bank: This box is used whenever students are provided with a word bank. Steps: This icon is used to denote steps in SD/GP. Application: This box contains questions which require students to apply a concept or skill they learnt to an advanced situation. Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 1 We will compare1 text to personal experiences. earning Objective: oncept Development 1 A story or narrative connects to a readers personal experiences. A character in the story may be like the reader or someone the

reader knows. A setting in the story may be similar to where the reader lives or has visited.The Tale of Peter Rabbit adapted from Beatrix Potter upon or a time, there four little and their names were Flopsy, Mopsy, Once The plot events ofwere the story mayrabbits, be like something the reader has Cottontail and Peter. Their mum had to go out for the day, so she told the little rabbits to experienced. be careful. You may go into the fields or down the lane, but dont go into Mr McGregors garden. Flopsy, Mopsy and Cottontail, who were good little bunnies, went down the lane to gather blackberries. But Peter, who was very naughty, ran straight away to Mr McGregors garden and squeezed under the gate. Which choice describes Peter? He is obedient and well behaved. He plays with his brothers and sisters. He disobeys and gets into trouble. Lauren said that the character of Peter Rabbit reminded her of her big brother, Nathan. She said: My brother always does things that he is told not to do, and then he gets in Checking for Understanding: trouble. Which sentence could be an example of a character that is like you or someone you know? Describe how the character is like you or someone you know. A Alex was afraid of the dark sometimes. B Alex had a kitten named Loopy that he loved very much. l Development and Guided Practice 1 Read the passage. 2 Answer the response questions. (tick) 3 Compare the text to your personal experience. (write) The Arrival Ruby bounced in her seat until it felt like only the tight seatbelt kept her from flying out the window. She leaned forward as if it would make the car go faster. She wanted to ask her mum how much longer they had to drive, but she knew she had already asked too many times. The last sign had said Airport: 157 km, but it felt like it was taking forever to get there. Ruby hadnt seen her grandparents for three years. They had moved to New Zealand, where Granddads family was from. Ruby had cried for days when Mum told her about it. She said that they were just getting too old to manage life out on the station. Grandad had high blood pressure, and Gran worried that if something happened the Royal Flying Service wouldnt be able to there time.feel? So they moved, and 1. Where areDoctor

Ruby and her mum going? 2. get How doesinRuby now they were coming forher the first time in to three their home after back visiting tiredyears. and bored from the long drive excited and anxious to get to see her grandparents to the airport to fly to New Zealand grandparents to the airport to meet her visiting worried about her grandparents living grandparents too far away to visit her Application: Have you ever felt like Ruby? Describe a time when you were excited about something that was going to happen. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Definitions: 1 to find things that are the same __ Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 2 Development and Guided Practice (continued) Nerves Jayden tried to swallow, but his mouth was so dry he couldnt. His stomach felt clenched and tight, and he was afraid he was going to be sick. Oh no, he thought. I am going to walk out there, and when I try to talk I am going to be sick all over everyone. This was the most frightening thing he had ever done, and to think he had volunteered for the torture! Everyone was talking about the vacant land next to the school. The company that had owned it had given it to the town to be used for the public good. Some people wanted to build a new day care, and another group wanted to build an art centre. But Jayden and his friends thought the site was perfect for a skateboard park. They knew it would give the kids in town a safe place to practise and play. Tonight was the big council meeting where all of the projects were going to be presented. Their teacher helped them write the formal proposal, but someone had to do the presentation itself. Jayden, somehow, found himself agreeing to do it. Now, he had to go out in front of all those 1. Whatand is Jayden preparing do? they would 2. How does Jayden people tell them about it!toMaybe all just laugh at afeel? kid trying to talk to all build a skateboard park

next thetook a deepnervous toname a big to group those adults. He clenched his fiststoand breath about as theyspeaking called his of people school speak. take a big test tired of waiting for his turn to speak confident that the council will agree present a proposal to the town council with him Application: Have you ever felt like Jayden? Describe a time when you were nervous about something you were going to do. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Closure Noah drew a picture of a shark on the back of his maths paper. He looked at the clock again. It hadnt moved. He wondered if time could have actually stopped. Usually he liked maths, and he was good at it. But today he just wanted school to be over, so he could rush home. It was his birthday, and he just knew his mum and dad had a special surprise for him. 1. What is Noah doing? 2. How does Noah feel? He is working on a drawing for an art He is glad that it is maths because he is project. good at it. He is trying to learn his maths. He is anxious to get home to his He is waiting for his maths class and birthday surprise. He wishes that the class were longer so school to be over. Have you ever felt like time was going too slowly he when youfinish werehis waiting could work.for something to happen? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What did you learn today about comparing text to personal experience? (Pair-Share) Use words from the word bank. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Word Bank: Year 4 compare personal experience character setting plot GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 3 dependent Practice Going Shopping Ella and Ethan went out to their mums car. Ella was dancing along and giggling, but Ethan had a glum expression and was dragging his feet. Do I have to go, Mum? he

asked. You could just get my stuff for me. I cant buy you new shoes without you there, Mum said impatiently. Come on, Ethan, Ella called as she buckled her seat belt. Getting new school stuff is always fun. Fun for you, maybe! Ethan thought. He knew his sister would want to try on every single outfit in her size and look at every notebook and pencil box before she 1. Where areEthan Ethanwould and Ella going? 2. he How does up, Ethan picked one. settle for the first one picked butfeel? Ella would take to the first day of school excited to get new things for school endless, boring hours to decide. to shop for new school stuff unhappy because he doesnt like to the city for a holiday shopping impatient because his sister is taking too long to get ready Application: Do you feel more like Ella or like Ethan? Describe how you feel about going shopping. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ The Velveteen Rabbit Spring came, and they had long days in the garden, for wherever the Boy went the Rabbit went too. He had rides in the wheelbarrow, and picnics on the grass, and lovely fairy huts built for him under the raspberry canes behind the flower border. And once, when the Boy was called away suddenly to go out to tea, the Rabbit was left out on the lawn until long after dusk, and Nana had to come and look for him with the candle because the Boy couldn't go to sleep unless he was there. He was wet through with the dew and quite earthy from diving into the burrows the Boy had made for him in the flower bed, and Nana grumbled as she rubbed him off with a corner of her apron. "You must have your old Bunny!" she said. "Fancy all that fuss for a toy!" The Boy sat up in bed and stretched out his hands. "Give me my Bunny!" he said. "You mustn't say that. He isn't a toy. He's REAL!" When the little Rabbit heard that he was happy, for he knew that what the Skin Horse had said was true at last. The nursery magic had happened to him, and he was a toy no longer. He was Real. The Boy himself had said it. That night he was almost too happy to sleep, and so much love stirred in his little sawdust heart that it almost burst. And into his boot-button eyes, that had long ago lost their polish, there came a look of wisdom and beauty, so that even Nana noticed it next morning Application : when she picked him up, and said, "I declare if that old Bunny hasn't got quite a knowing

