Glory, War, and Decline

Glory, War, and Decline Ch. 7.4 Pericles Ruler of Athens after the Persian Wars Most important general in Athenian government Athenians practiced Direct Democracy This worked because of the small population in Athens Appointed people to positions because of abilities, not social class.

Athens became a center for learning and art. Invested in teachers, writers, artists, philosophers, and many other academics. Athenian Life In the 400s, Athens was the largest Greek city-state. Athenian men worked as farmers, artisans, and merchants. Also spent time in the gymnasium. Athenian women focused on homes and families. Girls married at a young age.

Many times girls were supposed to be accompanied by a male relative if they left the house. Women were not allowed to be educated and were not considered equal to men. Athenian Life Slavery was common in ancient civilizations. Most Athenian households had at least one slave. Many were prisoners who had been captured in battle. Treatment of slaves varied.

Some died young because of harsh conditions. Some could earn money; rarely, they could buy their freedom. Slavery might have helped Athens rise to the prosperous city that it was. Athens Economy Athenians were commonly working as farmers. Athens did not have enough land to provide, so they had to import from other places. Built a large fleet of ships to trade with colonies. Athens led the Greek world in trade.

Important goods made and traded in Athens included pottery and leather products. War Between Athens and Sparta After Persian Wars, the Greek city-states started to work together. Eventually drove the remaining Persians out of Greece. Created the Delian League, made up of Greek city-states to defend the empire. Athens was the strongest city-state.

Athens began to control over city-states in the league. Pericless rule helped Athens to dominate the Delian League As Athens grew, other city-states, especially Sparta, became alarmed. War Between Athens and Sparta Athens and Sparta were very different. Did not trust each other. Sparta became the leader of an alliance of city-states against Athens.

War broke out in 431 BC; continued until 404 BC. The possibility of future cooperation between city-states was gone. Called the Peloponnesian War because Sparta was located in the Peloponnesus. Athens Loss Sparta wanted to surround Athens and attack. Athens was not strong in open field battle.

Pericles held the Athenians within the walls of the surrounded city. Had a navy to bring supplies, which Sparta did not have. Kept them safe for almost 3 years. Disease broke out among the overcrowded city. Spartans gave land to Persia to get help with war against Athens and won. Effects of War Peloponnesian War brought disaster to the Greek city-states. Governments divided and weak.

Destroyed farmland, left people with no way to have food or make a living. Spartans ruled like Athens, dominating. Angered previous allies. Thebes took over, and eventually fell. Failed to notice the growth of the Macedonian kingdom to the North. Eventually cost the Greek city-states their independence.

Review 1. How did Pericles choose people for positions in government in Athens? 2. What jobs did Athenian slaves do? 3. Why did the Delian League break apart? 4. Ancient Athens was a direct democracy. The United States Consitution provides for a representative democracy. Do you think the United States should change to a direct democracy? Why/why not?

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