expression!" Did you ever have a toy you loved and almost thought of as real? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 4 eriodic Review 1 Left Out Gillian sat on the climbing frame and watched the other girls playing chasey around the playground. She wished she could play too, but she didnt really know any of those girls. She and her family had just moved to town last week. She knew three of the girls were in her class, but she couldnt remember their names. Everything was so different: new school, new kids, new teacher, new books. She missed her old school and her friends. girl with pink bows in her braided hair ranGillian up to feel? Gillian. Come on! she 1.Just Whythen isntaGillian playing with the 2. How does called. Come play with us. We are going to make up teams to we need one excited to be in aplay, other girls? new and school. more. heldlike out chasey. her hand to Gillian. Im Come on. Emily. SheShe doesnt angry because she doesnt remember the She doesnt like the other girls. girls names. She is new and hasnt made friends sad because she doesnt know anyone at Have having fun? Have you ever asked yet.you ever felt left out of a group that washer new school someone who was not a part of your group to join you? Explain. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________

eriodic Review 2 Second Place Madison crossed her fingers and held her breath. She sat on the edge of her seat, waiting for the announcer to call her name. She had worked for weeks on her art project. It was a coloured plate that her aunt had helped her paint. It was just perfect. Madison knew that it was the best work she had ever done, so she entered it in the Art Show. Now, they were about to announce the winners. She had looked at all of the entries in her age group, and she really felt that hers was the best. She imagined how it would feel to have the first place ribbon displayed on her plate. She heard her name and stood up to receive her ribbon. But it was only the second place one. She looked around in confusion, 1. tried Whatto is smile Madison waiting and through herfor? disappointment. 2. How does Madison feel? her painted plate to dry happy because she won first place. disappointed that she only placed her aunt to come help her the winners of the Art Show to be second. grateful to her aunty for helping her announced Have you ever been disappointed when you didnt win win.or achieve something? Explain. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ eriodic Review 3 The Big Game Mum, I have to go! Liam pleaded. Liam, you have a fever and you need to stay in bed. The team will be fine without you, his mum said. Liam pounded his pillow in frustration. This was the final game. If they won, they would go to the All-State finals. He had to be there, but Mum wasnt having it. What if the team lost because he wasnt there? He was a good player, and he usually could score. So, what if his being sick cost the whole team the win? Or what if it didnt? 2. How does Liam feel? What the restgoing of thetoteam great and won? He wouldnt be there. He sighed, and 1. Whyif is Liam missplayed the game? happy, because he gets to stay home in lay back down in bed.his team will win. He doesnt think bed He is tired and wants to sleep. sad, because his team lost their game He is sick. frustrated, because he has to stay home Have you ever been disappointed when you couldnt doinstead something that was important to sick of playing in the final game you? Explain. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved.

Year 4 5 We will rewrite a familiar story. earning Objective: 2 oncept Development A narrative or story: is told from a point of view has characters has a setting. Changing these attributes1 will change the story. Change Point of View Characters Original Story Rewritten Story Little Miss Muffet Bertram the spider was just setting out for his morning walk. He stopped to rest on a handy tuffet. Suddenly a gigantic monster of a girl flung a disgusting mess of curdled milk all over him. It quite ruined his new black hat with the bright red ribbon. Three Little Pigs Once upon a time there were three little birds. The first little bird was a sparrow, and she built her nest of soft straw that wove together into a snug home. The second little bird was a magpie, and she built her nest of sturdy twigs in the fork of a tree. The last little bird was a swallow, and she made her nest of mud on the bricks under the bridge. Even though all the nests were different, each one was perfect for that little bird. Goldy was accidentally locked into the toy shop for the night. She tried playing with the little video game on one end of the shelf, but it was too easy. Then she Goldilocks tried playing with the big video game on Setting the other end of the shelf, but it was too hard and too scary. So she played the Checking for Understanding:fun video game in the middle and it was Which is an example of a character? just right. Which is an example of a setting? A A deserted house that looks creepy in the moonlight. who does not like sports. B James, a shy boy Definitions: 1 qualities of something Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved.

6 l Development and Guided Practice 1 Read the story. 2 Rewrite the story from a different point of view, with different characters or a different setting. (write) Amal carefully lifted the old glass bottle. A tarnished silver chain was wrapped tightly around the dark, weathered cork. The bottle was surprisingly heavy. He shook it, but he couldnt hear anything inside. The dark glass made it hard to see in the bottle, but he thought he saw something moving inside. He tugged the chain loose and pried out the old cork. There was a puff of grey smoke and a roaring sound. Amal stared in wonder as a twenty metre tall Genie towered over him! Imagine what the story above was like from the point of view of the Genie. What is he thinking and feeling when Amal finds and opens the bottle? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ _______ __________________________________________________________________________ There once was a little snail named Heloise. She lived near a busy anthill, and _ loved to watch the ants run back and forth all day. They were so quick and she nimble. The ants used to laugh at Heloise because she was big and slow. It took her all day to go from the river to the anthill, and they could run back and forth very quickly. But one day, there was a rain storm in the hills and the river began to overflow its banks. The ants were afraid that the river would sweep away their anthill, and they would all drown. Come quickly! Heloise called to the ants. Climb up on my back, and I will carry you all away from here. So all of the ants grabbed their babies and their things and crawled up on Heloises back. She carried them up Imagine the story with different characters. Instead of a snail and some ants, the hill and away from the river. The ants built a new home and baked a cake to thank what if the characters were a duck and some fish? Or could you rewrite it to Heloise for her brave rescue. be about people? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ _______ GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 7 __________________________________________________________________________ Year 4 l Development and Guided Practice Hans and Greta peered from the trees at the little cottage in the clearing. They could not believe their eyes! The entire cottage was made from ginger biscuits and candy! All of the delicious looking bits were held together with sugar icing. Silently the two children tiptoed up to little house. Is it real? Greta whispered. Hans reached and broke off a small bitshop of the window which looked a giant Imagineout that the children find a made outshutter of lollies

in the citylike instead of ginger crisp. a cottage in the woods. What would be different? How would it look? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ _______ Closure Determine which attribute the writer changed. The Little Hen The little hen found some grains of wheat. She asked all of her friends, the other animals, to help her gather up the grains, grind them into flour and then bake a loaf of bread. No one would help her, so she did it all by herself. When the tasty loaf was baking, its scent drew all of the animals to her house. Now we can help you eat the bread! the animals all said. But the little hen just closed her door and had the loaf all to herself. The Little Wombat It was going to be a very cold winter and the little wombat knew he would have to dig his underground house deeper so he could stay warm. He asked all of his brothers and cousins to come help him dig, but they all said they were too busy. So he dug everyday, while everyone else played in the sunshine. That winter, when the snow lay deep and cold, all of his relatives came knocking at his door, and asked to share his deep warm burrow. But little wombat just curled up snug and Did the writer change the point of view, the characters the them setting The Little Hen to warm, andorpaid noofattention. write The Little Wombat? Explain ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What did you learn today about rewriting a story? (Pair-Share) Use words from the word bank. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Word Bank: Year 4 narrative point of view characters setting attribute GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 8 dependent Practice Rewrite the story. Once upon a time, there were three Billy Goats who lived beside a river. The

grass on the other side of the river was thick and green, but they could not cross the bridge because an evil troll lived under it. One day, the littlest Billy Goat was so hungry that he decided to try to cross the bridge. He stepped carefully onto the bridge, but his little hooves made a tip-tap as he crossed. The troll roared from underneath, Whos that tip-tapping on my bridge? You will be my supper tonight! Oh no! said the littlest Billy Goat. I am far too little to be supper for a great, big troll like you! You want to wait until my bigger brother comes across. All right, said the troll. You dont sound as if youre more than a mouthful anyway. A little later, the second Billy Goat saw his little brother feasting on the thick green grass on the other side of the river. He walked to the bridge and tried to cross it silently. His hooves made a clip-clop sound as he tiptoed across the bridge. Whos that clip-clopping on my bridge? You are much bigger than that little goat, so you shall be my supper tonight! Oh no! said the second Billy Goat. I am not really big enough to be supper for such a huge troll as you. My elder brother will be coming along soon. He is much bigger than I. Perhaps youre right, said the troll. I will wait for the bigger goat because I am getting very hungry. Soon the biggest Billy Goat spied his brothers on the other side of the river. They were knee deep in the green grass and eating their fill of it. He walked to the bridge and stepped up on it. His hooves went thud-thud-thud as he crossed the bridge. He was so big that the bridge shook under his weight. Whos that thud-thudding on my bridge? You must be a very big goat, and you will be a fine supper for me tonight! I am a large goat, said the biggest Billy Goat. But even a big goat is a small meal for such a monstrous troll as you. I saw a great cow coming along the path. If __________________________________________________________________________ you step out from under the bridge, you can see her, too. So the troll crawled out from under the bridge, and then all three Billy Goats ran __________________________________________________________________________ and butted him with their sharp horns and hard heads. They knocked the troll into the deep middle of the river where he was swept away and never seen again. The __________________________________________________________________________ three Billy Goats ate the thick green grass and got very fat indeed. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ _______ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 9 eriodic Review 1 Rewrite the story. There was a Little Mermaid who dreamed of being human. She convinced the Sea Witch to turn her tail into legs, so that she could walk on the land. She had to trade her beautiful singing voice for the magic. She wanted to meet the handsome prince that she had saved from drowning. The prince fell in love with her. The Little Mermaid married the prince. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ _______how you rewrote the story? Did you change the point of view, the characters or Describe the setting? Why did you change that attribute? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ eriodic Review 2

Rewrite the story. A princess was playing in the castle courtyard when her favourite golden ball fell into the pool. She couldnt reach the ball, and she cried. A green frog swam up and told her he would return her ball if she promised to keep him as her pet. She promised and the frog dove down to get her ball. She took him into the castle and set him beside her plate. He slept on her pillow. After awhile, the princess became very fond of the frog and one night she kissed him good-night. There was a bright flash and the frog turned into a handsome prince. A wicked witch had turned him into a frog, and he could not turn back until a princess truly loved him. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Describe how you rewrote the story? Did you change the point of view, the characters or ______ the setting? Why did you change that attribute? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 10 eriodic Review 3 Rewrite the story. Sir Archibald put on his shiniest armour and took his longest sword. He was going to fight a fire-breathing dragon. Sir Archibald had never fought a dragon before, but he had read all of the books and seen all of the pictures about knights and dragons. He thought he was ready. He rode his horse up the hill to where the dragon lived. He saw some smoke coming from a cave, so he peeked in. The dragon was sleeping inside. It was enormous. It was bigger than a house and covered with shiny green scales. Small flames came out of its nostrils when it snored. Sir Archibald looked at his sword. It didnt seem quite as long as it had before. He backed quietly away from the cave. He thought perhaps he should wait and study some more about dragons before he fought a live dragon. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ _______ Describe how you rewrote the story? Did you change the point of view, the characters or the setting? Why did you change that attribute? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 11 We will identify1 the effect of setting on characters. earning Objective: oncept Development Setting affects2 what a character says or does. # # 1. Buck had changed since he had been in the snowy Alaskan wilderness. 2. Becoming a sled dog had made him strong and smart. 3. He was no longer the spoiled dog that lived on a large, sunny estate3. 4. Buck knew the wilderness had changed him in a way that he could not explain. 5. He

Alaskan wilderness Setting had become wild, and he now belonged in the woods with the wolves. Buck, a dog Character Effect (what does the character say or do in the example setting?) Buck becomes a sled dog and is forced to change his lifestyle and behaviour. wants to live the easy life in a house with people. Checking for Understanding: What would be the best setting for a story about a juggling clown? Explain. A a bank B the circus ll Development and Guided Practice 1 Read the text. a Identify4 the setting. (circle) b Identify the character. (box) c Identify the characters actions. (underline) 2 Identify the effect of setting on what the character(s) say or do. (Pair-Share) 1. Vinny has lived on the small island all his life. 2. He enjoys the peace and quiet. 3. He swims every day in the warm, tropical ocean. 4. When Vinny gets hungry, he eats fruit found on the island, or catches fish. 5. Sometimes, he will share his fish with the birds that visit his island. 6. 1. What is the effect of the setting on the The birds warn him when a storm or character? a ship is coming. 1. Charlie the clown is the best juggler in town. 2. He has been practising since he was a small child. 3. He performs at the circus. 4. People come to see him perform. 5. Charlie can also ride a unicycle. 6. He does tricks and tells jokes while riding around the circus ring. 7. Charlie loves to see the people 1. What is the effect of the setting on the laugh. character? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ What are some actions Vinny wouldnt do in a ___________________________________________ tropical island setting? (Pair-Share) What are some actions Charlie the clown ___________________________________________ wouldnt do in a circus setting? (Pair-Share) _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________ Application: Application: Definitions: 1 find 2 has an impact on something or someone 3 big house located on a lot of land Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 12 Development and Guided Practice (continued) 1 2 3 4 Determine what the question or prompt is asking. Read the text to determine relevant information. Answer the question. Check that you answered all parts of the question. Select the best setting based on the characters and their actions. Write the letter next to the setting. Setting Character Action The ocean____ A. Mr Jess looked at artwork. An airport____ B. The coach called a play. A museum ____ C. Lisa borrowed a book. The desert ____ D. The snake hid under a rock. Rugby field ____ E. The shark hunted for fish. Library____ F. Kevin carried his luggage. Application: Explain why the coach would not need luggage on the rugby field. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Closure 1. Alien Al is travelling to the planet Mars for a holiday. 2. But while flying through space, he notices a planet that he has never seen before. 3. His spaceship computer tells him that it is called Earth. 4. Al sees land and a lot of blue water. 5. He wonders if the planet has any 1. What is the effect of the setting on the character? lifeforms. __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ James thinks that the setting is planet Earth. Is he correct? Explain your answer. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________

What did you learn today about identifying the effect of setting on characters? (Pair-Share) Use words from the word bank. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Word Bank: Year 4 setting character effect identify GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 13 dependent Practice 1. Marko is a very talented chef. 2. He cooks many different foods. 3. Pasta dishes are his specialty. 4. Marko always cooks with fresh ingredients. 5. He adds healthy vegetables and sauces to his pastas. 6. Marko wears a chefs hat and jacket while in the kitchen. 7. On any night of the week the dining room is full of happy customers. 1. What is the effect of the setting on the character? __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Application: What are some actions Marko wouldnt do in a kitchen setting? (Pair-Share) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Select the best setting based on the characters and their actions. Write the letter next to the setting._ Setting A tree____ An automobile____ The ocean____ A caf____ The mountains____ A garden____ Character Action A. B. C. D. E. F. Mario ordered soup. Tim hiked up the trail. The bird found a worm. Mum held the steering wheel. Kim took surfing lessons. The squirrel hid some nuts. Application: Explain why Kim would not take surfing lessons in the mountains. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ eriodic Review 1 _ 1. Mick likes to try adventurous things. 2. Today, he is mountain climbing. 3. The mountain is much steeper than he thought! 4. He brought his tools and extra rope. 5. He hopes his climbing shoes and helmet will keep him safe. 6. He has almost reached the top! 7. Mick tries to hold on and hopes it doesnt get windy! 1. What is the effect of the setting on the character?

__________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ What are some actions that Mick would not do in a setting at the edge cliff? (fill) O brush his teeth O make a sandwich O look at the view O take a picture O make a phone call O use his tools O drive a car O swim Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 14 eriodic Review 2 1. The holiday is finally here! 2. Brody is on his way to the coast. 3. He is taking a road trip in his trusty blue car. 4. Brody brought his surfboard. 5. He also packed his bags and his dog. 6. He is ready to relax and do a lot of surfing. 7. He hopped in his car and turned on the radio. 8. The beach is his favourite place to go on a holiday. 1. What is the effect of the setting on the character? __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Select which other actions Brody could do while in his car. (tick) 1. Sing along to the radio. Yes No 2. Read a book. Yes No 3. Follow directions. Yes No 4. Play fetch with his dog. Yes No eriodic Review 3 1. The princess looked down from her tower. 2. To her it was nothing more than a horrible prison. 3. The room was cold and grey. 4. Her only view of the world was through a tiny window. 5. She was lonely and wished for laughter and music. 6. Each day she watched the people below walk past. 7. They never noticed her watching them.

1. What is the effect of the setting on the character? __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Name something that each character below might say or do in the setting. (Pair-Share) 1. Setting: A caf Character: a waiter Year 4 2. Setting: The ocean Character: a lifeguard GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 15 We will explain1 how authors create plot tension. earning Objective: 5 oncept Development Conflict is the struggle to solve the problem. Plot tension causes the reader to feel anxious2 about a conflict in the story. Ways to Create Plot Tension Time Limit Secrets Authors can make the reader anxious by adding a deadline to a task. Authors can make a reader anxious by giving a character a secret to hide or uncover. Samuel watched the red, digital numbers on the bomb count down. Five. Four. They seemed to slow all of time as he stood in indecision. Three. Should he cut the red wire or the green wire? Two. Red no, wait! Green! One. Cut. Carissa hid behind the counter at the restaurant while kids from her school walked past. Could they see her? She wasnt ready to tell anyone about her new dream to be a chef. Mariette watched as her uncle drove away. She thought about the way he avoided her questions about Grandma. He was definitely hiding something. Authors can make The little kitten mewed desperately. The flood a reader anxious Checking for Understanding: by putting waters had separated it from its mother. I saw Danger characters the that ainnew wave was tearing down the river. It How does the author create plot tension each example? reader likes in the medicine threatened

sweep thetable. shivering away. A Jan was surprised to see on to her sisters Was kitten Alice sick? danger. Why didnt she tell Jan? Jan wanted to find out. B The shot clock was running out and Gary was far from the three-point line when he got ready to shoot. Would he make it? C Little Sophie crawled in the grass. Her pudgy, baby fingers reached for a colourful stripe in the grass. It twisted up and hissed at her. The snake got ready to bite. ll Development and Guided Practice 1 Read the passage. 2 Answer the questions. (circle) 3 Explain how the author creates plot tension. (write) 1. Who is the main The Journey character? 1. As Brian followed the twisting path of A The river the river, he saw a waterfall, giant and B Brian rushing in the distance. 2. As he got closer, C The crocodiles he knew it was the only place to climb the 2. What is the problem? cliff. 3. His feet struggled on the slippery A Brian is discovering whats hidden stones. 4. The water pounded on his back, in the reeds. trying to knock him off the cliff. 5. Lazy B Brian has to get to the top before crocodiles swam in the waters below. 6. the helicopter leaves without him. Their eyes seemed to roll up at him. 7. Were C Brian has to climb the cliff by the they waiting for him to fall? 8. He had no waterfall. choice The but author to keep uses climbing. ___________________________ to create plot tension. The reader is afraid __________________________________________________________________________ Definitions: 1 to give more information about 2 worried, nervous or stressed Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 16 Development and Guided Practice (continued) 1. Who is the main The Key character? 1. Estella was playing with her A Grandmother grandmothers jewellery box. 2. In the very B Aunt Alice bottom was a single key. 3. It was very old C Estella and rusted. 4. It could only fit in an old2. What is the problem? fashioned lock. 5. She tried to think of one A Estella is looking for what the key that matched. 6. She put it in her pocket and

unlocks. marched around her grandmas house. 7. B Estella is trying to escape with the There was no door that matched. 8. There key. was no door that was locked. 9. Estella went C Estella is trying to return the key outside and looked around the garden. 10. At before her grandma sees that its last she found that the cellar door beside the missing. kitchen was locked. 11. The key fit, and the lock gave a rusty groan as she turned it. 12. The author uses ___________________________ to create plot tension. The Why was this door locked? 13. What could bereader inside? is anxious Closure __________________________________________________________________________ The Exam 1. Phillip was struggling with his studies. 2. Maths word problems just didnt make sense. 3. Phillip had to try to understand them. 4. He only had a minute left before he had to take the test. 5. He was reading over his notes. 6. The teacher was asking them to put their books away. 7. She was ready to pass out the exam. 8. Then suddenly, the idea made sense! 9. Phillip was ready for the test. 1. Who is the main character? A The teacher B Phillip C The tutor 2. What is the problem? A Phillip is trying to keep his maths struggles a secret. B Phillip needs to understand word problems before the test. C A bully is bothering Phillip. The author uses ___________________________ to create plot tension. The reader is anxious __________________________________________________________________________ Rupert thinks the author uses secrets to create plot tension. Why is Rupert wrong? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What did you learn today about explaining how authors create plot tension? (Pair-Share) Use words from the word bank. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Word Bank: Year 4 conflict problem danger plot tension time limit GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. secrets 17 dependent Practice 1. Who is the main The River character? 1. Sonya and her friends were rafting on A Mark and Jason

the fast waters of the river. 2. Every bend in B Sonya the river revealed new challenges. 3. There C The river were rocks and rapids! 4. The water 2. What is the problem? splashed over the sides of the boat. 5. They A Sonya is trying to figure out a way seemed to be going faster and faster! 6. A to get off the river because theres a great roar sounded over the running water. waterfall. 7. Then Sonya realised they needed to get off B Sonya is trying to beat the other the water before they reached what must be rafts in a race. a dangerous waterfall! 8. They began C Sonya is trying to figure out if the paddling against the current. 9. It was too legends about the river are true. strong for them. 10. If they clung to some rocks, would they survive? 11. At last there was a branch over the water. 12. They all grabbed on anduses climbed to dry land. 13. The author ___________________________ to create plot tension. The They watched their raft go over the reader is anxious waterfall. __________________________________________________________________________ eriodic Review 1 Grandpas House 1. Every summer, Grandpa warns me never to go in the attic. 2. This summer, I was more curious than ever to see what was up there. 3. The old door creaked when I pushed it open. 4. My eyes werent used to the darkness. 5. One beam of light struck through the floating dust. 6. There were boxes, old pictures and strange antiques. 7. Then I saw a ghost! 8. A woman in white was in the corner! 9. But soon, I realised it was just my grandmas wedding gown, elegant and lonely on its clothes hanger. 10. Grandpas secret was how much he missed her. The author uses ___________________________ to create plot tension. The reader is anxious __________________________________________________________________________ Identify what the author uses to create plot tension. (shade) 1. I heard grandpa open the front door. I had to get out of the attic before he found me! O Time Limit O Secrets O Danger 2. I climbed out the small window. I clung to the edge of the window. It was a short drop to the roof. Could I make it? O Time Limit O Secrets O Danger 3. Just then grandpa came in the attic. He looked over his shoulder, then he opened a secret door hidden behind grandmas dress! O Time Limit O Secrets O Danger Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 18

eriodic Review 2 The Spy 1. Templeton is trying to solve the mystery of the stolen art. 2. Tonight, he is going to figure out if the art museum can be broken into. 3. As soon as Templeton climbed through the window, the alarm system began counting down: ten, nine, eight. 4. Templeton would have ten no eight seconds to get across the maze of lasers to turn it off. 5. Seven, six. 6. Straining in a back bend, Templeton saw the clock. 7. Five seconds left. 8. Sliding under the last laser three, two then dashing across the marble floor one - he enters the code in the keypad just in time. 9.The So, author breakinguses into the museum is possible. ___________________________ to create plot tension. The reader is anxious __________________________________________________________________________ Identify what the author uses to create plot tension. (shade) 1. Templeton knew that breaking into the museum was possible, but only if the thief knew the code. Now it was time to secretly investigate the staff. O Time Limit O Secrets O Danger 2. Templeton had to be careful about the way he phrased his question. He didnt want the museum guide to know that she was his number one suspect. O Time Limit O Secrets O Danger 3. As Templeton closed in on the suspect, he started receiving threats. Should he keep going with this dangerous investigation? O Time Limit O Secrets O Danger eriodic Review 3 Camping 1. Meagan looked upon the green, misty mountains. 2. She had food for two weeks. 3. Already her supplies were running low. 4. How long could she survive out here? 5. Meagan was looking for a missing person. 6. Angela had disappeared two weeks earlier. 7. Had she just gotten lost in the woods? 8. Did something worse happen to her? 9. Meagan wondered how dangerous this trip would turn out to be. 10. Meagan hoped she wasn't about to make the same mistake Angela did. The author uses ___________________________ to create plot tension. The reader is anxious __________________________________________________________________________ Explain how an author can use more than one way to create plot tension using the passage above as an example. (Pair-Share) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 19 We will identify and interpret1 similes. earning Objective: 6 oncept Development Figurative language refers to words or phrases that go beyond their literal2 meaning. Figurative language is used to help the reader see and feel what is happening.

One type of figurative language is a simile. Similes compare two unlike things using like or as. To interpret My similes we explain what they mean. Similes Cat Lola 1. My cat, Lola, is a lot of fun. 2. Lola jumps as high as a kangaroo. 3. She jumps to catch her ball. 4. She even flips like a circus animal! 5. I have the best time playing with Lola. 36 words -Example: She likes to jump and catch her ball. Meaning Lola jumps as high as a kangaroo. Lola jumps very high. She even flips like a circus animal! Lola does amazing flips. Checking for Understanding: Which sentence is an example of a simile? How do you know? A His backpack was heavy. B His backpack was as heavy as a load of bricks! ll Development and Guided Practice 1 2 3 4 Read the sentences carefully. Identify the simile. (underline) Identify the two things being compared. (circle) Interpret the meaning of the simile. (complete the sentence) 1. The children said that the kittens fur felt as soft as silk. The simile ___________________________________means __________________________________________. 2. The baby felt as light as a feather when it was first born. The simile ___________________________________means __________________________________________. 3. When having a disagreement, Joe and his sister argue like angry wolves. The simile ________________________________________means __________________________________________. 4. After the match, the teammates were as hungry as bears. The simile _____________________________________means __________________________________________. Definitions: 1 explain 2 exact Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 20 Closure 1. The kite soared like an eagle in the sky. The simile ___________________________________means __________________________________________. 2. Corina was busy as a bee while trying to get her chores done. The simile ___________________________________means __________________________________________. Which sentence uses a simile? How do you know? A Mel was as hungry as a tiger at lunch. B Kip brought a sandwich for lunch. What did you learn today about identifying and interpreting similes? (Pair-Share) Use words from the word bank. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Word Bank: identify interpret similes figurative language dependent Practice 1. The scientist was so smart his brain was like a computer. The simile ___________________________________means __________________________________________. 2. The excited children were running around like wild animals. The simile ________________________________________means __________________________________________. 3. After sitting in the hot car, the can of fizzy drink exploded like a volcano. The simile _______________________________________means __________________________________________. 4. On some tropical beaches, the sand looks as white as snow. The simile ___________________________________means __________________________________________. Definitions: 3 how something looks Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 21 eriodic Review 1 1. Without her glasses, Shayna is as blind as a bat. The simile _________________________________________means __________________________________________. 2. The weight lifter is as strong as an ox. He can lift very heavy weights. The simile _____________________________________means __________________________________________. of the following sentences contain a simile? (select all that apply) dy to explain your answers. The dogs were very hungry. The hungry child ate like a pig. The surface of the lake was as smooth as glass. The ducks swam across the lake. Sunlight shone through the clean windows. The hot sun shone like a laser beam through the window. eriodic Review 2 1. Kevin runs as fast as the wind. He is on the track team. The simile ________________________________________means __________________________________________. 2. The twins were like two peas in a pod. They went everywhere together. The simile ________________________________________means __________________________________________. Read the passage below and underline any similes. Rabbits Nest 1. The small bunnies snuggled in their underground burrow. 2. They were as warm as toast in the soft, flat hay that made their bed. 3. Their fur was as smooth as silk. 4. Each bunnys little pink nose looked like a flower petal. How do the similes make the story more interesting? (Pair-Share) The similes make the story more interesting by Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 22 Blank Page

Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 23 We will identify and interpret1 personification. earning Objective: 7 oncept Development Personification is giving the qualities2 of a person to an animal or an object. Authors use personification to help the reader see and feel what is An Autumn Greeting happening in"Come," the story. said the Wind to the Leaves one day. "Come over to the meadow and we will play. Put on your dresses of red and gold. For summer is gone and the days grow cold. excerpt from http://www.storyit.com/Classics/JustPoems/autumngreet.ht Interpret personification The author uses personification to m The wind cannot talk to the leaves. create a visual of what happens at the The leaves cannot play or put on dresses. beginning of autumn. Autumn is the time of the year in which, in some places around the world, leaves change colour, fall off the trees and the weather Checking for Understanding: starts to get cold. Which sentence has personification? How do you know? A The dogs tail moved back and forth when his owner came back from work. B The dog danced with joy when the owner came back from work. C The dog was hungry when the owner came back from work. ll Development and Guided Practice 1 Read the question. 2 Read the text. 3 Select an answer. (circle) Adapted from Two Flowers Move in the Yellow Room by William Blake Ah, William, were weary of weather, said the flowers, shining with dew3. Our travelling habits have tired us. Can you give us a room with a view? They arranged themselves at the Application window and counted steps the sun, When Blake saysthe and both of took root in the carpet, what is

he talking about? and they both took root in the Acarpet the flowers became a permanent addition where the topaz4 tortoises run. B C 1. When Blake uses were weary of weather, what is he talking about? A the man is cold and wet B some flowers will die in the cold C the flowers were tired D flowers like cold, wet weather It is personification because______________________ _________________________________________ 2. When __. Blake uses they arranged themselves at the window, what is he talking about? A B C D the the the the the flowers grew through the carpet the roots ruined the carpet Definitions: 1 explain 2 traits 3 moisture Year 4 4 area the man placed the flowers way the flowers fit into the pot order the flowers liked to be in formation all flowers move in a precious, pale blue stone GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 24 Development and Guided Practice (continued) 1 Determine the purpose for reading. 2 Read carefully to locate information that matches the purpose. 3 Ensure your response matches the purpose. Read the text. An excerpt from The Green Gables Letters by L.M. Montgomery I hied5 me away to the woodsaway back into the sun-washed alleys carpeted with fallen gold and glades where the moss is green and vivid yet. The woods are getting ready to sleep they are not yet asleep but they are disrobing6 and are having all did sorts of little bed-time conferenceswhen and whisperings and goodWhy Montgomery use personification she wrote that

the woods are getting ready to sleep? Interpret the personification. nights. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Why did Montgomery use personification when she wrote that the woods are disrobing? Interpret the personification. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Closure An excerpt from How Pearl Button was Kidnapped by Katherine Mansfield It was the early afternoon of a sunshiny day with little winds playing hide-and-seek in it. 1. When Mansfield uses playing hideand-seek in it, what is she talking about? A the wind playing hide-and-seek B the wind blowing occasionally C the sun and the wind were playing 2. Why did Mansfield use the words hide-and-seek? A To give the setting a playful quality B To give the story a dark, scary feeling C To show how the wind is more playful than the sun. It is personification Blane says that the text above only has one example of personification. Do you agree or because____________________. disagree with Blane? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What did you learn today about identifying and interpreting personification? (Pair-Share) Use words from the word bank. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Word Bank: personification qualities visual feelings Definitions: 5 go quickly 6 taking off clothes Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 25 dependent Practice The Fog 1. by Carl Sandburg The fog comes on little cat feet. It sits looking over harbour and city on silent haunches1 and then moves on. It is personification because______________________ 2. A B

C Application When Sandberg uses on little cat feet, what is he talking about? A the cats that are walking past B the way the fog moves C the way a cat stalks its prey _________________________________________ __.did Sandburg use the words on Why silent haunches? to show how the fog can jump like a cat to compare the fog to the legs of a cat to show how the fog is quiet and unmoving When Sandburg uses it in line three, what is he referring to? A the cat B the fog C the night eriodic Review 1 Identify and interpret personification. 1. The line the kettle sang means A the kettle sang a tune Morning Tea The kettle sang as the fire warmed it. The teacups chatted waiting for tea. The spoons skittered across the table. The sugar cubes peered through a hole in their box. Suddenly, a shrill scream! Time for tea! B the kettle made noise when the water started boiling C the family likes to sing while they make tea 2. Why did the author use the words the spoon skittered across the table? A To describe the way the spoons moved on the table B To show the spoons are like an animal C To thatthat no spoons Connect the sentences that use personification toexplain the ones do notwere use needed personification. Explain. 1 The city never sleeps. A His heart beat faster when he saw the girl. 2 The sun stretched its golden arms across the land. B The rays of the sun shone on the land. 3 His heart skipped around inside his chest when he saw her.

C There is always something going on. Connect Sentence _______ with Sentence _______. Connect Sentence _______ with Sentence _______. Connect Sentence _______ with Sentence _______. Definitions: 1 the buttock and thigh of an animal Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 26 eriodic Review 2 Identify and interpret personification. An excerpt from Waratah and Wattle by Henry Lawson Though poor and in trouble I wander alone, With rebel cockade1 in my hat, Though friends may desert me, and kindred2 disown, My country will never do that! You may sing of the Shamrock, the Thistle, and Rose, Or the three in a bunch, if you will; But I know of a country that gathered all those, And I love the great land where the Waratah3 grows. 1. When Lawson says my country will never do that what is he comparing the country to? Explain: ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Why did the poem use the words I know of a country that gathered all those? A To describe the work Australia did B To show that Australia grows all of those flowers C To explain that the country grows flowers Connect the sentences that use personification to the ones that do not use personification. Explain. 1 The sky wept tears of joy. A The tree branches tapped against the window. 2 The kettle screamed at me to turn it off. B It was raining. 3 The tree tapped on my window with its twisted fingers. C The kettle made a noise because the water was boiling. Connect Sentence _______ with Sentence _______. Connect Sentence _______ with Sentence _______. Connect Sentence _______ with Sentence _______. Definitions: (rebel cockade) knot of ribbons worn as a badge that shows you are in opposition of the government 2 family 3 a type flower that grows in Australia. The state emblem of New South Wales. Year 4 1 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved.

27 We will identify and interpret1 metaphors. earning Objective: 8 oncept Development Figurative language refers to words or phrases that go beyond their literal2 meaning. Figurative language is used to help the reader see and feel what is happening. One type of figurative language is a metaphor. Metaphors describe something unfamiliar3 by comparing it to the qualities4 of something familiar. By using a Charlie theknowledge Crab To interpret metaphors we metaphor, use prior of the familiar to the 1. Charlie the crab lived on the author painted a understand the meaning of the unfamiliar thing. picture in your mind north side of the beach. 2. When of how Charlie he moved along the shore, Charlie looked while he was a dancing pair of scissors, moved. clicking across the sand. Metaphor Two things being compared Prior Knowledge Meaning Charlie was a dancing pair of scissors Charlie the crab and a pair of scissors I know scissors open and close Charlie opened and closed his claws as he moved across the sand. Non-Example: Charlie the crab lived on the north side of the beach. Checking for Understanding: Which sentence is an example of a metaphor? How do you know? A His backpack was heavy. B His backpack was a heavy dumbbell on his back! ll Development and Guided Practice 1 2 3 4

Read the sentences carefully. Identify the metaphor. (underline) Identify the two things being compared. (circle) Interpret the meaning of the metaphor. (complete the table) 1. The stars were diamonds that spread across the night sky. Metaphor Prior Knowledge Meaning 2. The lawn was a green carpet covering the yard. Metaphor Prior Knowledge Meaning 3. The sheep was a cloud of white wool. Metaphor Prior Knowledge Meaning Definitions: 1 explain 2 exact 3 unknown 4 features Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 28 Development and Guided Practice (continued) 1 2 3 4 Determine what the question or prompt is asking. Read the text to determine relevant information. Answer the question. Check that you answered all parts of the question. Read the passage, paying close attention to the underlined metaphor. 1. Lou had been training for the marathon for months. 2. At the start of the race Lou felt good, so he started running faster and faster. 3. After a while, he started to slow down. 4. Lou tried to pick up his pace again, but his legs were rubber. 5. Lou realised pushing himself too hard isnt the way to run a marathon. 6. He decided to run at his regular pace so he would make it The underlined metaphor suggests that: to the finish line. A Lous legs are made from rubber. B Rubber legs will make you run slower. C Lous muscles felt like elastic or rubber, making it hard to run. D Fast running is necessary to win a marathon. Closure 1. The children were wild animals as they ran around the room. Prior Knowledge Metaphor Meaning 2. Mark needs to clean. His bedroom is a pig sty. Prior Knowledge Metaphor Meaning Which sentence uses a metaphor? How do you know? A B Matt is a walking dictionary.

Matt is very good at spelling. What did you learn today about identifying and interpreting metaphors? (Pair-Share) Use words from the word bank. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Word Bank: Year 4 identify interpret metaphors familiar unfamiliar GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 29 dependent Practice 1. The kite was an eagle soaring high in the sky. Metaphor Prior Knowledge Meaning 2. The babys laughter was music that filled the house. Metaphor Prior Knowledge Meaning 3. Joan had butter fingers and accidentally broke two glasses today. Metaphor Prior Knowledge Meaning Read the passage, paying close attention to the underlined metaphor. 1. The storm rolled in quickly. 2. We heard the thunder before it even started raining. 3. The lightning was a fireworks display across the dark, overcast skies. 4. Suddenly, thethat: rain poured down. The underlined metaphor suggests A B C D Lightning only happens during a celebration. Storms that come in quickly make colourful lightning. Lightning only happens after thunder. The lightning lit up the sky in different, bright colours. eriodic Review 1 1. The classroom was a zoo until the teacher walked into the room. Metaphor Prior Knowledge Meaning 2. The car was an oven after sitting in the hot sun all day. Metaphor Read the passage, paying close attention to the underlined metaphor. What the Snow Man Said The Moons a snowball. See the drifts1

Prior Knowledge Meaning The underlined metaphor suggests that: A Snowballs can only be made when the moon is full. B The Moons colouring and shape make it look like a snowball that melts twelve times, or each month of the year. Of white that cross the C The Moon is filled with snow and is going to sphere2. melt like a snowball. excerpt from What the Snow Man Said by The Moons a snowball, melted Vachel Lindsay D The Moon loses its colour when it melts, and it down 1 gathering of snowis2 no Definitions: round shape longer a sphere. A dozen times a year. GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. Year 4 30 eriodic Review 2 1. Bens temper was a volcano ready to explode. Metaphor Prior Knowledge Meaning 2. The thunder was a mighty lion roaring from the sky. Metaphor Prior Knowledge Meaning Which of the following sentences contain a metaphor? (select all that apply) A The maths assignment was a breeze. B The breeze blew across the verandah. C The anteater vacuumed up the ants from the ground. D The hedgehog rolled into a ball. E The lightning was a laser beam across the night sky. F The thunder rumbled causing the ground to shake. Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved.

31 We will use figurative language. earning Objective: 9 oncept Development Figurative language refers to words and phrases that go beyond their literal1 meaning. To make their work more interesting, authors use figurative language such as similes, metaphors, imagery and hyperbole. Figurative Language Simile compares two unlike things using as or like My love is like the red, red rose. Her face was as red as a beetroot. Metaphor describes something unfamiliar by comparing it to something familiar It is the east, and Juliet is the sun. uses vivid2 words that create a picture in the readers mind In the rock pool, the anemones bloomed like garden flowers, their tentacle petals swaying in the currents. Imagery deliberately describes Checking for Understanding something as much 1:Hyperbole Which is a simile? more or less than it A Thomas is very tall.actually is. B Thomas is as tall as a tree. She is a breath of fresh air. Checking for Understanding It took me less than a second to 2: decide I did not like the song. Which is a metaphor? A He was important. B He was a shining star. Checking for Understanding 3: Which is an example of imagery? A The music was loud. B The music thundered and crashed. Checking for Understanding 4: Which is an example of hyperbole?

A That dress is expensive. B That dress cost a million dollars. l Development and Guided Practice 1 1 Read the sentence beginning. 2 Add an appropriate simile from the list to complete the sentence. (write) a There can be more than one correct choice for each sentence. Be prepared to explain your choice 1. Betsy runs __________. 2. The babys smile is __________. 3. They drove the speed boat__________. 4. The kite flew through the sky __________. Application A. B. C. D. E. F. like a soaring eagle. like a sprinting cheetah. as warm as sunshine. as swiftly as a gazelle. as bright as a firework. like a speeding train Write a sentence using a simile. You may use one from the list above or create your own. __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Definitions: 1 actual meaning of the words 2 produces a clear image in the mind GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. Year 4 32 l Development and Guided Practice 2 1 Read the sentence beginning. 2 Add an appropriate metaphor from the list to complete the sentence. (write) a There can be more than one correct choice for each sentence. Be prepared to explain your choice 1. Erica is so smart, that shes ____________. 2. The rubbish heap was ___________. 3. The loud engine was ___________. 4. Marios bedroom is always __________. A. B. C. D. E. F. a a a a a a boom of thunder. disaster zone human calculator. rumbling earthquake walking encyclopedia. pig sty Application Write a sentence using a metaphor. You may use one from the list above or create your own. __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

l Development and Guided Practice 3 1 Read the sentence. 2 Rewrite the sentence using imagery to make it more interesting. 1. The flowers grew along the fence. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Storm clouds filled the sky this morning. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. The new school campus has all nice classrooms and an outdoor oval. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Application Write a sentence using imagery to describe something with sensory details. __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 33 l Development and Guided Practice 4 1 Read the sentence. 2 Use hyperbole to complete the sentence.(write) 1. Jordan had been waiting ________________ for her sister to get dressed. 2. Jack was thirsty enough to _______________________________. 3. My mum has ________________________ pairs of shoes in her cupboard. 4. I made a sandwich that was ___________________________________ 5. Last winter it was so cold ________________________________________________. Application Write a sentence using hyperbole. __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 Determine what the question or prompt is asking. Read the text to determine relevant information. Answer the question. Check that you answered all parts of the question. Compare the sentence pairs below. Which one is more interesting to read? Why? A. Tom quickly cleaned up the kitchen before Mum came home. B. Tom spun around the kitchen like a tornado scooping up dishes and tossing away rubbish before Mum came home. I think sentence ________ is more interesting to read because: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 34 Closure 1. The hot car was ________________. 2. The kittens fur was _________________. 3. The fresh berries were__________________. A. like an oven B. red rubies C. as soft as silk

Compare the sentences below. Which simile creates a clear picture? A. Like a flash of light, the cheetah raced across the grassland toward her hidden cubs. B. Like a flash of light, the turtle wandered down the ocean shoreline. C. Like a flash of light, the grandmother sweetly kissed the baby on her cheek. Write a sentence that explains why one of the other similes does not create a clear picture. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What did you learn today about using figurative language? (Pair-Share) Use words from the word bank. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Word Bank: figurative language simile metaphor imagery hyperbole dependent Practice 1 Complete the sentences using one of the figurative language techniques. (write) 2 Identify the figurative technique you used. (write) 1. Friendship is _________________________________________________________________ 2. The frogs jumped on the lily pad __________________________________________________ 3. She danced___________________________________________________________________ 4. The juggler __________________________________________________________________ 5. The crocodile ________________________________________________________________ 6. The ocean waves ______________________________________________________________ Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 35 eriodic Review 1 Rewrite the sentence using a figurative expression such as a simile, metaphor, imagery or hyperbole. Identify the type of expression you used. 1. He was very excited. _____________________________________________________ 2. The sun was hot. ________________________________________________________ 3. The drive was very long. _________________________________________________ Read the passage below and complete the sentence using a simile or 4. The thunder was loud. hyperbole. Mira has to give a speech in class tomorrow. Although she ___________________________________________________ is prepared, Mira doesnt like the idea of speaking in front of a crowd. She is so nervous she ___________________ ____________________________________________________________ Pair-Share with a partner how you completed the sentence. Did your partner_ complete the sentence differently? Which sentence do you like better? Why? eriodic Review 2 Similes and metaphors use comparison to create an image in the readers mind. Think about comparisons you could make between people you know and other things. 1. Choose a person from the first list and a thing from the second.

I compared _______________ to _________________. 2. Write a simile or metaphor expressing the comparison. _________________________________________________________________________ _ Andrew and William were completing sentences using similes. _________________________________________________________________________ _ Andrew wrote: When he laughed he sounded _like a chirping bird welcoming the sunrise. William When laughed he sounded _like a bass drum that echoes Explain thewrote: image that one he of the boys created in his sentence. ________________________________________________________________________________________ through the room. ________________________________________________________________________________________ Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 36 Blank Page Year 4 GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 37 We will explain how idioms convey1 ideas and earning Objective: opinions. oncept Development 1 0 An idiom is a phrase2 that has a special meaning different from the literal3 meaning of its words. Context can used to determineThe the meaning meaning ofofthe Idiomclues used4 in a be sentence anidiom. idiom After crashing his Dads car, Robert was definitely up a gum tree. Up a gum tree means you are in trouble or in a big mess. Janice says that her new baby is the apple of her eye. The apple of someones eye is someone who is cherished or loved. Not Examples of Idioms: The tree was perfect for climbing. An apple is a healthy snack. Checking for Understanding: Which example below has an idiom? How do you know? A It is raining cats and dogs. The entire street is flooded with water.

have many cats and dogs. B I ll Development and Guided Practice 1 Read the sentence with the bolded idiom. a Identify5 the context clues that help determine its meaning. (underline) 2 Determine the meaning of the idiom. (circle) 3 Interpret6 the sentence. Reread the sentence replacing the bolded idiom with its meaning. 1. Jill took a sickie and went to the beach instead of going to work. A curing an illness at the beach B sick with the flu C taking time off without being sick 3. The phone bill is late and needs to be paid on the knocker. A ask for help B do something immediately C nice and simple 2. After the huge fight with her sister, Tina was as mad as a cut snake. A slithered like a snake B very angry C bit her sister 4. Lou told his little sister to keep her nose out of other peoples business. A do not interfere B blow her nose C ask a lot of questions 5. Stop mucking around and get 6. Tom got bad grades and is in the back to work. Your project is due dog house. tomorrow. A stole the dogs house A playing a game to meaning be in trouble 4 Definitions: 1 explain 2 group of words 3 B basic (context clues) B telling jokes 5 6 nearby words find explain C to spend time outside Year 4 TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. C wastingGOOD time 38 Development and Guided Practice (continued) 1 2 3 4 Determine what the question or prompt is asking. Read the text to determine relevant information. Answer the question. Check that you answered all parts of the question.

the difference between the sentences below? Explain your answer. Idiom: Spat the dummy (to lose your temper) 1. I was so mad when the rubbish truck hit my new car. 2. I spat the dummy when the rubbish truck hit my new car! ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ __ Idiom: Take an early mark (to leave early from something) 1. Im going to leave early to miss the traffic on the freeway. 2. Im going to take an early mark to miss the traffic on the freeway. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Application __ a sentence using one of the idioms from above. Write ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Closure 1. Lara's mind went away with the pixies whenever she started thinking about love A ignoring other people B dreaming 2. My brother was on the wallaby track, but he just got a new job. A unemployed B very busy C chasing wallabies C laughing out loud Kevins mum said, Belt up! Be polite when you are in the movie theatre! What did his mum really mean? Explain your answer. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What did you learn today about explaining how idioms convey ideas and opinions? (PairShare) Use words from the word bank. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Word Bank: Year 4 idiom literal context clues explain GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 39 dependent Practice ct the correct meaning for each bolded idiom. 1. Sid had to go to the doctor because he got the wog. A skipping class B received a bad grade C sick with cold or flu 3. Ana always gets extra lollies from Grandma. She can talk the legs off an iron pot. A loud and chatty B a really good cook C able to talk someone into something 5. Rilo knows everything about dinosaurs. Hes the full bottle.

2. After losing the rugby match, the team was as upset as a hornet in a bottle. A stinging each other B very angry C stuck in a bottle 4. Our teacher thinks its not cricket to give us schoolwork on a holiday. A not liking bugs B nice and simple C unfair or unreasonable 6. Stone the crows! My parents are taking us on holiday next week! A too busy A in an airplane B liquid in a bottle B shocked or surprised C expert or very C angry crows eriodic Review 1 knowledgeable ct the correct meaning for each bolded idiom. 1. Kirin is in love with her boyfriend and only has eyes for him. A stare at someone B mad at someone C attracted to only one person 3. After a long day of school and practise, Im completely knackered. 2. The desert was as dry as a wooden leg after a season without any rain. A made from wood B very dry area C place to set up camp 4. The news of his sisters new baby knocked his socks off. A irritated A ready to exercise B impressed or shocked A: Act out or use some of the following idioms in a sentence. B missing home C to the take your socks off B: Before the answers are revealed try to guess idioms meaning. C exhausted or very tired. Work like a dog Go and have a cuppa Year 4 Keep your fingers crossed Zip your lip GOOD TO GREAT SCHOOLS AUSTRALIA & DataWORKS Educational Research 2014 All rights reserved. 40

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